This type of a joint is used when it is required to join the plain ends of cast iron pipes. The joints are strong and rigid. They can withstand vibrations and are, therefore, useful for pipes to be carried over bridges or below bridges in hangers.
Lower the shrinkage limit greater is the volume change. For coarse grained soil with fines < 5% classification will be GP, GW, SP, and SW, for fines > 12% classification will be based on plasticity chart as GM, GC, SM and SC. For fines 5 -12% dual classification like GP - GM; GP - GC etc., will be used. At liquid limit the soils possess a certain shear strength which is the smallest value that can be measured in a standard procedure. From direct shear tests on different types of clays it is found that liquid limit corresponds to a shearing strength of about 2.7 kN/m2.
If shrinkage limit Is less the volume change with change in water content will be more.
Slenderness ratio, Lesser the value of λ (greater radius of gyration r), the column can take more load. Maximum radius of gyration is obtained when material is farthest from centroid. Therefore box section is best.
When a droplet is separated initially from the surface of the main body of liquid, then due to surface tension, there is net inward force exerted over the entire surface of the droplet which causes the surface of the droplet to contract from all sides and results in increasing the internal pressure within the droplet the contraction of the droplet continues till the inward force due to the surface tension is in balance with the internal pressure and the droplet forms into sphere which is the shape for minimum surface area..
The difference in bed level of the canal and drainage is 4 m while the flow depth in drainage is 10 m. Thus HFL of drain at 126 m is higher than the canal bed at 120 m. Therefore syphon aqueduct is most suitable.
Low-heat Portland cement is less reactive than OPC and is obtained by increasing the proportion of C2S and reducing that of C3S and C3A. The initial settling time is about one hour i.e., greater than that of OPC and final salting time is about 10 hours.
Admixtures are the chemical compounds in concrete other than hydraulic cement (OPC), water, aggregates and mineral additives that are added to the concrete mix immediately before or during mixing, to modify one or more of the specific properties of concrete in the fresh or hardened state. In normal used, admixture dosages are less than five percent by mass of cement. Some of the important admixtures and purposes for which they could be used are: Accelerators: They-speed up the initial set of concrete, i.e., rate of development of strength at early ages. Typical materials used are CaCl2 and Retarders: The slow down the initial set of concrete, i.e., keep the concrete workable for a longer time for placement. These are generally used in large or difficult placement conditions where partial setting before the placement is complete is undesirable.
Flow of liquid through a long pipe of constant diameter at a constant rate is steady uniform flow; flow of liquid through a long pipe line of constant diameter, at either increasing or decreasing rate is unsteady-uniform flow; flow of liquid through a tapering pipe at a constant rate is steady-nonuniform flow and flow through a tapering pipe at either increasing or decreasing rate is unsteady- non-uniform flow.