Indian Geography - Practice Test (1)

30 Questions MCQ Test Geography for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims | Indian Geography - Practice Test (1)

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The best way to improve crop production in India is to increase the crop intensity ie byincreasing gross sown area.

Which is not the hindering factor involved in improving the crop intensity?


In fact black soil is an added advantage in improving the crop intensity as it requires very less irrigated or rainfall water as it has a very good capability to retain moisture.The usage of manures and fertilizers per hectare is quite low in India compared to other countries like China, Japan etc.


In India El Nino can have comparatively lesser impact on Sugarcane and Urad production. What are the reasons?
1) Sugarcane is largely grown under irrigated areas.
2) Urad is mainly grown in regions where rainfall variability is very low.
3) Urad is drought resistant crop.
4) Sugarcane although a kharif crop requires very less water

Choose the right pair of reasons from the codes below


More than 90% of the area under sugarcane is under irrigation and thus rainfall failure cannot impact production provided electricity and water supply is made available for the farmers.

Urad is drought resistant crop thus grown in regions even if the rainfall variability is very high.


Ragi, a millet is currently encouraged to include in the diet to supplement nutrients to counter the malnutrition that is haunting the country.
Consider the following statements Ragi:
1) Ragi is rich in iron, calcium, roughage and is mainly grown in dry regions.
2) Among minor producers Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand are included.
3) It is grown as a major crop in Bengaluru-Mysuru table land from where the country’s majority of Ragi production comes from

Choose the correct statements from the code below.


Among minor producers even Jharkhand, Jammu Kashmir are also involved apart from the states mentioned in the 2nd statement.Ragi production and consumption is highest in Bengaluru-Mysuru table region.


Tea best grows in Assam, Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts of West Bengal. What is/are the uniqueness of this region which suits this crop?
1) It has warm and humid climate.
2) Showers are mainly concentrated in 4-5 months ie June to October in any year.
3) Deep, fertile and well drained soil.
4) Rugged topography of the relief near the Himalayan foot hills.

Choose the correct code:


Showers are almost evenly distributed throughout the year with very low dry spell.Well drained gentle sloped soils are required and rugged topography is not suitable for tea plantations.


Indian agriculture is termed to be an Intensive Subsistence Farming type. What are the characteristic that has made Indian agriculture to be categorized into that type?
1) Very high population density.
2) Labour intensive farming.
3) Lower yield of production in terms of per capita labour force.
4) Very small and fragmented land holdings.
5) Usage of farm machinery.

Choose the correct code from the following.


The following are the characteristics of the Intensive Subsistence Farming.

Land holdings are very small due to inheritance law prevalent in the country and high population mounts pressure on the land holdings to be utilized in an intensive way so as tocater the demand for food from huge population.

Farmers work with the help of family labour and use of machinery is limited and most of the agricultural operations are done by manual labour.

Farm yard manure is used to maintain the fertility of the soil.

In this type of agriculture, the yield per unit area is high but per labour productivity is low.


Kerala has outpaced every other state in the country in terms of Rubber production. The reasons being
1) It has hot and humid climate with precipitation more than 200cms annually.
2) Very small dry spell during summers for 2-3 months.
3) Well drained red soil with gentle slope and no stagnation of water.

Choose the correct reason/s from the code below.


Kerala largely has laterite soil and not red soil.


Sugarcane grown in subtropical region has lower productivity than that is grown in tropical regions.
Consider the following statements about subtropical region i.e. Northern India which has low productivity in sugarcane production.

1) Frost formations.
2) Floods and water logging.
3) High diurnal temperature.
4) Low humidity.

Choose the correct reason/s from the codes below.


First two statements are self explanatory.

A higher diurnal temperature and low humidity are required for a better productivity. Thus these two factors are not reducing the productivity.


The productivity in the Indian agriculture has stagnated since 1990’s although the usage of fertilizers has considerably increased since then.What is/are the possible reason/s?


Unscientific usage is the main reason i.e. unbalanced dosage of nitrogen, phosphorus,potassium. In the ideal condition it should be 4:2:1. But in India it is completely unbalanced .Based on region the ratio of N:P:K varies in a big way. for eg: for all India it is 8.2:3.2:1, for Punjab it is 61.9:19.3:1, for Haryana it is 61.4:18.7:1. This can have negative impact like decreasing the soil fertility and thus reducing the yield.

Monsoon vagaries definitely has increased with time.


What are the factors that have favoured the Wheat production in North West India?
1) Western disturbances.
2) Fertile alluvial soil brought down mainly by Indus and Ganga river system.
3) Semi arid region.

Choose the correct code from the following.


North West India does have semi arid region but that itself is not a favourable characteristic,it’s the Western disturbance that favours Wheat production.


Although green revolution brought a great success for our country during later 1960’s it also brought in few negatives. What are those negatives?
1) Inter crop disparity.
2) Inter personal inequalities.
3) Environmental pollution.
4) Regional economic disparity.
5) Unemployment.
6) Self sufficiency in all types of agricultural crop production.

Choose the correct code from the following.


Inter cropping disparity because it was food grains which got impetus especially wheat and many other crops were neglected eg: pulses.

Largely green revolution favoured large farmers than small and marginal farmers because green revolution needed some initial investments for mechanization, high yielding seeds etc while small and marginal farmers could hardly afford such expenditures.

With unbalanced fertilizers usage it led to soil fertility decline and also crops were grown in such areas where those were not supposed to be grown like rice crop which was started in Haryana and Punjab because of Green revolution.

Green revolution mainly benefited North West India and coastal areas in Eastern India. Thus agricultural income increased only in those regions where Green revolution was brought and thus increasing regional disparity in terms of economy.

Mechanization was supported and encouraged to get the better benefits of Green revolution thus resulting into unemployment.

Self sufficiency was brought only in food grains like rice wheat etc, and not in every crop.


Arrange the following Tiger Reserves from North to South direction
1. Kundermukh
2. Bor
3. Pilibhit
4. Achanakmar

Correct sequence will be


1. Kundermukh- Karnataka
2. Bor- Maharashtra
3. Pilibhit- UP
4. Achanakmar- Chattisgarh


Consider the following statements regarding National Green Tribunal (NGT)
1. NGT can handle cases related to The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991
2. The Tribunal shall be bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.
3. It is a federal legislation enacted by the Parliament of India, under India's constitutional provision of Article 21

Which of the above is NOT correct?


The Tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure,1908, but shall be guided by principles of natural justice.

The NGT has the power to hear all civil cases relating to environmental issues and questions that are linked to the implementation of laws listed in Schedule I of the NGT Act. These include the following:

1. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974;
2. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977;
3. The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980;
4. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981;
5. The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986;
6. The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991;
7. The Biological Diversity Act, 2002.
This means that any violations pertaining only to these laws, or any order / decision taken by the Government under these laws can be challenged before the NGT. Importantly, the NGT has not been vested with powers to hear any matter relating to the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, the Indian Forest Act, 1927 and various laws enacted by States relating to forests, tree preservation etc. Therefore, specific and substantial issues related to these laws cannot be raised before the NGT. You will have to approach the State High Court or the Supreme Court through a Writ Petition (PIL) or file an Original Suit before an appropriate Civil Judge of the taluk where the project that you intend to challenge is located.


Consider the following statements
1. The constitution of National Park in India can only be done by Central Government
2. Abolition of National Park can be done by State Legislation

Select the correct codes


In most countries, only national or federal government can constitute national parks, but inIndia, state governments have the power to constitute national parks. In fact, national parks can only be constituted or abolished through state legislation, whereas wild sanctuaries are created through an order of a competent authority, who can be the chief conservator of forests or a minister of a state. Thus, it is evident that national parks have greater degree of permanency than a wildlife sanctuary


Consider the following
1. Markhor
2. Brown palm civet
3. Yellow Fronted Barbet
4. Ovaria Lurida

Which of the above are ENDEMIC species of INDIA?


The brown palm civet (Paradoxurus jerdoni) also called the Jerdon's palm civet is a palm civet endemic to the Western Ghats of India.


Consider the statements about ‘Super-Heavy Elements’ recently in news

1. Super-heavy elements are elements beyond atomic number 104.
2. They are artificially created but do exist naturally
3. India is part of development of super heavy element 117

Select the Wrong Statement/s


They do not exist in nature.


Consider the statements regarding a particular valley which was in the news recently.
1) It is a part of Gangotri National Park.
2) It is a cold desert and looks like a replica of Tibetan plateau.
3) It is home for Snow Leopard.

Which is that valley?


The correct option is Option A.

The picturesque Nelong Valley near the India-China border, which was closed for civilians after the 1962 war, has been opened for tourists. The valley, 45 km ahead of the border, falls under the Gangotri National Park in Uttarkashi district.

The cold deserted mountain area of Nelong valley looks like a replica of Tibet in terms of its geography. Since this valley falls under the Gangotri National Park, the travelers are not allowed to have an overnight stay, within the 25 km area between Bhairavghati and Nelong.

One of the most reclusive members of the animal kingdom, a snow leopard was seen strolling on the road in the Nelong valley, which is situated in the Gangotri National Park at an altitude of 11,000 feet, in Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand.


Central Zoo Authority, a body set up in 1992 for the oversight of zoos.
Consider the following statements regarding CZA.
1) It is set up under the Wild Life Protection Act, 1972.
2) It is an affiliated member of World Association of Zoos and Aquarium.
3) It doesn’t have the power to regulate the trade of endangered species.

Choose the correct statements from the following code.


It does have the power to regulate the trade of endangered species. Apart from that it also has the power to regulate and approve the exchange of animals between Indian and foreign zoos.


The trees found in Western side of Western Ghats and in the Northeast region generally don’t shed their leaves i.e they are evergreen.
What are the possible reasons?
1) These regions do not have prolonged dry season.
2) These regions don’t have severe winters.
3) These regions have the humidity level beyond 75% almost throughout the year.

Choose the correct reason/s from the codes below.


Prolonged dry season and severe winters do result in shedding of leaves by trees.
Tropical deciduous trees shed their leaves during dry season because of excess evaporation and temperate deciduous trees shed their leaves during severe winters.


In Tamil Nadu region, evergreen forests are found despite hot and dry summers with temperature of about 28 degree Celsius.
What is/are the reason/s?


Humidity is the main reason for trees not shedding their leaves during prolonged dry seasons.Red and Yellow soils are not good at retaining moisture unlike Black soil which is very good at retaining moisture.


Himalayan yew is a plant found in Himachal Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh, was in news
Consider the following statements regarding the plant.
1) It is a medicinal plant.
2) A chemical compound called ‘ taxol ‘ obtained from the plant is used as an effective anti-TB drug.

Choose the incorrect statements from code below.


A chemical compound called ‘ taxol ‘ obtained from the plant is used as an effective anti-cancer drug.


Enrich plantation is something in which a single commercially valuable species is extensively planted in a region and other local species are eliminated.

Consider the statements regarding Enrich plantation.
1) Teak monoculture has damaged the natural forest majorly in Northeast India which was earlier introduced by British.
2) Chir, Pine plantations in the Himalayas have replaced the Himalayan Oak and Rhododendron forests.

Choose the correct statements from the code below.


Teak monoculture majorly impacted South India.


Few forests in India are protected under the name of Sacred Grooves.
Consider the following statements regarding Sacred Grooves.
1) It is a nature worship which is an age old belief based on the premise that all the creations of the mother Nature have to be protected.
2) It is recognized under Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.

Choose the correct statement/s from the following code.


Prior to 2002 these forest regions were not recognized under any of the existing laws. But in 2002 an amendment was brought in Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 to include Sacred Grooves under the act.


Migration is an unavoidable worldwide phenomenon.

Which among the following is/are the not the push factors for rural to urban migration especially in India.


Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intention of settling temporarily or permanently in the new location. The movement is typically over long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration is also possible. Migration may be individuals, family units or in large groups.

There are 2 factors i.e. push and pull factor which might be real or perceptional.

Push factors are those that force the individual to move voluntarily, and in many cases, they are forced because the individual risk something if they stay.

Pull factors are those factors in the destination region that attract the individual or group to leave their home. Those factors are known as place utility, which is the desirability of a place that attracts people. Better economic opportunities, more jobs, and the promise of a better lifelike better health and education facilities often pull people into new locations.


Developing countries like India has an adverse sex ratio of less than 1000 while in developed countries it is more than 1000. [Sex ratio: It is the number of females in a country for every 1000 males]

What is/are the possible reason/s with reference to India?
1) Social disadvantages that female face like female foeticide, female infanticide, domestic violence etc.
2) Stopping at one child i.e. couples restrain themselves from going for second child provided the first child born is male.

Choose the correct code from the following.


Close to 10 per cent of Indian households are opting to have only one child as they seek toconcentrate their resources to maximize earning opportunities for their offspring in a scramblefor jobs. The trend is most pronounced among educated people in metropolitan areas, researchby the Delhi-based National Council of Applied Economic Research shows.


Which is/are the country/s in the world to use Gross National Happiness to measure the progress of the country?

Consider the countries.
1) India.
2) Bangladesh.
3) Sweden.
4) Bhutan.

Choose the country/s from the code below.


Bhutan is the only country in the world to officially proclaim the Gross National Happiness(GNH) as the measure of the country’s progress. Material progress and technological developments are approached more cautiously taking into consideration the possible harm they might bring to the environment or the other aspects of cultural and spiritual life of theBhutanese. This simply means material progress cannot come at the cost of happiness. GNHencourages us to think of the spiritual, non-material and qualitative aspects of development.

The four pillars of GNH philosophy are the promotion of

1. Sustainable development

2. Preservation and promotion of cultural values

3. Conservation of the natural environment, and

4. Establishment of good governance.


If you are travelling through Eastern Himalayas, which of the following you will encounter?
1. Golden Langur
2. Takin
3. Black Bear

Select the correct code


The correct option is Option D.
Endemic to northeast India and Bhutan, golden langurs are one of the world's most endangered primates. In Assam, most of their population is outside protected areas. Long-term survival of populations depends on genetic exchange. However, much of the golden langur population occurs in fragmented forests.
The takin, also called cattle chamois or gnu goat, is a large species of ungulate of the subfamily Caprinae found in the eastern Himalayas. 
The Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus laniger) is a subspecies of the Asian black bear found in the Himalayas of India, Bhutan, Nepal, China and Pakistan.


Consider the following statements
1. The leaves of these forest falls in autumn season
2. They are found in Temperate Zone
3. These forests in China and Europe are basically man made

What is the name of this forest?


A deciduous forest is one where the leaves fall from the trees in autumn. Deciduous means"falling out or off at a certain season". he average temperature is 50 degrees and the average rainfall is 30 to 60 inches per year. These forests are located in the temperate zone above the tropical forests and below the coniferous forests. These forests have their own specific plants,trees, animals, and shrubs. Deciduous forests are found in the eastern part of North Americaand the middle of Europe. Asia, southwest Russia, Japan, and eastern China also have these forests. All of the deciduous forests in America are second growth. This means all the original trees have been cut and the forests have grown from seeds and seedlings. Both China andEurope have cleared all of their first growth deciduous forests for agriculture. All of the deciduous forests in Europe and China are man-made.


Red Sanders has been in news recently because of illegal trade. Consider the following w.r.t it
1. It is endemic to North Eastern Ghats mountain range of South India
2. Its aromatic woods are of high demand in China and Middle East countries
3. It is an endangered species as listen by IUCN
4. It is used in Shipbuilding and manufacturing of the Ayurvedic medicines.

Which of the above are NOT correct?


Its wood is not aromatic. It is endemic to Southern Eastern Ghats Mountain range of South India


Recently a Destroyer Warship was inducted by Indian Navy named INS Vishakhapatnam Consider the statements w.r.t it
1. It is India’s first fully indigenous warship
2. Total Atmosphere Control System will enable the crew to operate the ship in regions of nuclear fallout but provides no defence for biological or chemical fallout.
3. It is based on stealth technology and can launch supersonic missiles also

Select the WRONG statement/s


It is indigenous but partly. It will provide defence from nuclear, chemical and biological fallouts.


Consider the following statements based on UN report on E-waste

1. The bulk of global e-waste constitutes from mobile phones, calculators, personal computers, printers, and small information technology equipment.
2. The lowest amount of e-waste per inhabitant was generated in South Asian countries

Select the correct code/s


While only 7 per cent of e-waste last year was made up of mobile phones, calculators, personal computers, printers, and small information technology equipment, almost 60 per cent was amix of large and small equipment used in homes and businesses, such as vacuum cleaners,toasters, electric shavers, video cameras, washing machines, electric stoves, mobile phones,calculators, personal computers, and lamps.

The lowest amount of e-waste per inhabitant was generated in Africa (1.7 kg/inhabitant). The continent generated 1.9 Mt of e-waste in total.

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