Test: Class 12 Contemporary World Politics NCERT Based-1


20 Questions MCQ Test Indian Polity for UPSC CSE | Test: Class 12 Contemporary World Politics NCERT Based-1


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QUESTION: 1

Consider the following statements about the First Gulf War.

1. It revealed the vast technological gap that had opened up between the US military capability and that of other states

2. It is also called the computer war

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • The First Gulf War revealed the vast technological gap that had opened up between the US military capability and that of other states.

  • The highly publicised use of so- called ‘smart bombs’ by the US led some observers to call this a ‘computer war’. Widespread television coverage also made it a ‘video game war’, with viewers around the world watching the destruction of Iraqi forces live on TV in the comfort of their living rooms. Incredibly, the US may actually have made a profit from the war.

  • According to many reports, the US received more money from countries like Germany, Japan and Saudi Arabia than it had spent on the war.

QUESTION: 2

Consider the following statements about the operation Infinite Reach.

1. It was a series of cruise missile strikes on Al-Qaeda terrorist targets in Sudan and Afghanistan

2. It was ordered during the presidency of George W Bush

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Another significant US military action during the Clinton years was in response to the bombing of the US embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania in 1998. These bombings were attributed to AlQaeda, a terrorist organisation strongly influenced by extremist Islamist ideas.

  • Within a few days of this bombing, President Clinton ordered Operation Infinite Reach, a series of cruise missile strikes on Al-Qaeda terrorist targets in Sudan and Afghanistan.

  • The US did not bother about the UN sanction or provisions of international law in this regard. It alleged that some of the targets were civilian facilities unconnected to terrorism.

QUESTION: 3

Consider the following statements regarding the Operation Iraqi Freedom.

1. The ostensible purpose of the invasion was to prevent Iraq from developing weapons of mass destruction

2. More than forty other countries joined in the operation

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • On 19 March 2003, the US launched its invasion of Iraq under the codename ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’.

  • More than forty other countries joined in the US-led ‘coalition of the willing’ after the UN refused to give its mandate to the invasion. The ostensible purpose of the invasion was to prevent Iraq from developing weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

  • Since no evidence of WMD has been unearthed in Iraq, it is speculated that the invasion was motivated by other objectives, such as controlling Iraqi oil fields and installing a regime friendly to the US. Although the government of Saddam Hussein fell swiftly, the US has not been able to ‘pacify Iraq. Instead, a full-fledged insurgency against US occupation was ignited in Iraq.

  • While the US has lost over 3,000 military personnel in the war, Iraqi casualties are very much higher It is conservatively estimated that 50,000 Iraqi civilians have been killed since the US-led invasion.

QUESTION: 4

Consider the following statements.

1. Hegemony arises when the dominant class or country can win the consent of dominant classes, by persuading the dominated classes to view the world in a manner favourable to the ascendancy of the dominant class

2. The notion of hegemony suggests that a dominant power deploys only military power to shape the behaviour of competing and lesser powers

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Hegemony as Soft Power: It would however be a mistake to see US hegemony in purely military and economic terms without considering the ideological or the cultural dimension of US hegemony.

  • This third sense of hegemony is about the capacity to ‘manufacture consent’. Here, hegemony implies class ascendancy in the social, political and particularly ideological spheres. Hegemony arises when the dominant class or country can win the consent of dominated classes, by persuading the dominated classes to view the world in a manner favourable to the ascendancy of the dominant class.

  • Adapted to the field of world politics, this notion of hegemony suggests that a dominant power deploys not only military power but also ideological resources to shape the behaviour of competing and lesser powers. The behaviour of the weaker countries is influenced in ways that favour the interests of the most powerful country, in particular its desire to remain pre-eminent. Consent, in other words, goes hand-in-hand with, and is often more effective than, coercion.

QUESTION: 5

Consider the following statements regarding the strategy to hide in context of US hegemony.

1. This implies staying as far removed from the dominant power as possible

2. It may be an attractive, viable policy for small states

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Some people argue that it is strategically more prudent to take advantage of the opportunities that hegemony creates. For instance, raising economic growth rates requires increased trade, technology transfers, and investment, which are best acquired by working with rather than against the hegemon.

  • Thus, it is suggested that instead of engaging in activities opposed to the hegemonic power, it may be advisable to extract benefits by operating within the hegemonic system. This is called the ‘bandwagon’ strategy. Another strategy open to states is to ‘hide’. This implies staying as far removed from the dominant power as possible.

  • There are many examples of this behaviour. China, Russia, the European Union—all of them, in different ways, are seeking to stay below the radar, as it were, and not overly and unduly antagonise the US.

  • However, this would not seem to be viable for the big, second-rank powers for very long. While it may be an attractive, viable policy for small states, it is hard to imagine mega-states like China, India, and Russia or huge agglomerations such as the EU being able to hide for any substantial length of time.

QUESTION: 6

Consider the following statements about the 'Marshall Plan'.

1. Under this, the USA extended massive financial help to revive European economy

2. Under the Marshall Plan, the Organisation for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) was established in 1948 to channel aid to the west European states

Which of these statements are not correct?

Solution:
  • European integration after 1945 was aided by the Cold War. America extended massive financial help for reviving Europe’s economy under what was called the ‘Marshall Plan’. The US also created a new collective security structure under NATO.

  • Under the Marshall Plan, the Organisation for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) was established in 1948 to channel aid to the west European states. It became a forum where the western European states began to cooperate on trade and economic issues.

  • The Council of Europe, established in 1949, was another step forward in political cooperation. The process of economic integration of European capitalist countries proceeded step by step (see Timeline of European Integration) leading to the formation of the European Economic Community in 1957.

QUESTION: 7

Consider the following statements regarding the European Union.

1. It has its own flag, anthem, founding date, and currency

2. It also has some form of a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with other nations

3. It is the world’s second biggest economy

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • The European Union has evolved over time from an economic union to an increasingly political one. The EU has started to act more as a nation state. While the attempts to have a Constitution for the EU have failed, it has its own flag, anthem, founding date, and currency. It also has some form of a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with other nations.

  • The European Union has tried to expand areas of cooperation while acquiring new members, especially from the erstwhile Soviet bloc. The process has not proved easy, for people in many countries are not very enthusiastic in giving the EU powers that were exercised by the government of their country. There are also reservations about including some new countries within the EU.

  • The EU has economic, political and diplomatic, and military influence. The EU is the world’s second biggest economy with a GDP of more than $17 trillion in 2016, next to that of the United States of America. Its currency, the euro, can pose a threat to the dominance of the US dollar. Its share of world trade is much larger than that of the United States allowing it to be more assertive in trade disputes with the US and China. Its economic power gives it influence over its closest neighbours as well as in Asia and Africa.

QUESTION: 8

Arrange the following events chronologically.

1. Treaty of Paris establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)

2. The EU is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

3. Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom join the European Community (EC)

4. Unification of Germany

Choose from the following options.

Solution:

Timeline of European Integration:

  • 1951 April: Six west European countries, France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg signed the Treaty of Paris establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).

  • 1957 March 25: These six countries sign the Treaties of Rome establishing the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom).

  • 1973 January: Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom join the European Community (EC).

  • 1979 June: First direct elections to the European Parliament 1981 January: Greece joins the EC.

  • 1985 June: The Schengen Agreement abolishes border controls among the EC members.

  • 1986 January: Spain and Portugal join the EC.

  • 1990 October: Unification of Germany.

  • 1992 February 7: The Treaty of Maastricht was signed establishing the European Union (EU).

  • 1993 January: The single market was created.

  • 1995 January: Austria, Finland and Sweden join the EU.

  • 2002 January: Euro, the new currency, was introduced in the 12 EU members.

  • 2004 May: Ten new members, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia join the EU.

  • 2007 January: Bulgaria and Romania join the EU. Slovenia adopts the Euro.

  • 2009 December: The Lisbon Treaty came into force.

  • 2012 : The EU is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

  • 2013: Croatia becomes the 28th member of the EU.

  • 2016: Referendum in Britain, 51.9 percent voters decide that Britain exit (Brexit) from the EU.

QUESTION: 9

Consider the following statements.

1. The ASEAN security community was based on the conviction that outstanding territorial disputes should be solved only by armed confrontation

2. The objectives of the ASEAN Economic Community are to create a common market and production base within ASEAN states and to aid social and economic development in the region

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • With some of the fastest growing economies in the world, ASEAN broadened its objectives beyond the economic and social spheres.

  • In 2003, ASEAN moved along the path of the EU by agreeing to establish an ASEAN Community comprising three pillars, namely, the ASEAN Security Community, the ASEAN Economic Community and the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community.

  • The ASEAN security community was based on the conviction that outstanding territorial disputes should not escalate into armed confrontation.

QUESTION: 10

Consider the following statements.

1. After the inception of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, its economy was based on the Soviet model

2. This model allowed China to use its resources to establish the foundations of an industrial economy on a scale that did not exist before

3. This model neglected issues like employment and social welfare of the citizens

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • After the inception of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, following the communist revolution under the leadership of Mao, its economy was based on the Soviet model.

  • The economically backward communist China chose to sever its links with the capitalist world. It had little choice but to fall back on its own resources and, for a brief period, on Soviet aid and advice.

  • The model was to create a state-owned heavy industries sector from the capital accumulated from agriculture. As it was short of foreign exchange that it needed in order to buy technology and goods on the world market, China decided to substitute imports by domestic goods.

  • This model allowed China to use its resources to establish the foundations of an industrial economy on a scale that did not exist before. Employment and social welfare was assured to all citizens, and China moved ahead of most developing countries in educating its citizens and ensuring better health for them. The economy also grew at a respectable rate of 5-6 per cent.

QUESTION: 11

Consider the following statements.

1. Yalta Conference of the ‘Big Three’ (Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin) decides to organise a United Nations conference on the proposed world organisation

2. The 2-month long United Nations Conference on International Organisation at San Francisco

3. Signing of the UN Charter by 50 nations

4. India joins the UN

Arrange the following events chronologically.

Solution:
QUESTION: 12

Consider the following statements about the International Monetary Fund.

1. It is an international organisation that oversees those financial institutions and regulations that act at the international level

2. Germany has second highest percentage of votes in IMF

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organisation that oversees those financial institutions and regulations that act at the international level.

  • The IMF has 189 member countries (as on 12 April 2016) but they do not enjoy an equal say. The G-7 members US (16.52%), Japan (6.15%), Germany (5.32%), France (4.03%), UK (4.03%), Italy (3.02%) and Canada (2.22%) have 41.29% of the votes. China (6.09%), India (2.64%), Russia (2.59%) Brazil (2.22%) and Saudi Arabia (2.02%) are the other major members.

QUESTION: 13

Consider the following statements.

1. The First World War encouraged the world to invest in an international organisation to deal with conflict

2. League of Nations helped to prevent the Second World War

3. The UN was founded as a successor to the League of Nations

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • The First World War encouraged the world to invest in an international organisation to deal with conflict.

  •  

    Many believed that such an organisation would help the world to avoid war. As a result, the League of Nations was born. However, despite its initial success, it could not prevent thenSecond World War (1939-45).

  •  

    Many more people died and were wounded in this war than ever before. The UN was founded as a successor to the League of Nations. It was established in 1945 immediately after the Second World War.

  • The League of Nations was formed at the Paris Peace Conference to prevent another global conflict like World War I and maintain world peace. ... The League failed to intervene in many conflicts leading up to World War II, including the Italian invasion of Abyssinia, the Spanish Civil War, and the Second Sino-Japanese War.

 

 

QUESTION: 14

Consider the following statements.

1. In the UN General Assembly, all members have one vote each

2. In the UN Security Council, there are five permanent members.

These are: the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, Germany and China

3. These states were selected as permanent members as they were the most peaceful immediately after the Second World War

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • By 2011, the UN had 193 member states. These included almost all independent states. In the UN General Assembly, all members have one vote each. In the UN Security Council, there are five permanent members.

  • These are: the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France and China. These states were selected as permanent members as they were the most powerful immediately after the Second World War and because they constituted the victors in the War.

QUESTION: 15

Consider the following statements.

1. The UN’s most visible public figure, and the representative head, is the Secretary-General.

2. The present Secretary-General is António Guterres

3. António Guterres is former President of Spain

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution: The UN’s most visible public figure, and the representative head, is the Secretary-General. The present Secretary-General is António Guterres. He is the ninth Secretary-General of the UN. He took over as the Secretary-General on 1 January 2017. He was the Prime Minister of Portugal (1995-2002) and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (2005-2015).

QUESTION: 16

In 1992, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution. Resolution reflected which of the following complaints against the UN?

1. The Security Council no longer represents contemporary political realities

2. Its decisions reflect only Western values and interests and are dominated by a few powers

3. It lacks equitable representation

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution: In 1992, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution. The resolution reflected three main complaints: The Security Council no longer represents contemporary political realities. Its decisions reflect only Western values and interests and are dominated by a few powers. It lacks equitable representation. In view of these growing demands for the restructuring of the UN, on 1 January 1997, the UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan initiated an inquiry into how the UN should be reformed.

QUESTION: 17

Consider the following statements.

1. In the Security Council, there are five permanent members and fifteen non-permanent members

2. The privileges of the five permanent members are permanency and the veto power

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution: In the Security Council, there are five permanent members and ten non-permanent members. The Charter gave the permanent members a privileged position to bring about stability in the world after the Second World War. The main privileges of the five permanent members are permanency and the veto power. The non-permanent members serve for only two years at a time and give way after that period to newly elected members. A country cannot be re-elected immediately after completing a term of two years.

QUESTION: 18

Consider the following statements with reference to the Security Council of the United Nations.

1. In taking decisions, the Security Council proceeds by voting

2. All members have one vote

3. Even if all other permanent and non-permanent members vote for a particular decision, any non permanent member’s negative vote can stall the decision

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • In taking decisions, the Security Council proceeds by voting. All members have one vote. However, the permanent members can vote in a negative manner so that even if all other permanent and non-permanent members vote for a particular decision, any permanent member’s negative vote can stall the decision.

  • This negative vote is the veto. While there has been a move to abolish or modify the veto system, there is also a realisation that the permanent members are unlikely to agree to such a reform.

  • Also, the world may not be ready for such a radical step even though the Cold War is over. Without the veto, there is the danger as in 1945 that the great powers would lose interest in the world body, that they would do what they pleased outside it, and that without their support and involvement the body would be ineffective.

QUESTION: 19

Consider the following statements.

1. India supports an enhanced role for the UN in promoting development and cooperation among states

2. India believes that development should be central to the UN’s agenda as it is a vital precondition for the maintenance of international peace and security

3. India supported the present composition of the Security Council and UN General Assembly

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • One of India’s major concerns has been the composition of the Security Council, which has remained largely static while the UN General Assembly membership has expanded considerably. India considers that this has harmed the representative character of the Security Council.

  • It also argues that an expanded Council, with more representation, will enjoy greater support in the world community. We should keep in mind that the membership of the UN Security Council was expanded from 11 to 15 in 1965. But, there was no change in the number of permanent members.

  • Since then, the size of the Council has remained stationary. The fact remains that the overwhelming majority of the UN General Assembly members now are developing countries. Therefore, India argues that they should also have a role in shaping the decisions in the Security Council which affect them.

QUESTION: 20

Consider the following statements about the Human Rights Watch.

1. It is an international NGO involved in research and advocacy on human rights

2. It is the largest international human rights organisation in the US

3. It draws the global media’s attention to human rights abuses

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Human Rights Watch: Human Rights Watch is another international NGO involved in research and advocacy on human rights. It is the largest international human rights organisation in the US.

  • It draws the global media’s attention to human rights abuses. It helped in building international coalitions like the campaigns to ban landmines, to stop the use of child soldiers and to establish the International Criminal Court.

  • Amnesty International: Amnesty International is an NGO that campaigns for the protection of human rights all over the world. It promotes respect for all the human rights in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It believes that human rights are interdependent and indivisible.

  • It prepares and publishes reports on human rights. Governments are not always happy with these reports since a major focus of Amnesty is the misconduct of government authorities. Nevertheless, these reports play an important role in research and advocacy on human rights.