Test: Class 12 Contemporary World Politics NCERT Based-3


30 Questions MCQ Test Indian Polity for UPSC CSE | Test: Class 12 Contemporary World Politics NCERT Based-3


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QUESTION: 1

Consider the following statements.

1. In the traditional conception of security, the greatest danger to a country is from military threats

2. Security policy is concerned with preventing war, which is called defence, and with limiting or ending war, which is called deterrence

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • In the traditional conception of security, the greatest danger to a country is from military threats. The source of this danger is another country which by threatening military action endangers the core values of sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity. Military action also endangers the lives of ordinary citizens.

  • It is unlikely that in a war only soldiers will be hurt or killed. Quite often, ordinary men and women are made targets of war, to break their support of the war. In responding to the threat of war, a government has three basic choices: to surrender; to prevent the other side from attacking by promising to raise the costs of warn to an unacceptable level; and to defend itself when war actually breaks out so as to deny the attacking country its objectives and to turn back or defeat the attacking forces altogether.

  • Governments may choose to surrender when actually confronted by war, but they will not advertise this as the policy of the country. Therefore, security policy is concerned with preventing war, which is called deterrence, and with limiting or ending war, which is called defence.

QUESTION: 2

Consider the following statements.

1. An alliance is a coalition of states that coordinate their actions to deter or defend against military attack

2. Alliances are formalised only in written treaties and are based on a fairly clear identification of who constitutes the threat

3. Countries form alliances to increase their effective power relative to another country or alliance

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • An alliance is a coalition of states that coordinate their actions to deter or defend against military attack.

  • Most alliances are formalised in written treaties and are based on a fairly clear identification of who constitutes the threat. Countries form alliances to increase their effective power relative to another country or alliance. Alliances are based on national interests and can change when national interests change.

QUESTION: 3

Consider the following statements.

1. Security of a State is associated with the external threats only

2. The reason internal security is not given so much importance is that after the Second World War because for the most powerful countries on earth, internal security was more or less assured

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Traditional security must also concern itself with internal security. The reason it is not given so much importance is that after the Second World War it seemed that, for the most powerful countries on earth, internal security was more or less assured.

  • We said earlier that it is important to pay attention to contexts and situations. While internal security was certainly a part of the concerns of governments historically, after the Second World War there was a context and situation in which internal security did not seem to matter as much as it had in the past.

  • After 1945, the US and the Soviet Union appeared to be united and could expect peace within their borders. Most of the European countries, particularly the powerful Western European countries, faced no serious threats from groups or communities living within those borders. Therefore, these countries focused primarily on threats from outside their borders.

QUESTION: 4

How the security challenges facing the newly-independent countries of Asia and Africa were different from the challenges in Europe?

1. The new countries faced the prospect of military conflict with neighbouring countries

2. Many newly- independent countries came to fear their neighbours even more than they feared the US or Soviet Union or the former colonial powers

Which of these statements are not correct?

Solution:
  • The security challenges facing the newly-independent countries of Asia and Africa were different from the challenges in Europe in two ways. For one thing, the new countries faced the prospect of military conflict with neighbouring countries. For another, they had to worry about internal military conflict.

  • These countries faced threats not only from outside their borders, mostly from neighbours, but also from within. Many newly independent countries came to fear their neighbours even more than they feared the US or Soviet Union or the former colonial powers. They quarrelled over borders and territories or control of people and populations or all of these simultaneously.

QUESTION: 5

Consider the following statements.

1. Internal wars now make up the majority of all armed conflicts fought anywhere in the world

2. Between 1946 and 1991, there was a sudden decrease in the number of civil wars

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Internal wars now make up more than 95 per cent of all armed conflicts fought anywhere in the world.

  • Between 1946 and 1991, there was a twelve-fold rise in the number of civil wars—the greatest jump in 200 years. So, for the new states, external wars with neighbours and internal wars posed a serious challenge to their security.

QUESTION: 6

Consider the following statements.

1. Disarmament requires all states to give up certain kinds of weapons

2. The 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and the 1992 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) banned only the production of certain weapons

3. The US and Soviet union gave up the all kinds of weapons banned under the convention

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • The 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and the 1992 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) banned the production and possession of these weapons. More than 155nstates acceded to the BWC and 181 states acceded to the CWC.

  • Both conventions included all the great powers. But the superpowers — the US and Soviet Union — did not want to give up the third type of weapons of mass destruction, namely, nuclear weapons, so they pursued arms control.

QUESTION: 7

Consider the following statements about the The Anti-ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty.

1. It tried to stop the United States and Soviet Union from using ballistic missiles as a defensive shield to launch a nuclear attack

2. It stopped both countries to deploy large-scale production of defense systems

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Arms control regulates the acquisition or development of weapons. The Anti-ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty in 1972 tried to stop the United States and Soviet Union from using ballistic missiles as a defensive shield to launch a nuclear attack.

  • While it did allow both countries to deploy a very limited number of defensive systems, it stopped them from large-scale production of those systems.

QUESTION: 8

Consider the following statements.

1. Confidence building is a process in which countries share ideas and information with their rivals

2. This is a way of demonstrating that they are not planning a surprise attack

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Traditional security also accepts confidence building as a means of avoiding violence. Confidence building is a process in which countries share ideas and information with their rivals. They tell each other about their military intentions and, up to a point, their military plans.

  • This is a way of demonstrating that they are not planning a surprise attack. They also tell each other about the kind of forces they possess, and they may share information on where those forces are deployed. In short, confidence building is a process designed to ensure that rivals do not go to war through misunderstanding or misperception.

QUESTION: 9

Consider the following statements.

1. International terrorism involves the citizens or territory of more than one country

2. Terrorist groups seek to change a political context or condition that they do not like by force or threat of force

Which of these statements are not correct?

Solution: Terrorism refers to political violence that targets civilians deliberately and indiscriminately. International terrorism involves the citizens or territory of morenthan one country. Terrorist groups seek to change a political context or condition that they do not like by force or threat of force. Civilian targets are usually chosen to terrorise the public and to use the unhappiness of the public as a weapon against national governments or other parties in conflict.

QUESTION: 10

Consider the following statements.

1. People who have fled their homes but remain within national borders are called ‘internally displaced people’.

2. Those who voluntarily leave their home countries are called refugees

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Poverty in the South has also led to large-scale migration to seek a better life, especially better economic opportunities, in the North. This has created international political friction. International law and norms make a distinction between migrants (those who voluntarily leave their home countries) and refugees (those who flee from war, natural disaster or political persecution).

  • States are generally supposed to accept refugees, but they do not have to accept migrants. While refugees leave their country of origin, people who have fled their homes but remain within national borders are called ‘internally displaced people’. Kashmiri Pandits that fled the violence in the Kashmir Valley in the early 1990s are an example of an internally displaced community

QUESTION: 11

Consider the following statements.

1. Throughout the world, cultivable area is barely expanding any more, and a substantial portion of existing agricultural land is losing fertility

2. A steady decline in the total amount of ozone in the Earth’s Troposphere poses a real danger to ecosystems and human health

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Throughout the world,cultivable areas are barely expanding any more, and a substantial portion of existing agricultural land is losing fertility. Grasslands have been overgrazed and fisheries over- harvested.

  •  

    Water bodies have suffered extensive depletion and pollution, severely restricting food production. Natural forests — which help stabilise the climate, moderate water supplies, and harbour a majority of the planet’s biodiversity on land—are being cut down and people are being displaced.

  •  

    The loss of biodiversity continues due to destruction of habitat in areas which are rich in species. A steady decline in the total amount of ozone in the Earth’s stratosphere (commonlyn to as the ozone hole) poses a real danger to ecosystems and human health.

  • The ozone layer extends over the entire globe with some variation in altitude and thickness. The remaining ozone, about 10%, is found in the troposphere, which is the lowest region of the atmosphere, between Earth's surface and the stratosphere.

 

 

 

QUESTION: 12

The growing focus on environmental issues within the arena of global politics was firmly consolidated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 1992. Consider the following statements regarding it.

1. This was also called the Earth Summit

2. The Northern states were anxious to address the relationship between economic development and environmental management

3. The Rio Summit recommended the establishment of an organisation named called ‘Agenda 21’

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • This was also called the Earth Summit. The summit was countries of the First World, generally referred to as the ‘global North’ were pursuing a different environmental agenda than the poor and developing countries of the Third World, called the ‘global South’.

  • Whereas the Northern states were concerned with ozone depletion and global warming, the Southern states were anxious to address the relationship between economic development and environmental management.

  • The Rio Summit produced conventions dealing with climate change, biodiversity, forestry, and recommended a list of development practices called ‘Agenda 21’. But it left unresolved considerable differences and difficulties. There was a consensus on combining economic growth with ecological responsibility. This approach to development is commonly known as ‘sustainable development’.

  • The problem however was how exactly this was to be achieved. Some critics have pointed out that Agenda 21 was biased in favour of economic growth rather than ensuring ecological conservation.

QUESTION: 13

Consider the following statements about Antarctica.

1. The Antarctic continental region represents 90 per cent of the world’s wilderness area

2. It has a limited terrestrial life and a highly productive marine ecosystem

3. The Antarctic plays an important role in maintaining climatic equilibrium, and deep ice cores provide an important source of information about greenhouse gas concentrations

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • The Antarctic continental region extends over 14 million square kilometres and comprises 26 per cent of the world’s wilderness area, representing 90 per cent of all terrestrial ice and 70 per cent of planetary fresh water.

  • The Antarctic also extends to a further 36 million square kilometres of ocean. It has a limited terrestrial life and a highly productive marine ecosystem, comprising a few plants (e.g. microscopic algae, fungi and lichen), marine mammals, fish and hordes of birds to harsh conditions, as well as the krill, which is central to marine food chain and upon which other animals are dependent.

  • The Antarctic plays an important role in maintaining climatic equilibrium, and deep ice cores provide an important source of information about greenhouse gas concentrations and atmospheric temperatures of hundreds and thousands of years ago.

QUESTION: 14

Consider the following statements about the Global Commons.

1. These are located outside the sovereign jurisdiction of any one state

2. These are those resources which are neither owned by anyone nor shared by a community

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • ‘Commons’ are those resources which are not owned by anyone but rather shared by a community. This could be a ‘common room’, a ‘community centre’, a park or a river.

  • Similarly, there are some areas or regions of the world which are located outside the sovereign of any one state, and therefore require common governance by the international community.

  • These are known as res communis humanitatis or global commons.They include the earth’s atmosphere, Antarctica , the ocean floor, and outer space.

QUESTION: 15

Arrange the following agreements chronologically.

1. Antarctic Environmental Protocol

2. Montreal Protocol

3. Antarctic Treaty

Choose from the following options.

Solution: Cooperation over the global commons is not easy. There have been many path-breaking agreements such as the 1959 Antarctic Treaty, the 1987 Montreal Protocol, and the 1991 Antarctic Environmental Protocol.

QUESTION: 16

Consider the following statements.

1. The developed countries of the South feel that much of the ecological degradation in the world is the product of industrial development undertaken by the developed countries

2. The principle of ‘common but differentiated responsibilities’ has taken into account the special needs of developed countries

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • The developed countries of the North want to discuss the environmental issue as it stands now and want everyone to be equally responsible for ecological conservation.

  • The developing countries of the South feel that much of the ecological degradation in the world is the product of industrial development undertaken by the developed countries.

  • If they have caused more degradation, they must also take more responsibility for undoing the damage now.

  • Moreover, the developing countries are in the process of industrialisation and they must not be subjected to the same restrictions, which apply to the developed countries. Thus the special needs of the developing countries must be taken into account in the development, application, and interpretation of rules of inter- national environmental law.

  • This argument was accepted in the Rio Declaration at the Earth Summit in 1992 and is called the principle of ‘common but differentiated responsibilities’.

QUESTION: 17

Consider the following statements regarding the The 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

1. The parties to the Convention agreed that the largest share of historical and current global emissions of greenhouse gases has originated in developed countries

2. It was also acknowledged that per capita emissions in developing countries are still relatively low

3 China, India, and other developing countries were, therefore, exempted from the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • The 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) also provides that the parties should act to protect the climate system “on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.”

  • The parties to the Convention agreed that the largest share of historical and current global emissions of greenhouse gases has originated in developed countries. It was also acknowledged that per capita emissions in developing countries are still relatively low.

China, India, and other developing countries were, therefore, exempted from the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol.

QUESTION: 18

Consider the following statements about the The Kyoto Protocol.

1. It is an international agreement setting targets for industrialised countries to cut their greenhouse gas emissions

2. The protocol was agreed to in 1997 in Kyoto in Japan, based on principles set out in UNFCCC

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution: The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement setting targets for industrialised countries to cut their greenhouse gas emissions. Certain gases like Carbon dioxide, Methane, Hydro-fluoro carbons etc. are considered at least partly responsible for global warming - the rise in global temperature which may have catastrophic consequences for life on Earth. The protocol was agreed to in 1997 in Kyoto in Japan, based on principles set out in UNFCCC.

QUESTION: 19

Consider the following statements about the sacred groves.

1. Sacred groves hold the potential for preserving not only biodiversity and ecological functions, but also cultural diversity

2. Usually, their size ranges not more than ten acres

3. Traditional communities harvest natural resources in an ecologically sustained fashion

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Protecting nature for religious reasons is an ancient practice in many traditional societies. Sacred groves in India (parcels of uncut forest vegetation in the name of certain deities or natural or ancestral spirits) exemplify such practice.

  • As a model of community-based resource management, groves have lately gained attention in conservation literature. The sacred groves can be seen as a system that informally forces traditional communities to harvest natural resources in an ecologically sustained fashion.

  • Some researchers believe that sacred groves hold the potential for preserving not only biodiversity and ecological functions, but also cultural diversity. Sacred groves embody a rich set of forest preservation practices and they share characteristics with common property resource systems.

  • Their size ranges from clumps of a few trees to several hundred acres. Traditionally, sacred groves have been valued for their embodied spiritual and cultural attributes. Hindus commonly worshipped natural objects, including trees and groves.

  • Many temples have originated from sacred groves. Deep religious reverence for nature, rather than resource scarcity, seems to be the basis for the long-standing commitment to preserving these forests.

QUESTION: 20

Consider the following statements.

1. The Energy Conservation Act, passed in 2001, outlines initiatives to improve energy efficiency

2. The Electricity Act of 2003 encourages the use of renewable energy

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • India’s National Auto-fuel Policy mandates cleaner fuels for vehicles. The Energy Conservation Act, passed in 2001, outlines initiatives to improve energy efficiency. Similarly, the Electricity Act of 2003 encourages the use of renewable energy.

  • Recent trends in importing natural gas and encouraging the adoption of clean coal technologies show that India has been making real efforts. The government is also keen to launch a National Mission on Biodiesel, using about 11 million hectares of land to produce biodiesel by 2011–2012.

  • India ratified the Paris Climate Agreement on 2 October 2016.

QUESTION: 21

Which of the following activities are associated with the concept of globalisation?

1. Ideas moving from one part of the world to another

2. Capital shunted between two or more places, commodities being traded across borders

3. People moving in search of better livelihoods to different parts of the world

Choose from the following options.

Solution:
  • Globalisation as a concept fundamentally deals with flows. These flows could be of various kinds — ideas moving from one part of the world to another, capital shunted between two or more places, commodities being traded across borders, and people moving in search of better livelihoods to different parts of the world.

  • The crucial element is the ‘worldwide interconnectedness’ that is created and sustained as a consequence of these constant flows.

QUESTION: 22

Which of the following are made possible by the technological advances?

1. The ability of ideas, capital, commodities and people to move more easily from one part of the world to another

2. The pace of these flows is similar

Choose from the following options.

Solution: The ability of ideas, capital, commodities and people to move more easily from one part of the world to another has been made possible largely by technological advances. The pace of these flows may vary. For instance, the movement of capital and commodities will most likely be quicker and wider than the movement of peoples across different parts of the world.

QUESTION: 23

Consider the following statements.

1. Globalisation emerges because of the availability of improved communications whether people in different parts of the world recognise these interconnections or not

2. Sometimes state capacity is inversely proportional to the globalisation

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution: At the most simple level, globalisation results in an erosion of state capacity, that is, the ability of government to do what they do. All over the world, the old ‘welfare state’ is now giving way to a more minimalist state that performs certain core functions such as the maintenance of law and order and the security of its citizens.

QUESTION: 24

What are the consequences of the globalisation?

1. State withdraws from many of its earlier welfare functions directed at economic and social well-being

2. In place of the welfare state, it is the market that becomes the prime determinant of economic and social priorities

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution: It withdraws from many of its earlier welfare functions directed at economic and social well-being. In place of the welfare state, it is the market that becomes the prime determinant of economic and social priorities. The entry and then increased role of multinational companies all over the world leads to a reduction in the capacity of governments to take decisions on their own.

QUESTION: 25

Consider the following statements.

1. Economic globalisation usually involves greater economic flows among different countries of the world

2. Some of this is voluntary and some forced by international institutions and powerful countries Which of these statements are correct?

Solution: What is often called economic globalisation usually involves greater economic flows among different countries of the world. Some of this is voluntary and some forced by international institutions and powerful countries. As we saw in the examples at the beginning of this chapter, this flow or exchange can take various forms: commodities, capital, people and ideas.

QUESTION: 26

Consider the following statements.

1. Globalisation has also led to the flow of ideas across national boundaries

2. There is a increase in the movement of people across the globe more than the spread of internet and computer related services

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Similarly, the restrictions on movement of capital across countries have also been reduced. In operational terms, it means that investors in the rich countries can invest their money in countries other than their own, including developing countries, where they might get better returns.

  • Globalisation has also led to the flow of ideas across national boundaries. The spread of internet and computer related services is an example of that. But globalisation has not led to the same degree of increase in the movement of people across the globe. Developed countries have carefully guarded their borders with visa policies to ensure that citizens of other countries cannot take away the jobs of their own citizens.

QUESTION: 27

Advocates of economic globalisation argue:

1. That it generates greater economic growth and well-being for larger sections of the population when there is deregulation

2. Globalisation provides a challenge that can be responded to intelligently without accepting it uncritically

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Advocates of economic globalisation argue that it generates greater economic growth and well-being for larger sections of the population when there is deregulation. Greater trade among countries allows each economy to do what it does best. This would benefit the whole world. They also argue that economic globalisation is inevitable and it is not wise to resist the march of history.

  •  

    More moderate supporters of globalisation say that globalisation provides a challenge that can be responded to intelligently without accepting it uncritically. What, however, cannot be denied is the increased momentum towards inter -dependence and integration between governments, businesses, and ordinary people in different parts of the world as a result of globalisation.

 

 

 

QUESTION: 28

Consider the following statements

1. Globalisation leads to the rise of a uniform culture or what is called cultural homogenisation

2. The rise of a uniform culture is the emergence of a global culture

Which of these statements are not correct?

Solution:
  • The cultural effect of globalisation leads to the fear that this process poses a threat to cultures in the world.

  • It does so, because globalisation leads to the rise of a uniform culture or what is called cultural homogenisation. The rise of a uniform culture is not the emergence of a global culture. What we have in the name of a global culture is the imposition of Western culture on the rest of the world.

QUESTION: 29

Consider the following statements.

1. While cultural homogenisation is an aspect of globalisation, the same process also generates precisely the opposite effect.

2. Sometimes globalisation leads to each culture becoming more different and distinctive which is called cultural heterogenization

Which of these statements are not correct?

Solution:
  • While cultural homogenisation is an aspect of globalisation, the same process also generates precisely the opposite effect. It leads to each culture becoming more different and distinctive.

  • This phenomenon is called cultural heterogenization. This is not to deny that there remain differences in power when cultures interact but instead more fundamentally to suggest that cultural exchange is one way.

QUESTION: 30

Consider the following statements about the The World Social Forum (WSF).

1. It is a global platform, which brings together a wide coalition composed of human rights activists, environmentalists, labour, youth and women activists opposed to neo-liberal globalisation.

2. The first WSF meeting was organised in Jakarta, Indonesia

3. The fourth WSF meeting was held in Mumbai in 2004

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution: The World Social Forum (WSF) is a global platform, which brings together a wide coalition composed of human rights activists, environmentalists, labour, youth and women activists opposed to neo-liberal globalisation. The first WSF meeting was organised in Porto Alegre, Brazil in 2001. The fourth WSF meeting was held in Mumbai in 2004. The latest WSF meeting was held in Brazil in March 2018.