Test: Class 12 Politics In India Since Independence NCERT Based-2


25 Questions MCQ Test Indian Polity for UPSC CSE | Test: Class 12 Politics In India Since Independence NCERT Based-2


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QUESTION: 1

Consider the following statements.

1. On the eve of independence, India had before it, two models of modern development: the liberal-capitalist model as in the US and the socialist model as in the Europe

2. Communist Party of India opposed the Soviet model but those of the Socialist Party and leaders like Nehru within the Congress supported the Soviet Model

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • On the eve of independence, India had before it, two models of modern development: the liberal-capitalist model as in much of Europe and the US and the socialist model as in the USSR. You have already studied these two ideologies and read about the ‘cold war’ between the two superpowers.

  • There were many in India then who were deeply impressed by the Soviet model of development. These included not just the leaders of the Communist Party of India, but also those of the Socialist Party and leaders like Nehru within the Congress. There were very few supporters of the American style capitalist development.

QUESTION: 2

Consider the following statements about the Bombay Plan.

1. A section of the big industrialists got together in 1944 and drafted a joint proposal for setting up a planned economy in the country

2. It wanted the state to take major initiatives in industrial and other economic investments

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Thus the Planning Commission was not a sudden invention. In fact, it has a very interesting history. We commonly assume that private investors, such as industrialists and big business entrepreneurs, are averse to ideas of planning: they seek an open economy without any state control in the flow of capital.

  • That was not what happened here. Rather, a section of the big industrialists got together in 1944 and drafted a joint proposal for setting up a planned economy in the country. It was called the Bombay Plan. The Bombay Plan wanted the state to take major initiatives in industrial and other economic investments.

  • Thus, from left to right, planning for development was the most obvious choice for the country after independence. Soon after India became independent, the Planning Commission came into being. The Prime Minister was its Chairperson. It became the most influential and central machinery for deciding what path and strategy India would adopt for its development.

QUESTION: 3

Consider the following statements.

1. Plan budget that is spent on routine items on a yearly basis

2. A five year plan has the advantage of permitting the government to focus on the larger picture and make long-term intervention in the economy

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Accordingly the budget of the central and all the State governments is divided into two parts: ‘non-plan’ budget that is spent on routine items on a yearly basis and ‘plan’ budget that is spent on a five year basis as per the priorities fixed by the plan. A five year plan has the advantage of permitting the government to focus on the larger picture and make long-term intervention in the economy.

QUESTION: 4

Which of the following models were adopted by India in five year plans?

Solution:
  • India did not follow any of the two known paths to development – it did not accept the capitalist model of development in which development was left entirely to the private sector, nor did it follow the socialist model in which private property was abolished and all the production was controlled by the state.

  • Elements from both these models were taken and mixed together in India. That is why it was described as a ‘mixed economy’. Much of the agriculture, trade and industry were left in private hands. The state controlled key heavy industries, provided industrial infrastructure, regulated trade and made some crucial interventions in agriculture.

QUESTION: 5

Consider the following statements about the Green Revolution.

1. It was decided to put more resources into those areas which already had irrigation and those farmers who were already well-off

2. Thus the government offered high-yielding variety seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and better irrigation at highly subsidised prices

3. The government also gave a guarantee to buy the produce of the farmers at a given price

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • The Green Revolution: In the face of the prevailing food-crisis, the country was clearly vulnerable to external pressures and dependent on food aid, mainly from the United States. The United States, in turn, pushed India to change its economic policies.

  • The government adopted a new strategy for agriculture in order to ensure food sufficiency. Instead of the earlier policy of giving more support to the areas and farmers that were lagging behind, now it was decided to put more resources into those areas which already had irrigation and those farmers who were already well-off.

  • The argument was that those who already had the capacity could help increase production rapidly in the short run. Thus the government offered high-yielding variety seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and better irrigation at highly subsidised prices.

  • The government also gave a guarantee to buy the produce of the farmers at a given price. This was the beginning of what was called the ‘green revolution’.

QUESTION: 6

Consider the following statements.

1. Thus both as the Prime Minister and the Foreign Minister, he exercised profound influence in the formulation and implementation of India’s foreign policy from 1946 to 1964

2. The three major objectives of Nehru’s foreign policy were to preserve the hard-earned sovereignty, protect territorial integrity, and promote rapid economic development

3. Nehru wished to achieve these objectives through the strategy of non-alignment

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • The first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru played a crucial role in setting the national agenda. He was his own foreign minister. Thus both the Prime Minister and the Foreign Minister, he exercised profound influence in the formulation and implementation of India’s foreign policy from 1946 to 1964.

  • The three major objectives of Nehru’s foreign policy were to preserve the hard-earned sovereignty, protect territorial integrity, and promote rapid economic development. Nehru wished to achieve these objectives through the strategy of non-alignment.

  • There were, of course, parties and groups in the country that believed that India should be friendlier with the bloc led by the US because that bloc claimed to be pro-democracy. Among those who thought on these lines were leaders like Dr Ambedkar.

QUESTION: 7

Consider the following statements about the The Chinese invasion, 1962.

1. China annexed Tibet in 1950 and thus removed a historical buffer between the two countries.

2. As more information came in about the suppression of Tibetan culture, the Indian government grew uneasy

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • The Chinese invasion, 1962: Two developments strained this relationship. China annexed Tibet in 1950 and thus removed a historical buffer between the two countries. Initially, the government of India did not oppose this openly.

  • But as more information came in about the suppression of Tibetan culture, the Indian government grew uneasy. The Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, sought and obtained political asylum in India in 1959. China alleged that the government of India was allowing anti-China activities to take place from within India.

QUESTION: 8

Consider the following statements about the Indus water treaty.

1. It was signed by Defence Minister, V. Krishna Menon and General Ayub Khan in 1960

2. A long-term dispute about the sharing of river waters was resolved through mediation by the United Nations

Which of these statements are not correct?

Solution:
  • The Kashmir conflict did not prevent cooperation between the governments of India and Pakistan. Both the governments worked together to restore the women abducted during partition to their original families.

  • A long-term dispute about the sharing of river waters was resolved through mediation by the World Bank. The India-Pakistan Indus Waters Treaty was signed by Nehru and General Ayub Khan in 1960. Despite all ups and downs in the Indo-Pak relations, this treaty has worked well.

QUESTION: 9

Consider the following statements.

1. The scarce resources were diverted to the defence sector until 1962, as India had to embark on a military modernisation drive

2. The Department of Defence Production was established in 1962 and the Department of Defence Supplies in 1965

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • India, with its limited resources, had initiated development planning. However, conflicts with neighbours derailed the five-year plans. The scarce resources were diverted to the defence sector especially after 1962, as India had to embark on a military modernisation drive.

  • The Department of Defence Production was established in November 1962 and the Department of Defence Supplies in November 1965. The Third Plan (1961-66) was affected and it was followed by three Annual Plans and the Fourth Plan could be initiated only in 1969. India’s defence expenditure increased enormously after the wars.

QUESTION: 10

Consider the following statements.

1. A significant component of his industrialisation plans was the nuclear programme initiated in the late 1940s under the guidance of Homi J.

Bhabha

2. India wanted to generate atomic energy for peaceful purposes

3. So he pleaded with the superpowers for comprehensive nuclear disarmament

Which of these statements are not correct?

Solution: Nehru had always put his faith in science and technology for rapidly building a modern India. A significant component of his industrialisation plans was the nuclear programme initiated in the late 1940s under the guidance of Homi J. Bhabha. India wanted to generate atomic energy for peaceful purposes. Nehru was against nuclear weapons. So he pleaded with the superpowers for comprehensive nuclear disarmament. However, the nuclear arsenal kept rising.

QUESTION: 11

Consider the following statements about the Chipko Andolan.

1. The movement began in villages of Uttar Pradesh when the forest department refused permission to the villagers to fell ash trees for making agricultural tools

2. The movement achieved a victory when the government issued a ban on felling of trees in the Himalayan regions for fifteen years, until the green cover was fully restored

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • The movement began in two or three villages of Uttarakhand when the forest department refused permission to the villagers to fell ash trees for making agricultural tools. However, the forest department allotted the same patch of land to a sports manufacturer for commercial use.

  • This enraged the villagers and they protested against the move of the government. The struggle soon spread across many parts of the Uttarakhand region. Women’s active participation in the Chipko agitation was a very novel aspect of the movement. The forest contractors of the region usually doubled up as suppliers of alcohol to men.

  • Women held sustained agitations against the habit of alcoholism and broadened the agenda of the movement to cover other social issues. The movement achieved a victory when the government issued a ban on felling of trees in the Himalayan regions for fifteen years, until the green cover was fully restored.

QUESTION: 12

Dalit Panthers, a militant organisation of the Dalit youth, was formed in:

Solution:
  • By the early nineteen seventies, the first generation Dalit graduates, especially those living in city slums began to assert themselves from various platforms.

  • Dalit Panthers, a militant organisation of the Dalit youth, was formed in Maharashtra in 1972 as a part of these assertions. In the post-independence period, Dalit groups were mainly fighting against the perpetual caste based inequalities and material injustices that the Dalits faced in spite of constitutional guarantees of equality and justice.

  • Effective implementation of reservations and other such policies of social justice was one of their prominent demands.

QUESTION: 13

Consider the following statements.

1. Activities of Dalit Panthers mostly centred around fighting increasing atrocities on Dalits in various parts of the State

2. The government passed a comprehensive law in 1989 that provided for rigorous punishment for atrocities against Dalits

3. The larger ideological agenda of the Panthers was not to destroy the caste system but to build an organisation of all oppressed sections

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Activities of Dalit Panthers mostly centred around fighting increasing atrocities on Dalits in various parts of the State. As a result of sustained agitations on the part of Dalit Panthers along with other like minded organisations over the issue of atrocities against Dalits, the government passed a comprehensive law in 1989 that provided for rigorous punishment for such acts.

  • The larger ideological agenda of the Panthers was to destroy the caste system and to build an organisation of all oppressed sections like the landless poor peasants and urban industrial workers along with Dalits.

QUESTION: 14

Consider the following statements.

1. Meerut agitation was seen as a great show of rural power and power of farmer cultivators

2. These agitating farmers were members of the Bharatiya Kisan Union (BKU), an organisation of farmers from Western Maharashtra and Rajasthan

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • In January 1988, around twenty thousand farmers had gathered in the city of Meerut, Uttar Pradesh. They were protesting against the government decision to increase electricity rates.

  • The farmers camped for about three weeks outside the district collector’s office until their demands were fulfilled. It was a very disciplined agitation of the farmers and all those days they received regular food supply from the nearby villages.

  • The Meerut agitation was seen as a great show of rural power – power of farmer cultivators. These agitating farmers were members of the Bharatiya Kisan Union (BKU), an organisation of farmers from western Uttar Pradesh and Haryana regions.

QUESTION: 15

Consider the following statements about the Bharatiya Kisan Union (BKU).

1. The organisation used traditional caste panchayats of these communities in bringing them together over economic issues

2. It was a formal organisation because it was based on clan networks among its members

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Activities conducted by the BKU to pressurise the state for accepting its demands included rallies, demonstrations, sit-ins, and jail bharo (courting imprisonment) agitations. These protests involved tens of thousands of farmers – sometimes over a lakh – from various villages in western Uttar Pradesh and adjoining regions.

  • Throughout the decade of the eighties, the BKU organised massive rallies of these farmers in many district headquarters of the State and also at the national capital. Another novel aspect of these mobilisations was the use of caste linkages of farmers. Most of the BKU members belonged to a single community.

  • The organisation used traditional caste panchayats of these communities in bringing them together over economic issues. In spite of lack of any formal organisation, the BKU could sustain itself for a long time because it was based on clan networks among its members. Funds, resources and activities of BKU were mobilised through these networks.

QUESTION: 16

Consider the following statements.

1. The slogan of the anti-arrack movement was simple — prohibition on the sale of arrack

2. But this simple demand touched upon larger social, economic and political issues of the region that affected women’s life

3. A close nexus between crime and politics was established around the business of arrack

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • The slogan of the anti-arrack movement was simple - prohibition on the sale of arrack. But this simple demand touched upon larger social, economic and political issues of the region that affected women’s life.

  • A close nexus between crime and politics was established around the business of arrack. The State government collected huge revenues by way of taxes imposed on the sale of arrack and was therefore not willing to impose a ban.

  • Groups of local women tried to address these complex issues in their agitation against arrack. They also openly discussed the issue of domestic violence. Their movement, for the first time, provided a platform to discuss private issues of domestic violence.

QUESTION: 17

Consider the following statements about the Narmada Bachao Aandolan (NBA)

1. Initially the movement demanded proper and just rehabilitation of all those who were directly or indirectly affected by the project.

2. The movement also questioned the nature of decision-making processes that go in the making of mega scale developmental projects

3. The NBA insisted that local communities must have a say in such decisions and they should also have effective control over natural resources

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Initially the movement demanded proper and just rehabilitation of all those who were directly or indirectly affected by the project. The movement also questioned the nature of decision-making processes that go in the making of mega scale developmental projects.

  • The NBA insisted that local communities must have a say in such decisions and they should also have effective control over natural resources like water, land and forests. The movement also asked why, in a democracy, should some people be made to sacrifice for benefiting others. All these considerations led the NBA to shift from its initial demand for rehabilitation to its position of total opposition to the dam.

QUESTION: 18

Consider the following statements.

1. From the late 1950s, people speaking the Punjabi language started agitating for a separate State for themselves

2. This demand was finally accepted and the States of Punjab and Haryana were created in 1966

Which of these statements are not correct?

Solution: From the late 1950s, people speaking the Punjabi language started agitating for a separate State for themselves. This demand was finally accepted and the States of Punjab and Haryana were created in 1966. Later, the States of Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand and Jharkhand were created. Thus the challenge of diversity was met by redrawing the internal boundaries of the country.

QUESTION: 19

Consider the following statements about the E.V. Ramasami Naicker.

1. Initially a worker of the Congress party

2. Started the self-respect movement (1925); led the anti-Brahmin movement

3. Worked for the Justice party and later founded Dravidar Kazhagam

4. Opposed to Hindi and domination of north India

Which of these statements are correct about the E.V. Ramasami Naicker?

Solution: E.V. Ramasami Naicker (1879-1973): Known as Periyar (the respected); strong supporter of atheism; famous for his anti-caste struggle and rediscovery of Dravidian identity; initially a worker of the Congress party; started the self-respect movement (1925); led the anti-Brahmin movement; worked for the Justice party and later founded Dravidar Kazhagam; opposed to Hindi and domination of north India; propounded the thesis that north Indians and Brahmins are Aryans.

QUESTION: 20

Consider the following statements.

1. The Akalis discovered that despite the redrawing of the boundaries, their political position remained precarious

2. The Congress got more support among the Akalis than the dalits

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • After the reorganisation, the Akalis came to power in 1967 and then in 1977. On both the occasions it was a coalition government. The Akalis discovered that despite the redrawing of the boundaries, their political position remained precarious.

  • Firstly, their government was dismissed by the Centre mid-way through its term.

  • Secondly, they did not enjoy strong support among the Hindus. Thirdly, the Sikh community, like all other religious communities, was internally differentiated on caste and class lines. The Congress got more support among the dalits, whether Hindu or Sikh, than the Akalis.

QUESTION: 21

Elections of which year marked the end of what political scientists have called the ‘Congress system?

Solution:
  • First the most crucial development of this period was the defeat of the Congress party in the elections held in 1989. The party that had won as many as 415 seats in the Lok Sabha in 1984 was reduced to only 197 in this election.

  • The Congress improved its performance and came back to power soon after the midterm elections held in 1991. But the elections of 1989 marked the end of what political scientists have called the ‘Congress system’. To be sure, the Congress remained an important party and ruled the country more than any other party even in this period since 1989. But it lost the kind of centrality it earlier enjoyed in the party system.

QUESTION: 22

Consider the following statements.

1. Elections in 1989 led to the defeat of the Congress party but did not result in a majority for any other party

2. Though the Congress was the largest party in the Lok Sabha, it did not have a clear majority and therefore, it decided to sit in the opposition

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Elections in 1989 led to the defeat of the Congress party but did not result in a majority for any other party. Though the Congress was the largest party in the Lok Sabha, it did not have a clear majority and therefore, it decided to sit in the opposition.

  • The National Front (which itself was an alliance of Janata Dal and some other regional parties) received support from two diametrically opposite political groups: the BJP and the Left Front. On this basis, the National Front formed a coalition government, but the BJP and the Left Front did not join in this government.

QUESTION: 23

Consider the following statements.

1. No single party secured a clear majority of seats in any Lok Sabha election held since 1989 till 2014

2. This development initiated an era of coalition governments at the Centre, in which regional parties played a crucial role in forming ruling alliances

Which of these statements are not correct?

Solution:
  • To be sure, a large number of political parties always contested elections in our country. Our Parliament always had representatives from several political parties. What happened after 1989 was the emergence of several parties in such a way that one or two parties did not get most of the votes or seats.

  • This also meant that no single party secured a clear majority of seats in any Lok Sabha election held from 1989 till 2014. This development initiated an era of coalition governments at the Centre, in which regional parties played a crucial role in forming ruling alliances.

QUESTION: 24

Consider the following statements.

1. In the 1980s, the Janata Dal brought together a similar combination of political groups with strong support among the OBCs

2. The decision of the National Front government to implement the recommendations of the Mandal Commission further helped in shaping the politics of ‘Other Backward Classes’.

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution: In the 1980s, the Janata Dal brought together a similar combination of political groups with strong support among the OBCs. The decision of the National Front government to implement the recommendations of the Mandal Commission further helped in shaping the politics of ‘Other Backward Classes’.

QUESTION: 25

Consider the following statements.

1. The Mandal Commission was set up to investigate the extent of educational and social backwardness among various sections of Indian society and recommend ways of identifying these ‘backward classes’

2. The Mandal Commission also made many other recommendations, like land reform, to improve the conditions of the OBCs.

3. In August 1990, the National Front government decided to implement one of the recommendations of Mandal Commission pertaining to reservations for OBCs in jobs in the central government and its undertakings

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • The Mandal Commission Reservations for the OBC were in existence in southern States since the 1960s, if not earlier. But this policy was not operative in north Indian States. It was during the tenure of Janata Party government in 1977-79 that the demand for reservations for backward castes in north India and at the national level was strongly raised.

  • Karpoori Thakur, the then Chief Minister of Bihar, was a pioneer in this direction. His government had introduced a new policy of reservations for OBCs in Bihar. Following this, the central government appointed a Commission in 1978 to look into and recommend ways to improve the conditions of the backward classes. This was the second time since Independence that the government had appointed such a commission.

  • In August 1990, the National Front government decided to implement one of the recommendations of Mandal Commission pertaining to reservations for OBCs in jobs in the central government and its undertakings. This decision sparked agitations and violent protests in many cities of north India. The decision was also challenged in the Supreme Court and came to be known as the ‘Indira Sawhney case’, after the name of one of the petitioners.