Test: Geography- 1


21 Questions MCQ Test Geography for UPSC CSE | Test: Geography- 1


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QUESTION: 1

With reference to 'break' in the monsoon, consider the following statements:

1.  It refers to the most deficient monsoon year in a decade.

2.  It occurs due to lack of rain-bearing storms along the ITCZ over northern India.

Which of the statements given above is/are not correct?

Solution:
  • Break in the Monsoon: During the south-west monsoon period after having rained for a few days, if rain fails to occur for one or more weeks, it is known as break in the monsoon. Hence statement 1 is not correct.
  • These dry spells are quite common during the rainy season. These breaks occurring in different regions are due to different reasons:
    • In northern India, rains are likely to fail if the rain-bearing storms are not very frequent along the monsoon trough or the ITCZ over this region. Hence statement 2 is correct.
    • Over the west coast, the dry spells are associated with days when winds blow parallel to the coast.
  • During break in the monsoon, the trough shifts closer to the foothills of Himalayas or sometimes not visible at all.
  • Middle of August is most prone to ‘breaks’ and that too longer breaks. Consequently, Northeast and parts of South India receive good showers while rest of the country remains mainly dry.
QUESTION: 2

Which of the following can reduce the incidence of landslides?

1.  Large scale afforestation

2.  Construction of Terraces and bunds

3.  Jhum cultivation

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Solution:
  • It is always advisable to adopt area-specific measures to deal with landslides. Restriction on the construction and other developmental activities such as roads and dams, limiting agriculture to valleys and areas with moderate slopes, and control on the development of large settlements in the high vulnerability zones, should be enforced.
  • This should be supplemented by some positive actions like promoting large-scale afforestation programmes and construction of bunds to reduce the flow of water. Terrace farming should be encouraged in the north-eastern hill states where Jhumming(Slash and Burn/Shifting Cultivation) is still prevalent.
  • Jhumming is often considered responsible for causing soil erosion, triggering landslide, flash floods and thereby degrading the primary land resource.
QUESTION: 3

Consider the following statements with respect to Kuroshio current.
1.    It begins off the coast of Japan and flows northwards.
2.    It transports warm, tropical water northwards towards the Polar region.
3.    It is a part of North Pacific Ocean gyre. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • An ocean gyre is a large system of circular ocean currents formed by global wind patterns and forces created by Earth’s rotation. The movement of the world’s major ocean gyres helps drive the ocean conveyor belt. The ocean conveyor belt circulates ocean water around the entire planet.
  • The Kuroshio Current is the warm western boundary current of the North Pacific’s subtropical gyre. Hence statement 3 is correct
  • The Kuroshio Current begins off the east coast of Philippines and Taiwan and flows northeastward past Japan, where it merges with the easterly drift of the North Pacific Current. Hence statement 1 is not correct.
  • It is analogous to the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic Ocean. Its warm waters are carried polewards as the North Pacific Drift keeping the ports of Alaskan coast ice-free in winter. Hence statement 2 is correct.
QUESTION: 4

Consider the following statements:
1. In India, the Chhota Nagpur Plateau is spread over two states only.
2. The Eastern Ghats are spread over three states only.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Chota Nagpur plateau represents the north eastern projection of the Indian Peninsula. It covers an area of over 87 thousand sq km. It covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar, and Chhattisgarh. Son river flows in the north-west of the plateau and joins the Ganga. The average elevation of the plateau is 700 meter above sea level. Hence Statement 1 is not correct.
  • The Eastern Ghats or PurvaGhat , also known as MahendraParvatam in the south, is a discontinuous range of mountains along India's eastern coast. Starting at West Bengal, Eastern Ghats pass through states like Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Telengana and Tamil Nadu to the south passing through some parts of Karnataka. They are eroded and cut through by the four major rivers of peninsular India, known as the Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri. Hence Statement 2 is not correct.
QUESTION: 5

Consider the following statements:
1. Increase in the salinity of soil is the result of high temperature.
2. Salinity decreases the porosity of soil and the water-holding capacity of the soil.
3. Estuaries have greater salinity than open oceans.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Statement 1 is correct: In dry climates, because of high temperature, evaporation exceeds precipitation and hence groundwater is brought up to the surface by capillary action and in the process, the water evaporates leaving behind salts in the soil. Such salts form into a crust on the soil known as hardpans. 
  • Statement 2 is correct: Salinization leads to intense water logging which means a decrease in the porosity of soil and hence the water-holding capacity. And in the long term, makes the soil impermeable, 
  • Statement 3 is not correct: An estuary is a body of water, partially enclosed by land, where saltwater from the ocean and freshwater from the land can mix. Estuaries can be found in coastal areas of the ocean worldwide.
QUESTION: 6

A geographic region has the following distinct characteristics:
1. No distinct winter season and uniform temperature range throughout the year.
2. Cloudiness and heavy precipitation with high levels of humidity throughout the year.
3. Mahogany and Ebony trees are important vegetation.
The above features are distinct characteristics of which of the following regions?

Solution:

Equatorial type of climate is associated with all the given features given below:

  • The most outstanding feature of the equatorial climate is its great uniformity of temperature throughout the year.
  • There is no winter.
  • Cloudiness and heavy precipitation help to moderate the daily temperature, so that even at the equator itself, the climate is not unbearable. In addition, regular land and sea breezes assist in maintaining a truly equable climate.
  • The diurnal range of temperature is small, and so is the annual range. High temperature and abundant rainfall in the equatorial regions support a luxuriant type of vegetation i.e. the Tropical Rain Forests.
  • The equatorial vegetation comprises a multitude of evergreen trees that yield tropical hardwood, e.g.mahogany, ebony, etc. It supports a luxuriant type of vegetation - the tropical rain forest. Amazon tropical rain forest is known as Selvas. Trees of single species are very scarce in such vegetation. There are smaller palm trees, climbing plants like the lianas or rattan which may be hundreds of feet long and epiphytic and parasitic plants that live on other plants. Under the trees grow a wide variety of ferns, orchids and lalang. The tallest trees attain a height of over 150 feet
QUESTION: 7

Consider the following statements regarding the Jhelum river valley:
1. Srinagar lies on the banks of Jhelum river.
2. Meandering is one of the main features of the Jhelum river.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Statement 1 is correct: The Jhelum river rises from a deep spring at Vernag, in western Jammu and Kashmir state. Srinagar, capital city of the state of Jammu and Kashmir is located on the banks of Jhelum river.
  • Statement 2 is correct: Jhelum in the valley of Kashmir is still in its youth stage and yet forms meanders- a typical feature associated with the mature stage in the evolution of fluvial landform. The river meanders northwestward from the northern slope of the PirPanjal Range through the Vale of Kashmir to Wular Lake at Srinagar, which controls its flow. It meanders due to local base level of sediments provided by a primeval lake which existed millions of years ago in Kashmir Valley.
QUESTION: 8

Consider the following statements:
1. Western Ghats are more continuous than Eastern Ghats.
2. Western Ghats are higher in elevation as compared to Eastern Ghats.
3. Sahyadris in Maharashtra are part of Western Ghats.
Which of the statements given above are correct?

Solution:
  • Statement 1 is correct: Eastern Ghats comprising the discontinuous and low hills are highly eroded by the rivers such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, the Kaveri, etc. Some of the important ranges include the Javadi hills, the Palconda range, the Nallamala hills, the Mahendragiri hills, etc. The Eastern and the Western Ghats meet each other at the Nilgiri hills.
  • Statement 2 is correct: Western Ghats are comparatively higher in elevation and more continuous than the Eastern Ghats. Their average elevation is about 1,500 m with the height increasing from north to south. 4Anaimudi’ (2,695 m), the highest peak of Peninsular plateau is located on the Anaimalai hills of the Western Ghats followed by Dodabetta (2,637 m) on the Nilgiri hills. Most of the Peninsular rivers have their origin in the Western Ghats.
  • Statement 3 is correct: Deccan Plateau is bordered by the Western Ghats in the west, Eastern Ghats in the east and the Satpura, Maikal range and Mahadeo hills in the north. Western Ghats are locally known by different names such as Sahyadri in Maharashtra, Nilgiri hills in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and Anaimalai hills and Cardamom hills in Kerala.
QUESTION: 9

Vagaries in the Indian monsoon can lead to which of the following?
1. Soil erosion
2. Floods
3. Damage to winter crops.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Solution:
  • Monsoon is that axis around which revolves the entire agricultural cycle of India. It plays a pivotal role in the agrarian economy of India because over three-fourths of the total rain in the country is received during the southwest monsoon season. Its spatial distribution is also uneven which ranges from 12 cm to more than 250 cm.
  • Variability of rainfall brings droughts or floods every year in some parts of the country. Hence option 2 is correct.
  • Sudden monsoon burst creates problem of soil erosion over large areas in India. The summer rainfall comes in a heavy downpour leading to considerable run off and soil erosion. Hence option 1 is correct.
  • It is because about 64 per cent people of India depend on agriculture for their livelihood and agriculture itself is based on southwest monsoon. Regional variations in monsoon climate help in growing various types of crops.
  • Agricultural prosperity of India depends very much on timely and adequately distributed rainfall. If it fails, agriculture is adversely affected particularly in those regions where means of irrigation are not developed.
  • The beginning of the rains sometimes is considerably delayed over the whole or a part of the country. The rains sometimes end considerably earlier than usual, causing great damage to standing crops and making the sowing of winter crops difficult. Hence option 3 is correct.
QUESTION: 10

Consider the following statements with reference to the incoming solar radiation:
1. The insolation received by the earth is more at the aphelion than at the perihelion.
2. The equator receives comparatively less insolation than the tropics.
3. At the same latitude, the insolation received is more over the oceans than over the continents.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Statement 1 is not correct: The solar output received at the top of the atmosphere varies slightly in a year due to the variations in the distance between the earth and the sun. During its revolution around the sun, the earth is farthest from the sun (152 million km) on 4th July. This position of the earth is called aphelion. On 3rd January, the earth is the nearest to the sun (147 million km). This position is called the perihelion. Therefore, the annual insolation received by the earth on 3rd January is slightly more than the amount received on 4th July. 
  • However, the effect of this variation in the solar output is masked by other factors like the distribution of land and sea and the atmospheric circulation.
  • Statement 2 is correct: The insolation received at the surface varies from about 320 Watt/m2 in the tropics to about 70 Watt/m2 in the poles. Maximum insolation is received over the subtropical deserts, where the cloudiness is the least. The Equator receives comparatively less insolation than the tropics
  • Statement 3 is not correct: Generally, at the same latitude, the insolation is more over the continent than over the oceans. In winter, the middle and higher latitudes receive less radiation than in summer.
QUESTION: 11

The terms Roaring Forties, Furious Fiftiesand Shrieking Sixtiesare used in relation to

Solution:
  • From the Sub-Tropical High-Pressure Belts, winds blow towards the Temperate Low-Pressure Belts as the variable Westerlies. Under the effect of the Coriolis Force, they become the South-Westerlies in the northern hemisphere and the North-Westerlies in the southern hemisphere.
  • They are more variable in the northern hemisphere, but they play a valuable role in carrying warm equatorial waters and winds to western coasts of temperate lands. This warming effect and other local pressure differences have resulted in a very variable climate in the temperate zones, dominated by the movements of cyclones and anticyclones.
  • In the southern hemisphere where there is a large expanse of ocean, 40 degrees S to 60 degree S, Westerlies blow with much greater force and regularity throughout the year. They bring much precipitation to the western coasts of continents. The weather is damp and stormy. It is thus usual for seafarers to refer to the Westerlies as the Roaring Forties, Furious Fifties and Shrieking Sixties, according to the varying degree of storminess in the latitudes which they blow.
QUESTION: 12

Local storms of a hot weather season in India assist in the growth of which of the following crops?
1. Mangoes
2. Coffee
3. Tea
4. Jute
5. Mustard
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Solution:

Some Famous Local Storms of Hot Weather Season in India are:

  • Mango Shower: Towards the end of summer, there are pre-monsoon showers which are a common phenomena in Kerala and coastal areas of Karnataka. Locally, they are known as mango showers since they help in the early ripening of mangoes.
  • Blossom Shower: With this shower, coffee flowers blossom in Kerala and nearby areas.
  • Nor Westers: These are dreaded evening thunderstorms in Bengal and Assam. Their notorious nature can be understood from the local nomenclature of ‘Kalbaisakhi’, a calamity of the month of Baisakh. These showers are useful for tea, jute and rice cultivation. In Assam, these storms are known as “BardoliChheerha”.
  • Loo: Hot, dry and oppressing winds blowing in the Northern plains from Punjab to Bihar with higher intensity between Delhi and Patna.
  • Mustard is a Rabi crop, therefore storms of Hot Weather Season do not assist in its growth.
  • Hence option (c) is the correct answer.
QUESTION: 13

With reference to alluvial soils in India, consider the following statements:
1. Alluvial soils are depositional soils.
2. These soils constitute more than half of the total area of the country.
3. They typically swell and become sticky when wet and shrink when dried.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Alluvial soils are widespread in the northern plains and the river valleys. These soils cover about 40 per cent of the total area of the country. Hence statement 2 is not correct.
  • They are depositional soils, transported and deposited by rivers and streams. Through a narrow corridor in Rajasthan, they extend into the plains of Gujarat. In the Peninsular region, they are found in deltas of the east coast and in the river valleys. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • The alluvial soils vary in nature from sandy loam to clay. They are generally rich in potash but poor in phosphorous.
  • The colour of the alluvial soils varies from the light grey to ash grey. Its shades depend on the depth of the deposition, the texture of the materials, and the time taken for attaining maturity. Alluvial soils are intensively cultivated.
  • Black soil, not alluvial soil, swell and become sticky when wet and shrink when dried. Hence statement 3 is not correct.
QUESTION: 14

Which of the following landforms are formed by river streams during their youth stage?
1. V-Shaped valleys
2. Waterfalls
3. Rapids
4. Oxbow lakes
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Solution:

A river stream forms a series of landforms on its course. The formation of landforms by a river stream can be divided into three phases

  • Youth
    • Streams are few during this stage with poor integration and flow over original slopes showing shallow V-shaped valleys with no floodplains or with very narrow floodplains along trunk streams. Streams divides are broad and flat with marshes, swamp and lakes. Meanders if present develop over these broad upland surfaces. These meanders may eventually entrench themselves into the uplands. Waterfalls and rapids may exist where local hard rock bodies are exposed
  • Mature
    • During this stage streams are plenty with good integration. The valleys are still V-shaped but deep; trunk streams are broad enough to have wider floodplains within which streams may flow in meanders confined within the valley. The flat and broad inter stream areas and swamps and marshes of youth disappear and the stream divides turn sharp. Waterfalls and rapids disappear.
  • Old
    • Smaller tributaries during old age are few with gentle gradients. Streams meander freely over vast floodplains showing natural levees, oxbow lakes, etc. Divides are broad and flat with lakes, swamps and marshes. Most of the landscape is at or slightly above sea level.

Hence, option (a) is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 15

This National Park is located along the Western Ghats in the Idukki district of Kerala in India. It is designated as UNESCO World Heritage Site. Anaimudi, the highest peak in south India is inside this park.The above passage describes which of the following national parks?

Solution:
  • Eravikulam National Park is located along the Western Ghats in the Idukki district of Kerala in India. It is the first national park in Kerala. Eravikulam National Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • The main body of the park consists of a high rolling hill plateau with a base elevation of about 2,000 m. The terrain consists of high altitude grasslands interspersed with sholas. Anamudi, (2,695 meters), the highest peak in India south of the Himalayas is inside this park. Many perennial streams criss-cross the park. They merge to form tributaries of the Periyar river in the west and of the Cauvery River in the east.
QUESTION: 16

In the context of an earthquake, consider the following statements regarding P-Waves and S Waves:
1. While P-Waves create troughs and crests in the material through which they pass, S-waves lead to stretching and squeezing of the material.
2. While P-Waves can travel through gases, liquids and solids, S-Waves can only travel through solids and liquids.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Earthquake waves are basically of two types - body waves and surface waves. Body waves are generated due to the release of energy at the focus and move in all directions travelling through the body of the earth. There are two types of body waves. They are called P and S-waves.
  • P-waves move faster and are the first to arrive at the surface. These are also called ‘primary waves’. The P-waves are similar to sound waves. They travel through gaseous, liquid and solid materials. S-waves arrive at the surface with some time lag. These are called secondary waves. An important fact about S- waves is that they can travel only through solid materials. Hence statement 2 is not correct.
  • Different types of earthquake waves travel in different manners. As they move or propagate, they cause vibration in the body of the rocks through which they pass. P-waves vibrate parallel to the direction of the wave. This exerts pressure on the material in the direction of the propagation. As a result, it creates density differences in the material leading to stretching and squeezing of the material. The direction of vibrations of S-waves is perpendicular to the wave direction in the vertical plane. Hence, they create troughs and crests in the material through which they pass. Hence statement 1 is not correct.
QUESTION: 17

Which of the following statements is/arecorrect with reference to the anti-cyclones?
1. They have high pressure at the centre.
2. They are characterized by clear skies and calm air.
3. Winds in anti-cyclones blow anticlockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Solution:
  • Statement 1 is correct: Anticyclones are the opposite of cyclones, with high pressure in the centre and the isobars far apart. The pressure gradient is gentle and winds are light.
  • Statement 2 is correct: Anti-cyclones normally herald fine weather. Skies are clear. The air is calm and temperatures are high in summer but cold in winter. In winter intense cooling of the lower atmosphere may result in thick fogs. Anti-cyclonic conditions may last for days or weeks and then fade out quietly.
  • Statement 3 is not correct: Winds in anticyclone’ blow outwards and are also subject to deflection, but they blow clockwise in the northern hemisphere and anticlockwise in the southern hemisphere.
QUESTION: 18

Which of the following atmospheric parameters increase as we move up in the mountains?
1. Temperature
2. Density of air
3. Pressure
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Solution:
  • Altitude is one of the factors related to location and relief which determines the climate of a region. Altitude affects various atmospheric parameters in the following manner:
  • Temperature decreases with height. The temperature in the troposphere usually decreases with height at the average lapse rate of 6.5 °C per kilometer.
  • The density of air decreases with height. There are two reasons:
    • at higher altitudes, there is less air pushing down from above, and
    • gravity is weaker farther from Earth's center. So at higher altitudes, air molecules can spread out more, and air density decreases
  • Due to thin air i.e lower density, places in the mountains are cooler than places on the plains. For example, Agra and Darjiling are located on the same latitude, but the temperature of January in Agra is 16°C whereas it is only 4°C in Darjiling.
  • Pressure decreases with increasing altitude. The pressure at any level in the atmosphere may be interpreted as the total weight of the air above a unit area at any elevation. At higher elevations, there are fewer air molecules above a given surface than a similar surface at lower levels.
QUESTION: 19

Consider the following statements:
1. Humus accumulation in soil is more in cold climates than in warm climates.
2. The bacterial growth is rapid in cold climates and slow in warm climates, affecting the content of organic matter in the soil.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Soil is a result of decay and medium for growth. It is a changing and a developing body. It may be alternatively cold and warm or dry and moist. There are five basic factors control the formation of soils: (i) parent material; (ii) topography; (iii) climate; (iv) biological activity; (v) time. o    Biological activity is slowed or stopped if the soil becomes too cold or too dry.
  • Intensity of bacterial activity shows up differences between soils of cold and warm climates.
  • Humus accumulates in cold climates as bacterial growth is slow. With undecomposed organic matter because of low bacterial activity, layers of peat develop in sub-arctic and tundra climates. Hence statement 1 is correct.
  • In humid tropical and equatorial climates, bacterial growth and action is intense and dead vegetation is rapidly oxidised leaving very low humus content in the soil. Hence statement 2 is not correct. Further, bacteria and other soil organisms take gaseous nitrogen from the air and convert it into a chemical form that can be used by plants. This process is known as nitrogen fixation. o The vegetative cover and organisms that occupy the parent materials from the beginning and also at later stages help in adding organic matter, moisture retention, nitrogen etc. Dead plants provide humus, the finely divided organic matter of the soil. Some organic acids which form during humification aid in decomposing the minerals of the soil parent materials.
QUESTION: 20

Consider the following passes in the North Eastern region of India:
1. Jelap La
2. Bomdi La
3. Bum La
What is the correct sequence of the above mentioned passes from West to East?

Solution:
  • Jelap La is  onTibet-Bhutan border.
  • Bomdi La is in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Bum La is in india-Bhutan border.

o Hence option (c) is correct

QUESTION: 21

Vagaries in the Indian monsoon can lead to which of the following?
1. Soil erosion
2. Floods
3. Damage to winter crops.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Solution:
  • Monsoon is that axis around which revolves the entire agricultural cycle of India. It plays a pivotal role in the agrarian economy of India because over three-fourths of the total rain in the country is received during the southwest monsoon season. Its spatial distribution is also uneven which ranges from 12 cm to more than 250 cm.
  • Variability of rainfall brings droughts or floods every year in some parts of the country. Hence option 2 is correct.
  • Sudden monsoon burst creates problem of soil erosion over large areas in India. The summer rainfall comes in a heavy downpour leading to considerable run off and soil erosion. Hence option 1 is correct.
  • It is because about 64 per cent people of India depend on agriculture for their livelihood and agriculture itself is based on southwest monsoon. Regional variations in monsoon climate help in growing various types of crops.
  • Agricultural prosperity of India depends very much on timely and adequately distributed rainfall. If it fails, agriculture is adversely affected particularly in those regions where means of irrigation are not developed.
  • The beginning of the rains sometimes is considerably delayed over the whole or a part of the country. The rains sometimes end considerably earlier than usual, causing great damage to standing crops and making the sowing of winter crops difficult. Hence option 3 is correct.

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