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15 Questions MCQ Test Indian Polity for UPSC CSE - Test: Electoral Politics- 2

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Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 1

Elections held after the term of five years for Lok Sabha are called.

Detailed Solution for Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 1
Elections held after the term of five years for Lok Sabha are called General elections.
General elections are a significant democratic process in India where eligible citizens vote to elect their representatives in the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament. Here's a detailed explanation:
General elections:
- General elections are held after the completion of the five-year term of the Lok Sabha.
- These elections are conducted throughout the country to elect members for the Lok Sabha.
- The Election Commission of India is responsible for managing and conducting these elections.
- During general elections, eligible voters cast their votes to select candidates from various political parties.
- The party or coalition that secures a majority of seats in the Lok Sabha forms the government.
- The Prime Minister is then appointed by the President of India based on the majority party's recommendation.
- General elections are crucial as they provide an opportunity for the citizens to exercise their right to vote and shape the future of the country.
- These elections determine the composition of the Lok Sabha, which plays a vital role in lawmaking and governance.
Other options:
- Mid-term elections: These are elections held before the completion of the full term of the Lok Sabha, usually due to a political crisis or instability.
- By-elections: These are elections held to fill a vacant seat in the Lok Sabha or state legislative assemblies due to the death, resignation, or disqualification of a member.
- All of these: This option includes both general elections, mid-term elections, and by-elections.
Therefore, the correct answer is General elections.
Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 2

What makes an election democratic? Select the correct option.
(i) Universal Adult Franchise
(ii) Fundamental Rights
(iii) Directive Principles of State Policy
(iv) Free and fair Election.

Detailed Solution for Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 2
What makes an election democratic?
There are several factors that contribute to making an election democratic. These include:
Universal Adult Franchise:
- All adult citizens have the right to vote, regardless of their gender, caste, religion, or social status.
- This ensures that every eligible citizen has an equal opportunity to participate in the electoral process and have a say in choosing their representatives.
Fundamental Rights:
- The election process must uphold and protect the fundamental rights of the citizens.
- These rights include the freedom of speech, expression, association, and movement, which enable individuals to participate freely in political activities and express their opinions without fear of repression.
Free and Fair Election:
- Elections must be conducted in a free and fair manner, without any interference or manipulation.
- This ensures that all candidates and political parties have an equal chance to compete, and voters can make their choices without coercion or intimidation.
- The election process should be transparent, with proper rules and regulations in place to prevent fraud or malpractice.
Conclusion:
In conclusion, an election is considered democratic when it incorporates universal adult franchise, upholds fundamental rights, and ensures free and fair elections. These principles are essential for promoting inclusivity, equality, and the active participation of citizens in the democratic process.
Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 3

Which of the following states has maximum Lok Sabha Constituencies?

Detailed Solution for Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 3
Answer:
States with Maximum Lok Sabha Constituencies:
- Uttar Pradesh
Explanation:
- The Lok Sabha is the lower house of the Parliament of India and the total number of seats in the Lok Sabha is 545.
- The allocation of seats is based on the population of each state as per the latest census data.
- Among the given options, Uttar Pradesh has the maximum number of Lok Sabha constituencies.
- Uttar Pradesh has a total of 80 Lok Sabha constituencies, which is the highest among all states in India.
- Madhya Pradesh has 29 Lok Sabha constituencies, Maharashtra has 48 Lok Sabha constituencies, and Bihar has 40 Lok Sabha constituencies, which are lesser than Uttar Pradesh.
- Therefore, the correct answer is D: Uttar Pradesh.
Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 4

How many constituencies are there in our country for Loksabha elections?

Detailed Solution for Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 4
Answer:
There are 543 constituencies in India for Lok Sabha elections. Here is a detailed explanation:
- Lok Sabha: Lok Sabha is the lower house of the Parliament of India. It represents the people of India. Members of Lok Sabha are elected by the eligible voters in each constituency.
- Constituencies: A constituency is a specific geographic area within a state or union territory. Each constituency is represented by a Member of Parliament (MP) in the Lok Sabha. The number of constituencies in India is determined based on factors like population, area, and administrative convenience.
- Delimitation: The process of dividing the country into constituencies is known as delimitation. It is carried out by the Delimitation Commission, which is appointed by the President of India. The delimitation process is done periodically to ensure that the constituencies are based on the latest demographic data.
- Number of Constituencies: Currently, there are 543 constituencies in India for Lok Sabha elections. This number is subject to change after each delimitation process.
- Representation: The number of constituencies in each state is determined based on the population of the state. States with larger populations have more constituencies, while states with smaller populations have fewer constituencies. This ensures proportional representation in the Lok Sabha.
- Elections: Lok Sabha elections are held every five years, unless dissolved earlier. Eligible voters in each constituency elect their representative by casting their votes. The candidate who receives the highest number of votes in a constituency becomes the Member of Parliament from that constituency.
- Importance: Lok Sabha elections are crucial as they determine the composition and functioning of the central government. The elected representatives from different constituencies come together to form the government and make important decisions on behalf of the country.
In conclusion, there are 543 constituencies in our country for Lok Sabha elections. These constituencies ensure that the representation in the Parliament is based on the population and demographics of different states and union territories.
Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 5

Analyze the following statements regarding the fair electoral practice and select which one is a fair electoral practice.

Detailed Solution for Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 5

Statement A: A minister flags off a new train in his constituency a week before polling day
- This action can be seen as an attempt to influence voters by showcasing the minister's work just before the election.
- It may give the impression that the minister is using government resources for personal gain or to gain electoral advantage.
Statement B: A candidate promises that she will get a new train for her constituency if she is elected
- This statement falls under the category of campaign promises that candidates often make to gain voter support.
- It is a fair electoral practice as long as the promise is within the legal and ethical boundaries and the candidate has the intention and capability to fulfill it if elected.
Statement C: Supporters of a candidate take the voters to a temple and make them take an oath that they will vote for him
- This action is a form of coercion and manipulation of voters' choices.
- It violates the principle of free and fair elections, as voters are being forced or pressured to vote for a particular candidate.
Statement D: The supporters of a candidate distribute blankets in slums in return for a promise for a vote
- This action can be seen as an attempt to buy votes by offering incentives in exchange for a vote.
- It is considered an unfair electoral practice as it undermines the integrity of the electoral process and manipulates voters with material goods.
Conclusion: Among the given statements, Statement B is the only fair electoral practice as it involves a candidate making a campaign promise to improve the constituency if elected. The other statements involve actions that either aim to influence voters through official position or resources (Statement A) or manipulate voters through coercion or incentives (Statements C and D).
Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 6

Which of the following slogans was given during west Bengal Assembly elections in 1977?

Detailed Solution for Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 6
Slogan given during West Bengal Assembly elections in 1977: Land to the tiller
During the West Bengal Assembly elections in 1977, the following slogans were given:
1. Garibi Hatao:
- This slogan was not associated with the West Bengal Assembly elections in 1977. It was a slogan used by Indira Gandhi during the 1971 general elections in India.
2. Save Democracy:
- This slogan was not associated with the West Bengal Assembly elections in 1977. It is a generic slogan used to promote the importance of democracy.
3. Land to the tiller:
- This slogan was associated with the West Bengal Assembly elections in 1977.
- The slogan represented the demand for land redistribution and agrarian reforms.
- It was used by the Left Front, led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist), to appeal to the rural population and farmers.
4. Protect the self-respect of the Telugus:
- This slogan was not associated with the West Bengal Assembly elections in 1977. It was a slogan used during the separate Telangana movement in the state of Andhra Pradesh.
Therefore, the correct answer is C: Land to the tiller.
Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 7

What is an election held for only one constituency to fill the vacancy caused due to death or resignation of a member called?

Detailed Solution for Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 7
Answer:
The election held for only one constituency to fill the vacancy caused due to death or resignation of a member is called a by-election. Here is a detailed explanation of what a by-election is:
Definition:
A by-election, also known as a special election or a bypoll, is a type of election held to fill a vacant seat in a legislative body. It is conducted when a seat becomes vacant due to the death, resignation, or disqualification of a sitting member. By-elections are typically held in a single constituency rather than on a national or regional scale.
Characteristics of a by-election:
- Single constituency: By-elections are conducted in a specific constituency where the vacancy occurred.
- Filling a vacancy: The purpose of a by-election is to fill the vacant seat in the legislative body.
- Limited scope: By-elections focus on the specific constituency and do not involve the entire electorate.
- Special circumstances: By-elections are triggered by specific events such as the death or resignation of a member.
- Timing: By-elections are typically held outside the regular election cycle and can occur at any time.
Reasons for holding a by-election:
- Death of a member: If a sitting member passes away, a by-election is held to fill the vacant seat.
- Resignation of a member: When a member voluntarily resigns from their position, a by-election is conducted to choose a new representative.
- Disqualification of a member: If a member is disqualified from holding office due to legal or ethical reasons, a by-election may be necessary to replace them.
Importance of by-elections:
- Representation: By-elections ensure that each constituency is represented in the legislative body, even when a seat becomes vacant.
- Democratic process: By-elections uphold the democratic process by allowing citizens to choose their representatives.
- Balance of power: By-elections can impact the balance of power in the legislative body, potentially influencing the political landscape.
In conclusion, a by-election is a specific type of election held to fill a vacancy in a single constituency caused by the death or resignation of a member. It serves the purpose of maintaining representation and upholding the democratic process.
Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 8

Is it good to have Political Competition? Which of the following statements justify this?
(i) It creates a sense of disunity and factionalism
(ii) Political Competition helps to force political parties and leaders to serve people
(iii) It gives a fair chance to people for the responsible government
(iv) Political competition causes divisions and some ugliness

Detailed Solution for Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 8
Is it good to have Political Competition?
- Political competition refers to the competition between different political parties and leaders for political power.
- It is generally considered beneficial to have political competition in a democratic system.
- Here are the reasons why political competition is considered good:
(ii) Political Competition helps to force political parties and leaders to serve people
- When there is competition among political parties, they are motivated to work hard and serve the people in order to gain their support and win elections.
- Political parties are more likely to listen to the concerns and demands of the people and address them in order to remain competitive.
(iii) It gives a fair chance to people for responsible government
- Political competition allows voters to have a choice between different political parties and leaders.
- This ensures that people have the opportunity to elect representatives who align with their values and who they believe will be responsible in governing the country.
Conclusion:
- In conclusion, political competition is considered good because it forces political parties and leaders to serve the people and gives a fair chance to people for a responsible government.
Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 9

Which of the following is not included in the Model Code of Conduct for election campaigns?

Detailed Solution for Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 9

-No party or candidate shall include in any activity which may aggravate existing differences or create mutual hatred or cause tension between different castes and communities, religious or linguistic.

-Criticism of other political parties, when made, shall be confined to their policies and programme, past record and work. Parties and Candidates shall refrain from criticism of all aspects of private life, not connected with the public activities of the leaders or workers of other parties. Criticism of other parties or their workers based on unverified allegations or distortion shall be avoided.

-There shall be no appeal to caste or communal feelings for securing votes. Mosques, Churches, Temples or other places of worship shall not be used as forum for election propaganda.

- The Ministers shall not combine their official visit with electioneering work and shall not also make use of official machinery or personnel during the electioneering work.

- Government transport including official air-crafts, vehicles, machinery and personnel shall not be used for furtherance of the interest of the party in power;

Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 10

What is the General election?

Detailed Solution for Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 10
The General Election is an important event in the democratic process of a country. It allows citizens to elect representatives who will govern and make decisions on their behalf. In the case of India, the General Election refers to the elections held to choose members of the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament.
Key Points:
- Elections are held in all constituencies at the same time after every five years.
- The General Election is conducted to elect members of the Lok Sabha.
- The Lok Sabha is responsible for making laws and representing the interests of the people at the national level.
- The General Election is a nationwide exercise where eligible voters from all states and union territories participate.
- The election process is carried out in multiple phases to ensure smooth conduct and efficient management of the electoral process.
- Political parties and candidates campaign extensively to garner support and win the majority of seats in the Lok Sabha.
- The party or coalition that secures a majority forms the government and appoints the Prime Minister.
- The General Election is a crucial opportunity for citizens to exercise their voting rights and have a say in the governance of the country.
In summary, the General Election in India is a nationwide election held every five years to elect members of the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament. It is a significant democratic process that allows citizens to choose their representatives and participate in shaping the country's governance.
Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 11

The final stage of an election is the day when the voters cast or “poll” their vote.

Detailed Solution for Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 11

(i) Electoral Constituencies: First of all, the whole country is divided into different areas for purposes of elections. These areas are called electoral constituencies. 
The voters who live in an area elect the one representative. 


(ii) Voters' List: Once the constituencies are decided, the next step is to decide who can and who cannot vote. This decision cannot be left to anyone till the last day. In a democratic election, the list of those who are eligible to vote is prepared much before the election and given to everyone.


(iii) Nomination of Candidates: Every person who wishes to contest an election has to fill a nomination form by the due date, which the Election Commission fixes. Every candidate has to give some money as security deposit alongwith nomination form. 


(iv) Election Campaign: Election campaigns take place for a two-week period between the announcement of the final list of candidates and the date of polling. During this period the candidates contact their voters, political leaders address election meetings and political parties mobilise their supporters. 


(v) Polling and Counting of Votes: The final stage of an election is the day when the voters cast or poll their vote. That day is usually called the election day. Every person whose name is on the voters' list can go to a nearby polling booth. Once the voter goes inside the booth, the election officials identify him/her,  put a mark on his/her finger and allow him/her to cast his/her vote. There are electronic voting machines (EVMs) which are used to record votes. The machine shows the names of the candidates and the party symbols. What the voter has to do is to press the button against the name of the candidate he/she wants to give his/her vote. 


Once the polling is over, all the EVMs are sealed and taken to a secure place. A few days later, on a fixed date, all the EVMs from a constituency are opened and the votes secured by each candidate are counted. The candidate who secures the highest number of votes from a constituency is declared elected. 

Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 12

Chief Election Commissioner is appointed by the Prime Minister of India.

Detailed Solution for Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 12
Chief Election Commissioner Appointment:
- The Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) is not appointed by the Prime Minister of India.
- The appointment of the CEC is made by the President of India.
- The President appoints the CEC after consultation with the Prime Minister and the Leader of Opposition in the Lok Sabha or the leader of the single largest opposition party in the Lok Sabha.
- The CEC holds office for a term of six years or until the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
- The CEC is responsible for the conduct of elections in the country and has the power to superintend, direct, and control the preparation of electoral rolls and the conduct of elections.
- The CEC is also responsible for the appointment of Election Commissioners and other Election Commission staff.
- The CEC is an independent and autonomous authority and is not subject to the control or direction of any other authority or person.
Therefore, the statement that the Chief Election Commissioner is appointed by the Prime Minister of India is false.
Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 13

What is the motive Reserved Constituencies?

Detailed Solution for Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 13
Motive of Reserved Constituencies:
The motive of reserved constituencies is to ensure proper representation to the weaker sections of society, specifically the Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST). This practice is implemented in many countries, including India, to address historical and social disadvantages faced by these marginalized communities. The reservation of seats in legislative bodies aims to provide a platform for their voices to be heard and their interests to be represented effectively. Here are the key reasons behind the establishment of reserved constituencies:
1. Ensuring representation:
Reserved constituencies provide an opportunity for SC and ST communities to have their own representatives in legislative bodies, thus ensuring their voices are heard in the decision-making process. This helps in addressing their specific concerns and interests.
2. Overcoming historical disadvantages:
Historically, SCs and STs have been subjected to discrimination, social exclusion, and economic disadvantages. Reserved constituencies aim to mitigate these disparities and provide a platform for their political participation and representation.
3. Promoting social justice:
Reserved constituencies contribute to the larger goal of social justice by providing equal opportunities for political representation to all sections of society. It helps in creating a more inclusive and balanced political system.
4. Empowerment and upliftment:
Through reserved constituencies, SCs and STs are empowered to actively participate in the political process, which can lead to their overall upliftment and development. It provides them with a platform to advocate for their rights and work towards addressing the issues faced by their communities.
5. Reducing discrimination and prejudice:
Reserved constituencies act as a mechanism to reduce discrimination and prejudice against SCs and STs by giving them a fair chance to participate in the democratic process. It challenges the dominance of privileged groups and promotes social cohesion.
In conclusion, the motive behind reserved constituencies is to ensure proper representation and address historical disadvantages faced by marginalized communities such as SCs and STs. This practice promotes social justice, empowers the weaker sections, and contributes to a more inclusive and balanced political system.
Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 14

Legal declaration or Affidavit includes details of the assets and liabilities too.

Detailed Solution for Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 14
Explanation:
The statement that a legal declaration or affidavit includes details of assets and liabilities is true. Here's why:
Definition of Legal Declaration or Affidavit:
- A legal declaration or affidavit is a written statement that is sworn or affirmed to be true.
- It is a formal document used in legal proceedings to provide evidence or information about a particular matter.
Contents of a Legal Declaration or Affidavit:
- Personal information: The individual making the declaration or affidavit provides their full name, address, and contact details.
- Sworn statement: The individual declares that the information provided is true and accurate to the best of their knowledge and belief.
- Statement of facts: The individual provides a detailed account of the events or circumstances relevant to the case.
- Supporting documents: The individual may attach any relevant documents or evidence to support their statement.
- Assets and liabilities: In some cases, a legal declaration or affidavit may require the individual to disclose their assets and liabilities.
Reasons for Including Assets and Liabilities:
- Financial disclosure: Including assets and liabilities in a legal declaration or affidavit ensures transparency and provides a complete picture of the individual's financial situation.
- Evidence of financial standing: Assets and liabilities can be crucial in determining a person's financial stability or financial interest in a particular matter.
- Credibility and credibility assessment: Disclosing assets and liabilities can help assess the credibility and reliability of the individual making the declaration or affidavit.
In conclusion, a legal declaration or affidavit can include details of assets and liabilities. This is done to ensure transparency, provide a complete picture of the individual's financial situation, and assess credibility in legal proceedings.
Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 15

Elections in India for Parliament and State Legislature are conducted by _________ .

Detailed Solution for Test: Electoral Politics- 2 - Question 15
Elections in India for Parliament and State Legislature are conducted by the Election Commission of India.
The Election Commission of India is an autonomous constitutional authority responsible for overseeing the entire electoral process in India. Here is a detailed explanation of its role:
1. Constitutional Authority: The Election Commission of India is a constitutional authority established under Article 324 of the Indian Constitution.
2. Composition: The Commission consists of a Chief Election Commissioner and a maximum of two Election Commissioners. They are appointed by the President of India.
3. Independence: The Election Commission operates independently and is not subject to the control or influence of the executive or the legislature.
4. Superintendence, Direction, and Control: The Commission exercises superintendence, direction, and control over the conduct of elections to ensure free and fair elections.
5. Delimitation of Constituencies: The Commission is responsible for the delimitation of constituencies for the Parliamentary and State Assembly elections.
6. Election Schedule: The Commission prepares and announces the election schedule, including the dates for filing nominations, polling, and counting of votes.
7. Model Code of Conduct: The Commission enforces the Model Code of Conduct, which sets guidelines to ensure fair campaign practices by political parties and candidates.
8. Registration of Political Parties: The Commission registers political parties and allocates symbols to them.
9. Voter Registration: The Commission oversees the process of voter registration and the preparation of electoral rolls.
10. Conduct of Elections: The Commission ensures the smooth conduct of elections, including the deployment of security forces and the management of polling stations.
11. Election Observers: The Commission appoints election observers to ensure transparency and fairness during the elections.
12. Result Declaration: The Commission announces the results of the elections and declares the winners.
In conclusion, the Election Commission of India plays a crucial role in conducting elections for Parliament and State Legislature in India. It ensures the integrity and fairness of the electoral process, thereby upholding the democratic principles of the country.
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