# All India Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Group

## Three address code’ technique for intermediate code generation shows that each statement usually contains three addresses. Three addresses are as follows:a)Two addresses for operands, one for operatorb)One for all operator, one for all operands and one for resultc)One for result, two for operandsd)None of the aboveCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

 Abhijeet Unni answered  •  2 hours ago
Explanation:

- Three address code is a type of intermediate code representation in which each statement has three addresses.
- These three addresses represent two operands and one operator.

Option A - Two addresses for operands, one for operator:
- This option correctly describes the structure of three address code.
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## Consider an undirected random graph of eight vertices. The probability that there is an edge between a pair of vertices is 1/2. What is the expected number of unordered cycles of length three?a)1/8b)1c)7d)8Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

 Palak Khanna answered  •  11 hours ago
Expected Number of Unordered Cycles of Length Three in a Random Graph

Understanding the Problem:
In an undirected random graph of eight vertices where the probability of an edge between any pair of vertices is 1/2, we need to find the expected number of unordered cycles of length three.

Solution Approach:
To find the expected number of unordered
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## For S->0S1|e for ∑={0,1}*, which of the following is wrong for the language produced?a)Non regular languageb)0n1n | n>=0c)0n1n | n>=1d)None of the mentionedCorrect answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

 Palak Khanna answered  •  11 hours ago
Non-Regular Language
- The language produced by the given grammar S->0S1|e is non-regular because it generates strings of the form 0^n1^n which cannot be recognized by a regular grammar.
- Regular languages can be recognized by finite automata, but the language 0^n1^n requires counting the number of 0s and 1s, which cannot be done by a finite automata.
- Therefore, it is clea
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## What will be the content of zero flag in status word if accumulator contains a zero?Correct answer is '1'. Can you explain this answer?

 Avantika Menon answered  •  17 hours ago
Explanation of Zero Flag in Status Word
The zero flag in the status word is a single bit that indicates whether the result of an operation in the accumulator is zero or not. When the accumulator contains a zero, the content of the zero flag will be set to 1. This is because the zero flag is used to signal when the result of an operation is zero.

Importance of Zero Flag... more

## Given the basic ER and relational models, which of the following is INCORRECT?a)An attribute of an entity can have more than one valueb)An attribute of an entity can be compositec)In a row of a relational table, an attribute can have more than one valued)In a row of a relational table, an attribute can have exactly one value or a NULL valueCorrect answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

 Soumya Dey answered  •  20 hours ago
Explanation:

Row of a Relational Table
- In a row of a relational table, each attribute corresponds to a single value which is either a specific value or a NULL value.
- This is a fundamental principle of the relational model where each attribute in a row represents a single value for that particular entity instance.

Multiple Values in a Row
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## If we select a string w such that w∈L, and w=xyz. Which of the following portions cannot be an empty string?a)xb)yc)zd)all of the mentionedCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Explanation:

Given Information:
- Let w be a string in language L, where w = xyz.

Portions of the String:
- x, y, z are portions of the string w.
- We need to determine which portion cannot be an empty string.

Analysis:
- If we consider the string w = xyz, any portion x, y, or z can be an empty string except for y.... more

## Which of the following strings do not belong to the given regular expression (a)*(a+cba).a)*(a+cba)b)aaac)acbacbacbad)acbacbaCorrect answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Analysis of the Regular Expression and Strings:
The given regular expression is (a)*(a+cba).a)*(a+cba), which matches any string that starts and ends with (a+cba) and can have any number of 'a's in between.

Explanation of the Strings:
- Option 'A': aa belongs to the regular expression as it starts and ends with (a+cba) and has 'a's in between.
- Option 'B':
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## If two sets, R and T has no elements in common i.e. RÇT=Æ, then the sets are calleda)Complementb)Unionc)Disjointd)ConnectedCorrect answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Disjoint Sets Explanation:
Disjoint sets are sets that have no elements in common, which means the intersection of the two sets is an empty set. In other words, if two sets R and T are disjoint, then R ∩ T = Ø.

Characteristics of Disjoint Sets:
- Disjoint sets do not share any elements.
- The intersection of disjoint sets is always an empty set.
- Disjo
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## Which among the following is not a part of the Context free grammar tuple?a)End symbolb)Start symbolc)Variabled)ProductionCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Explanation:

Context-Free Grammar Tuple:
A context-free grammar (CFG) is defined by a 4-tuple consisting of the following components:
- Set of Variables
- Set of Terminals
- Start Symbol
- Set of Productions

End Symbol:
The "End Symbol" is not a part of the context-free grammar tuple. The concept of an end symbol is not typic
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## tate true or false:Statement: Every context free grammar can be transformed into an equvalent non deterministic push down automata.a)trueb)falseCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Explanation:

Context-Free Grammar (CFG) and Non-Deterministic Pushdown Automata (PDA)
- A Context-Free Grammar (CFG) is a formal grammar that describes the syntax of a context-free language. It consists of a set of production rules that define the language's syntax.
- A Non-Deterministic Pushdown Automaton (PDA) is a theoretical model of computation that can reco
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## The moves in the PDA is technically termed as:a)Turnstileb)Shifterc)Routerd)None of the mentionedCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Turnstile:
A turnstile is a term used to describe the moves in a Pushdown Automaton (PDA). In a PDA, a turnstile represents a transition from one state to another based on the input symbol and the symbol at the top of the stack.

Explanation:
- In a PDA, the turnstile move involves reading an input symbol, popping a symbol from the top of the stack, and pushing a
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## Which of the following is a simulator for non deterministic automata?a)JFLAPb)Geditc)FAUTOd)None of the mentionedCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Explanation:

JFLAP:
JFLAP is a software tool that serves as a simulator for non-deterministic automata. It allows users to design and simulate various types of automata, including finite automata, pushdown automata, and Turing machines. JFLAP is particularly useful for educational purposes, as it provides a hands-on way for students to explore the concepts of automata
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## A CFG for a program describing strings of letters with the word “main” somewhere in the string:a)-> m a i n -> | epsilon-> A | B | … | Z | a | b … | zb)> m a i n –> –> A | B | … | Z | a | b … | zc)–> m a i n –> | epsilon–> A | B | … | Z | a | b … | zd)None of the mentionedCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Explanation:
There are multiple ways to design a CFG for generating strings with the word "main" somewhere in the string. Let's analyze each option and understand why option A is the correct choice.

a) -> m a i n -> | epsilon -> A | B | ... | Z | a | b ... | z
This CFG states that a valid string can start with the letter "m", followed by "a", "i", and "n" in that
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## Context free grammar is called Type 2 grammar because of ______________ hierarchy.a)Greibachb)Backusc)Chomskyd)None of the mentionedCorrect answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Chomsky Hierarchy and Type 2 Grammar
Chomsky hierarchy is a classification of formal grammars based on their generative power. It is named after Noam Chomsky, who introduced the concept in the 1950s. Chomsky hierarchy consists of four types of grammars, with Type 2 grammar being context-free grammar.

Type 2 Grammar
Context-free grammar is classified as Type 2 gra
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## The following denotion belongs to which type of language:G=(V, T, P, S)a)Regular grammarb)Context free grammarc)Context Sensitive grammard)All of the mentionedCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Context Free Grammar Explanation:
Context free grammar (CFG) is a type of formal grammar consisting of a set of production rules that describe all possible strings in a given formal language.

Breaking down the components of the denotion:
- V: Represents a set of variables or non-terminal symbols in the grammar.
- T: Represents a set of terminals or terminal
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## In an instruction execution pipeline, the earliest that the instruction TLB and data TLB can be accessed are a)Memory stage and execute stage respectivelyb)Fetch stage and fetch stage respectivelyc)Memory stage and memory stage repectivelyd)Fetch stage and memory stage respectivelyCorrect answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Explanation:

Instruction Execution Pipeline:
- In an instruction execution pipeline, tasks are divided into stages to improve performance by allowing multiple instructions to be processed simultaneously.

TLB Access in Pipeline:
- TLB (Translation Lookaside Buffer) is a cache that stores mappings between virtual addresses and physical addresses i
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## In the context of an instruction set, orthogonality indicates that other elements of an instruction are ______ of/by the opcode.a)independentb)dependentc)determinedd)executedCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Orthogonality in an Instruction Set
Orthogonality in an instruction set refers to the property that the various elements of an instruction are independent of the opcode.

Explanation
- In an orthogonal instruction set, each operation or instruction can be combined with any addressing mode or register without any restrictions.
- This means that the opcode of a
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## One instruction tries to write an operand before it is written by previous instruction. This may lead to a dependency calleda)True dependencyb)Anti-dependencyc)Output Dependencyd)Control hazardCorrect answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Output Dependency:
An output dependency occurs when one instruction tries to write an operand before it is written by a previous instruction. This situation can lead to conflicts and errors in the program execution.

Explanation:
- When an instruction tries to write an operand before it is written by a previous instruction, it creates a dependency known as an out
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## The locality of reference concept will fail in which of the following cases?Where there area)Many conditional jumpsb)Many unconditional jumpsc)Many operands d)None of the aboveCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Locality of Reference and Unconditional Jumps
Locality of reference is a fundamental concept in computer science that states that programs tend to access the same set of memory locations repeatedly within a short period of time. This concept helps in optimizing memory access and improving overall system performance. However, there are certain cases where the locality of reference conce
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## In NFA, this very state is like dead-end non final state:a)ACCEPTb)REJECTc)DISTINCTd)STARTCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

REJECT State in NFA
In NFA, the state that is equivalent to a dead-end non-final state is known as the REJECT state. This state signifies that if the automaton reaches this state during the input processing, it must reject the input string.

Characteristics of the REJECT State
- The REJECT state is a non-final state, meaning it does not signify the acceptance of
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## Which of the following recognizes the same formal language as of DFA and NFA?a)Power set Constructionb)Subset Constructionc)Robin-Scott Constructiond)All of the mentionedCorrect answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Power set Construction
- Power set construction is a method used to convert a nondeterministic finite automaton (NFA) into a deterministic finite automaton (DFA).
- It involves constructing a DFA whose states represent subsets of states of the original NFA.
- The DFA constructed using power set construction recognizes the same language as the original NFA.

Subse
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- Subset construction is another method used to convert an NFA into a DFA.
- In this method, each state of the DFA corresponds to a set of states of the NFA.
- The DFA constructed using subset construction recognizes the same language as the original NFA.

Robin-Scott Construction
- Robin-Scott construction is a method used for minimizing DFAs, not for converting NFAs into DFAs.
- It is not directly related to recognizing the same formal language as DFAs and NFAs.

Conclusion
- Both power set construction and subset construction are techniques used to convert NFAs into DFAs while preserving the recognized language.
- Therefore, both power set construction and subset construction recognize the same formal language as DFAs and NFAs.
- Hence, the correct answer is option 'D': All of the mentioned.

## he e-NFA recognizable languages are not closed under :a)Unionb)Negationc)Kleene Closured)None of the mentionedCorrect answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Explanation:

Union Operation:
- The union of two e-NFAs can be constructed by creating a new start state connected to the original start states of the two e-NFAs.
- The transition function of the new e-NFA is the union of the transition functions of the two e-NFAs.
- The final states of the new e-NFA are the union of the final states of the two e-NFAs.
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## Let the set of functional dependencies F = {QR → S, R → P, S → Q} hold on a relation schema X=(PQRS). X is not in BCNF. Suppose X is decomposed into two schemas Y and Z, where Y=(PR) and Z = (QRS).Consider the two statements given below.I. Both Y and Z are in BCNFII. Decomposition of X into Y and Z is dependency preserving and losslessWhich of the above statements is/are correct?a)II onlyb)Both I and IIc)Neither I nor IId)I onlyCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Decomposition of X into Y and Z:
- The original relation schema X=(PQRS) is not in BCNF due to the functional dependency QR → S.
- After decomposition into Y=(PR) and Z=(QRS), the problematic dependency QR → S is no longer present in either Y or Z.

Statement I: Both Y and Z are in BCNF
- Y=(PR) is in BCNF because P → R holds and there are no non-trivial depe
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## Which among the following cannot be accepted by a regular grammar?a)L is a set of numbers divisible by 2b)L is a set of binary complementc)L is a set of string with odd number of 0d)L is a set of 0n1nCorrect answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Regular Grammar and 0^n1^n
Regular grammars are a type of formal grammar used in formal language theory. They consist of a set of production rules that describe all possible strings in a given formal language. Regular grammars can generate regular languages, which are a type of formal language that can be recognized by a finite automaton.

0^n1^n
The language L =
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## Output of following program?#include <stdio.h>int main(){    int i = 5;    printf("%d %d %d", i++, i++, i++);    return 0;}a)7  6  5b)5  6  7c)7  7  7d)Compiler DependentCorrect answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

- **Explanation:**
- **Order of evaluation:**
- In C language, the order of evaluation of function arguments is not defined. Different compilers may evaluate them in different orders.
- **Evaluation in this case:**
- In this specific case, the behavior is compiler dependent because the order of evaluation of function arguments is not defined.
- **Possible outputs:**
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## A drain pipe can drain a tank in 12 hours, and a fill pipe can fill the same tank in 6 hours. A total of n pipes – which include a few fill pipes and the remaining drain pipes – can fill the entire tank in 2 hours. How many of the following values could ‘n’ take?(a) 24(b) 16(c) 33(d) 13(e) 9(f) 8a)3b)4c)2d)1Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

 Maitri Dey answered  •  2 days ago
Solution:

Given:
- Drain pipe can drain the tank in 12 hours
- Fill pipe can fill the tank in 6 hours
- Total of n pipes can fill the tank in 2 hours

Approach:
- Let's assume there are x fill pipes and y drain pipes
- The fill pipes can fill the tank in 6 hours, so the rate of x fill pipes is 1/6
- The drain pipes can drain t
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## In Flynn’s classification of computers, the vector and array classes of machines belong toa)Single instruction/single data categoryb)Single instruction/multiple data categoryc)Multiple instruction/single data categoryd)Multiple instruction/multiple data categoryCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

 Maitri Dey answered  •  2 days ago
Explanation:

Vector and Array Machines
- Vector and array machines belong to the Single Instruction/Multiple Data (SIMD) category in Flynn's classification of computers.
- These machines are designed to perform the same operation on multiple data elements simultaneously.
- In vector machines, a single instruction operates on a vector of data elements in para
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## Structured design methodology is an approach to a design that adheres to rules based on principles such as:a)Data flow analysis b)Top-down refinementc)Bottom-up designd)Structured analysisCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

 Maitri Dey answered  •  2 days ago
Structured Design Methodology
Structured design methodology is an approach to design that follows specific principles to ensure a well-organized and efficient design process. One of the key principles of structured design methodology includes:

Data Flow Analysis
Data flow analysis involves studying the flow of data within a system. By analyzing how data is input,
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## If one uses straight two-way merge sort algorithm to sort the following elements in ascending order:20,47, 15,8,9,4,40,30, 12, 17 Then the order of these elements after second pass of the algorithm isa)8, 9, 15, 20, 47, 4, 12, 17, 30, 40b)8, 15, 20, 47, 4, 9, 30, 40, 12, 17c)15, 20, 47, 4, 8, 9, 12, 30, 40, 17d)4, 8, 9, 15, 20, 47, 12,17, 30, 40Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

 Maitri Dey answered  •  2 days ago
Explanation:

Initial Elements:
- 20, 47, 15, 8, 9, 4, 40, 30, 12, 17

First Pass of Merge Sort:
- Dividing the elements into pairs and sorting each pair
- 20, 47, 15, 8, 9, 4, 40, 30, 12, 17
- After first pass: 20, 47, 8, 15, 4, 9, 30, 40, 12, 17

Second Pass of Merge Sort:
- Merging pairs of sorted elements
-
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## A CPU has a cache with block size 64 bytes. The main memory has k blocks, each block being c bytes wide. Consecutive c-byte chunks are mapped on consecutive blocks with warp-around. All the k blocks can be accessed in parallel, but two accesses to the same block must be serialized. A cache block access may involve multiple iterations of parallel block accesses depending on the amount of data obtained by accessing all the k-blocks in parallel. Each iteration requires decoding the block numbers to be accessed in parallel and this takes k/2 ns.The latency of one block access is 80 ns. If c = 2 and k = 24, then latency of retrieving a cache block starting at address zero from main memory isa)92 nsb)104 nsc)172 nsd)184 nsCorrect answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

 Maitri Dey answered  •  2 days ago
Given Information:
- Cache block size: 64 bytes
- Main memory block size: c bytes
- Number of main memory blocks: k = 24
- Latency of one block access: 80 ns
- Time to decode block numbers: k/2 ns
- Consecutive c-byte chunks mapped to consecutive blocks with wrap-around

Calculating Total Latency:
- Time to access all k blocks in parallel:
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## The disadvantage of hard-wired control units with flip-flops is ______.a)Design becomes complexb)It require more number of flip-flopsc)Control circuit speed does not matches with flip-flopsd)None of theseCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

 Maitri Dey answered  •  2 days ago
Disadvantage of hard-wired control units with flip-flops:

More number of flip-flops required:
When using hard-wired control units with flip-flops, it often requires a large number of flip-flops to implement the control logic. This can lead to increased complexity and costs in the design process. As the number of flip-flops increases, the overall circuit si
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## Consider the following situation and fill in the blanks:The computer starts the tape moving by issuing a command: the processor then monitors the status of the tape by means of a _____. When the tape is in the correct position, the processor issues a _______.a)Data input, status, data output commandb)Data input, status control commandc)Control, status, data output commandd)Control, status, data input commandCorrect answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

 Maitri Dey answered  •  2 days ago
Control and Monitoring of Tape Movement:
The processor in a computer system controls the movement of a tape by issuing commands and monitoring its status using a specific mechanism. Here is how it works:

Status Monitoring:
- The processor monitors the status of the tape using a sensor or mechanism that can detect the position and movement of the tape.
- This
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## Determine the width of Micro-instruction having following Control signal field, in a Vertical Microprogrammed Control Unit1. Next Address field of 7 Bits2. ALU Function field selecting 1 out of 13 ALU Function.3. Register-in field selecting 1 out of 13 ALU Function.4. Register-out field selecting 1 out of 8 registers.5. Shifter field selecting no shift, right shift or left shift.6. Auxiliary control field of 4 bits.a)22b)23c)24d)25Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

 Maitri Dey answered  •  2 days ago
Calculation of Micro-instruction Width

Given Control Signal Fields:
- Next Address field: 7 bits
- ALU Function field: 13 options
- Register-in field: 13 options
- Register-out field: 8 options
- Shifter field: 3 options
- Auxiliary control field: 4 bits

Calculation:
- Next Address field: 7 bits
- ALU Function field
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## To prevent signals, from colliding on the bus, _______ prioritize access to memory by I/O channels and processors.a)A registerb)Interrupts 'c)The processor schedulerd)A controllerCorrect answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

 Maitri Dey answered  •  2 days ago
One way to prevent signals from colliding on the bus is by having a controller prioritize access to memory by I/O channels and processors. This helps in managing the flow of data and instructions efficiently within the system.

Explanation:

Controller Function:
- A controller is responsible for coordinati
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## Which constructor of Datagram Socket class is used to create a datagram socket and binds it with the given Port Number?a)Datagram Socket(int port)b)Datagram Socket(int port, Int Address address)c)Datagram Socket()d)None of the aboveCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

 Maitri Dey answered  •  2 days ago
Explanation:

Constructor Used:
- The constructor used to create a datagram socket and bind it with the given Port Number is DatagramSocket(int port, InetAddress address).

Explanation:
- The DatagramSocket class in Java represents a socket for sending and receiving datagram packets.
- In order to create a datagram socket and bind it with a s
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## Consider a 4-way set associative cache consisting of 128 lines with a line size of 64 words. The CPU generates a 20-bitaddress of a word in main memory. The number of bits in the TAG, LINE and WORD fields are respectively:a)9, 6, 5b)7, 7, 6c)7, 5, 8d)9, 5, 6Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

 Maitri Dey answered  •  2 days ago
Calculation of TAG, LINE, and WORD fields
- Given parameters: 4-way set associative cache, 128 lines, line size of 64 words
- Total number of lines in the cache = 128
- Number of sets = Total lines / Associativity = 128 / 4 = 32
- Number of blocks in each set = 4 (4-way set associative)
- Number of words in each block = 64

CALCULATION OF TAG BITS... more

## In VLIW the decision for the order of execution of the instructions depends on the program itself. a)Trueb)FalseCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

 Maitri Dey answered  •  2 days ago
Explanation:

VLIW (Very Long Instruction Word) Architecture:
VLIW is a type of computer architecture where a single instruction can execute multiple operations simultaneously. In VLIW architecture, the order of execution of instructions is determined at compile time rather than at runtime.

Dependency on the Program:
In VLIW architecture, the dec
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## Consider the problem of computing min-max in an unsorted array where min and max are minimum and maximum elements of array. Algorithm A1 can compute min-max in a1 comparisons without divide and conquer. Algorithm A2 can compute min-max in a2 comparisons by scanning the array linearly. What could be the relation between a1 and a2 considering the worst case scenarios?a)a1 < a2b)a1 > a2c)a1 = a2d)Depends on the inputCorrect answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

 Samarth Ghosh answered  •  2 days ago
Explanation:

Algorithm A1:
- In the worst-case scenario, Algorithm A1 will compare every pair of elements in the array to find the min and max.
- Since there are n elements in the array, the total number of comparisons made by Algorithm A1 will be n*(n-1)/2.
- Therefore, a1 = n*(n-1)/2.

Algorithm A2:
- In the worst-case scenario, Algor
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## Who can send ICMP error-reporting messages? a)Routers b)Destination hosts c)Source host d)Both (a) and (b) Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

 Samarth Ghosh answered  •  2 days ago
Explanation:

Routers:
- Routers can send ICMP error-reporting messages when they encounter issues such as unreachable destinations or time exceeded during packet forwarding.
- These messages help to inform the source host about the problem encountered during the transmission of the packet.

Destination Hosts:
- Destination hosts can also sen
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## The storage area of a disk has innermost diameter of 10 cm and outermost diameter of 20 cm. The maximum storage density of the disk is 1400bits/cm. The disk rotates at a speed of 4200 RPM. The main memory of a computer has 64-bit word length and 1µs cycle time. If cycle stealing is used for data transfer from the disk, the percentage of memory cycles stolen for transferring one word is a)0.5%b)1%c)5%d)10%Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

 Rahul Chavan answered  •  3 days ago
Given Data:
- Innermost diameter of disk: 10 cm
- Outermost diameter of disk: 20 cm
- Maximum storage density: 1400 bits/cm
- Disk rotation speed: 4200 RPM
- Memory word length: 64 bits
- Memory cycle time: 1s

Calculating Data Transfer Rate:
- Radius at innermost point: 10/2 = 5 cm
- Radius at outermost point: 20/2 = 10 cm
- Are
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## What limits the amount of virtual memory in the Windows 3.1?a)size of the swap fileb)nature of swap filec)static filed)dynamic fileCorrect answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

 Rahul Chavan answered  •  3 days ago
Size of the Swap File
The amount of virtual memory in Windows 3.1 is limited by the size of the swap file. The swap file, also known as the paging file, is a dedicated space on the hard drive that Windows uses to temporarily store data that doesn't fit in the physical memory (RAM). Here's how the size of the swap file affects virtual memory in Windows 3.1:
- Virtual Memory:
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