All India Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Group

In analyzing the compilation of PL/I program the description “resolving symbolic address (labies) and generating machine language” is associated with
  • a)
    Assembly and output
  • b)
    Codegeneration
  • c)
    Storage assignment
  • d)
    Syntax analysis
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Partho Joshi answered  •  5 hours ago
Assembly and Output

Description:
Resolving symbolic addresses (labels) and generating machine language is a crucial step in the compilation process of a PL/I program. This process involves converting the high-level code written in PL/I into machine-readable instructions that can be executed by the computer.

Assembly:
During the assembly phase of
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In a row of 60 persons, Ganesh is 26th from left end. Find out his position from the right end.
  • a)
    35
  • b)
    36
  • c)
    34
  • d)
    Can’t be determined
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Gate Gurus answered  •  23 hours ago
Short cut formula: The total number of person =  Position of Ganesh from the right ends + Position of Ganesh from the left ends – 1
Now, Position of Ganesh from the right ends = The total number of person – Position of Ganesh from the left ends + 1
= 60 – 26 + 1 = 35.
Hence, Ganesh is 35th from the right ends.

What letter is next in this sequence?
O, T, T, F, F, S, S, E, ?
  • a)
    E
  • b)
    O
  • c)
    N
  • d)
    M
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Crack Gate answered  •  23 hours ago
They are all the first letters of the numbers spelt in order.
O – One
T – Two
T – Three
F – Four
F – Five
S – Six
S – Seven
E – Eight
N – Nine
So the answer is N

In a certain code language COMPUTER is written as RFUVQNPC. How will MEDICINE be written in that code language?
  • a)
    MFEDJJOE
  • b)
    EOJDEJFM
  • c)
    MFEJDJOE
  • d)
    EOJDJEFM
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Gate Gurus answered  •  23 hours ago
  • There are 8 letters in the word.
  • The coded word can be obtained by taking the immediately following letters of word, expect the first and the last letters of the given word but in the reverse order.
  • That means, in the coded form the first and the last letters have been interchanged while the remaining letters are coded by taking their immediate next letters in the revers... more

In a stream, Q lies in between P and R such that it is equidistant from both P and R. A boat can go from P to Q and back in 6 hours 30 minutes while it goes from P to R in 9 hours. How long would it take to go from R to P?
  • a)
    4 h
  • b)
    4.25 h
  • c)
    3.75 h
  • d)
    4.5 h
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Gate Gurus answered  •  23 hours ago
Since P to R is double the distance of P to Q,
Therefore, it is evident that the time taken from P to R and back would be double the time taken from P to Q and back (i.e. double of 6.5 hours = 13 hours).
Since going from P to R takes 9 hours, coming back from R to P would take 4 hours i.e. 13- 9 = 4
So Option A is correct

Pick the odd one out.
  • a)
    Subroutines
  • b)
    Multiple tracks
  • c)
    Shifting over
  • d)
    Recursion
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Shilpa Joshi answered  •  yesterday
Recursion is the odd one out
Recursion is the odd one out among the given options because it is a programming concept that involves a function calling itself. Let's break down each option to understand why recursion is different:

Subroutines: Subroutines are reusable blocks of code that can be called from different parts of a program to perform a specific task. They h
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Distributed arbitration makes use of ______
  • a)
    BUS master
  • b)
    Processor
  • c)
    Arbitrator
  • d)
    4-bit ID
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Rohan Patel answered  •  2 days ago
4-bit ID
Distributed arbitration in a system involves multiple devices contending for access to a shared resource or communication channel. In this process, each device is assigned a unique identifier, often in the form of a 4-bit ID. This ID helps in distinguishing between different devices and determining the priority of access when conflicts arise.

Benefits of using a
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- Uniqueness: Each device is assigned a distinct 4-bit ID, preventing any overlap or confusion in the arbitration process.
- Priority:
- Conflict resolution: In cases where multiple devices are vying for access simultaneously, the distributed arbitration system can useiv based on their assigned 4-bit IDs.
When devices in a system contend for access to a shared resource or communication channel, the 4-bit IDs play a crucial role in determining the priority of access. Each device is assigned a unique identifier, and conflicts are resolved based on the priority of access assigned to each device through these IDs. This helps in ensuring a fair and efficient allocation of resources in the system.

Which operator is the most important while assigning any instruction as register indirect instruction?
  • a)
    $
  • b)
    #
  • c)
    @
  • d)
    &
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Harsh Sen answered  •  2 days ago
Register Indirect Addressing in Assembly Language
Register indirect addressing is a method used in assembly language programming where the operand is accessed indirectly through a register. In order to assign an instruction as a register indirect instruction, the most important operator is the "@" symbol.

Importance of the "@" Operator
- The "@" symbol is used to
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Let L be the language on A = {a,b,c} which consists of all words of form w = arbsct where r, s, t > 0. Which of the following is valid regular expression 'r' such that L = L(r)?
1. r = abc
2. r = aabbcc
3. r = aabcc
4. r = aabc
    Correct answer is '2'. Can you explain this answer?

    Yashvi Das answered  •  2 days ago
    Explanation:

    Regular Expression Analysis:
    - The regular expression r = aa*bb*cc* represents the language L as it allows for any combination of 'a', 'b', and 'c' with at least one occurrence of each within the word.
    - The '*' symbol allows for zero or more occurrences of the preceding character.
    - Therefore, the regular expression matches words of the form ar
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    The five items P,Q,R,S and T are pushed in a stack, one after the other starting from P. The stack is popped four times and each element is inserted in a queue. Then two elements are deleted from the queue and pushed back on the stack. now one item is popped from the stack. The popped item is:  
    • a)
      P
    • b)
      R
    • c)
      Q
    • d)
      S
    Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

    Yashvi Das answered  •  2 days ago
    Explanation:
    - Pushing items into the stack:
    - Items P, Q, R, S, and T are pushed into the stack, one after the other starting from P.
    - Popping items from the stack and inserting into the queue:
    - The stack is popped four times, and each element is inserted into a queue. So, the order of elements in the queue will be T, S, R, Q.
    - Deleting two el
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    - Two elements are deleted from the queue, so the remaining elements are R and Q. These elements are then pushed back onto the stack.
    - Popping one item from the stack:
    - Finally, one item is popped from the stack. Since the last two elements pushed onto the stack were R and Q, the item that will be popped from the stack is S.
    Therefore, the correct answer is option 'D' - S.

    What is the return value of the function foo when it is called as foo(345, 10) ?
    • a)
      345
    • b)
      12
    • c)
      5
    • d)
      3
    Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

    Yashvi Das answered  •  2 days ago
    Explanation:

    Function Definition:
    - The function foo takes two parameters, a and b.
    - Inside the function, it returns the result of a divided by b.

    Given values:
    - a = 345
    - b = 10

    Calculation:
    - When foo(345, 10) is called, it will return the result of 345 divided by 10.
    - 345 divided by 10 equals 34 remain
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    Identify the regular expression which represents the language containing all strings of a's and b's where each string contains at least two b's
    • a)
      (a+b)*ba*b
    • b)
      (a+b)*ba*ba
    • c)
      (a+b)*ba*
    • d)
      None of the above
    Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

    Yashvi Das answered  •  2 days ago
    Regular Expression Explanation:

    a) (a+b)*ba*
    - This part of the regular expression allows for any number of occurrences of 'a' or 'b' followed by 'ba*' at the end. This covers strings that have 'b' followed by any number of 'a's.

    b) (a+b)*ba*b
    - This part ensures that the string contains at least one 'b' followed by 'a' before any additional 'b'
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    Which of the following is the unit digit in the product of {(341)491 x (625)317 x (6374)1793}?
    • a)
      3
    • b)
      7
    • c)
      0
    • d)
      8
    Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

    Jay Basu answered  •  3 days ago
    Explanation:

    Step 1: Finding the unit digit of each number
    - (341)^491: The unit digit of 341 when raised to any power follows a pattern. The unit digit of 341^1 is 1, 341^2 is 1, 341^3 is 1, and so on. Therefore, the unit digit of 341^491 will also be 1.
    - (625)^317: The unit digit of 625 when raised to any power is 5. Therefore, the unit digit of 625^317 will b
    ... more

    The TCP/IP model does not have ____ and _____ layers but _____ layer include required functions of these layers.
    • a)
      Session, Application, Presentation
    • b)
      Presentation, Application, Session 
    • c)
      Session, Presentation, Application
    • d)
      Link, Internet, Transport
    Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

    Tushar Unni answered  •  3 days ago
    Explanation:

    Missing Layers:
    - The TCP/IP model does not have Session and Presentation layers like the OSI model.

    Inclusion of Required Functions:
    - The required functions of the Session and Presentation layers are included in the Application layer of the TCP/IP model.
    - The Session layer of the OSI model manages sessions between applicatio
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    If the sum of two numbers is considered as 'a' and their product is considered as 'b', then what will be the sum of their reciprocals?
    • a)
      a/b
    • b)
      1/b + 1/b
    • c)
      b/a
    • d)
      ab
    Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

    Ayush Mehta answered  •  4 days ago
    Explanation:

    Given:
    Let the two numbers be x and y.
    Sum of the numbers = a = x + y
    Product of the numbers = b = x * y

    Calculation:
    Reciprocal of a number is 1 divided by the number.
    Reciprocal of x = 1/x
    Reciprocal of y = 1/y
    The sum of reciprocals of x and y can be calculated as:
    (1/x) + (1/y) = (y + x) / (x * y)
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    The port that will source a current of 500 micro amperes when being used as input ports is
    • a)
      0.5 mA
    • b)
      0.25 mA
    • c)
      250 micro amperes
    • d)
      500 micro amperes
    Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

    Ayush Mehta answered  •  4 days ago
    Explanation:
    The correct answer is option 'D' which is 500 micro amperes. Let's break down why this is the correct choice:

    Understanding Current:
    - Current is the flow of electric charge in a circuit. It is measured in amperes (A) or micro amperes (µA), which is one-millionth of an ampere.

    Given Information:
    - The port is sourcing a current
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    A club with x members is organized into tour committees such that
    (a) each member is in exactly two committees,
    (b) any two committees have exactly one member in common.
    Then x has
    • a)
      exactly two values both between 4 and 8
    • b)
      exactly one value and this lies between 4 and 8
    • c)
      exactly two values both between 8 and 16
    • d)
      exactly one value and this lies between 8 and 16.
    Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

    Arindam Malik answered  •  4 days ago
    Explanation:

    Given Conditions:
    - Each member is in exactly two committees.
    - Any two committees have exactly one member in common.

    Reasoning:
    - Let's assume there are 'x' members in the club.
    - Each member is in exactly two committees, which means there are a total of 2x committee memberships.
    - Since any two committees have exact
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    Eshan Agnihotri asked a question

    The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
    RESIDENTS of Lozère, a hilly department in southern France, recite complaints familiar to many rural corners of Europe. In remote hamlets and villages, with names such as Le Bacon and Le Bacon Vieux, mayors grumble about a lack of local schools, jobs, or phone and internet connections. Farmers of grazing animals add another concern: the return of wolves. Eradicated from France last century, the predators are gradually creeping back to more forests and hillsides. “The wolf must be taken in hand,” said an aspiring parliamentarian, Francis Palombi, when pressed by voters in an election campaign early this summer. Tourists enjoy visiting a wolf park in Lozère, but farmers fret over their livestock and their livelihoods. .
    . .
    As early as the ninth century, the royal office of the Luparii—wolf-catchers—was created in France to tackle the predators. Those official hunters (and others) completed their job in the 1930s, when the last wolf disappeared from the mainland. Active hunting and improved technology such as rifles in the 19th century, plus the use of poison such as strychnine later on, caused the population collapse. But in the early 1990s the animals reappeared. They crossed the Alps from Italy, upsetting sheep farmers on the French side of the border. Wolves have since spread to areas such as Lozère, delighting environmentalists, who see the predators’ presence as a sign of wider ecological health. Farmers, who say the wolves cause the deaths of thousands of sheep and other grazing animals, are less cheerful. They grumble that green activists and politically correct urban types have allowed the return of an old enemy.
    Various factors explain the changes of the past few decades. Rural depopulation is part of the story. In Lozère, for example, farming and a once-flourishing mining industry supported a population of over 140,000 residents in the mid-19th century. Today the department has fewer than 80,000 people, many in its towns. As humans withdraw, forests are expanding. In France, between 1990 and 2015, forest cover increased by an average of 102,000 hectares each year, as more fields were given over to trees. Now, nearly one-third of mainland France is covered by woodland of some sort. The decline of hunting as a sport also means more forests fall quiet. In the mid-to-late 20th century over 2m hunters regularly spent winter weekends tramping in woodland, seeking boars, birds and other prey. Today the Fédération Nationale des Chasseurs, the national body, claims 1.1m people hold hunting licences, though the number of active hunters is probably lower. The mostly protected status of the wolf in Europe—hunting them is now forbidden, other than when occasional culls are sanctioned by the state—plus the efforts of NGOs to track and count the animals, also contribute to the recovery of wolf populations.
    As the lupine population of Europe spreads westwards, with occasional reports of wolves seen closer to urban areas, expect to hear of more clashes between farmers and those who celebrate the predators’ return. Farmers’ losses are real, but are not the only economic story. Tourist venues, such as parks where wolves are kept and the animals’ spread is discussed, also generate income and jobs in rural areas.
    The inhabitants of Lozère have to grapple with all of the following problems, EXCEPT:
    ... more

    Naman Khanna asked a question

    The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
    The Second Hand September campaign, led by Oxfam . . . seeks to encourage shopping at local organisations and charities as alternatives to fast fashion brands such as Primark and Boohoo in the name of saving our planet. As innocent as mindless scrolling through online shops may seem, such consumers are unintentionally—or perhaps even knowingly —contributing to an industry that uses more energy than aviation. . . .
    Brits buy more garments than any other country in Europe, so it comes as no shock that many of those clothes end up in UK landfills each year: 300,000 tonnes of them, to be exact. This waste of clothing is destructive to our planet, releasing greenhouse gasses as clothes are burnt as well as bleeding toxins and dyes into the surrounding soil and water. As ecologist Chelsea Rochman bluntly put it, “The mismanagement of our waste has even come back to haunt us on our dinner plate.”
    It’s not surprising, then, that people are scrambling for a solution, the most common of which is second-hand shopping. Retailers selling consigned clothing are currently expanding at a rapid rate . . . If everyone bought just one used item in a year, it would save 449 million lbs of waste, equivalent to the weight of 1 million Polar bears. “Thrifting” has increasingly become a trendy practice. London is home to many second-hand, or more commonly coined ‘vintage’, shops across the city from Bayswater to Brixton.
    So you’re cool and you care about the planet; you’ve killed two birds with one stone. But do people simply purchase a second-hand item, flash it on Instagram with #vintage and call it a day without considering whether what they are doing is actually effective?
    According to a study commissioned by Patagonia, for instance, older clothes shed more microfibres. These can end up in our rivers and seas after just one wash due to the worn material, thus contributing to microfibre pollution. To break it down, the amount of microfibres released by laundering 100,000 fleece jackets is equivalent to as many as 11,900 plastic grocery bags, and up to 40 per cent of that ends up in our oceans. . . . So where does this leave second-hand consumers? [They would be well advised to buy] high-quality items that shed less and last longer [as this] combats both microfibre pollution and excess garments ending up in landfills. . . .
    Luxury brands would rather not circulate their latest season stock around the globe to be sold at a cheaper price, which is why companies like ThredUP, a US fashion resale marketplace, have not yet caught on in the UK. There will always be a market for consignment but there is also a whole generation of people who have been taught that only buying new products is the norm; second-hand luxury goods are not in their psyche. Ben Whitaker, director at Liquidation Firm B-Stock, told Prospect that unless recycling becomes cost-effective and filters into mass production, with the right technology to partner it, “high-end retailers would rather put brand before sustainability.”
    The central idea of the passage would be undermined if:
    ... more

    Gaurav Bhandari asked a question

    The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
    The Second Hand September campaign, led by Oxfam . . . seeks to encourage shopping at local organisations and charities as alternatives to fast fashion brands such as Primark and Boohoo in the name of saving our planet. As innocent as mindless scrolling through online shops may seem, such consumers are unintentionally—or perhaps even knowingly —contributing to an industry that uses more energy than aviation. . . .
    Brits buy more garments than any other country in Europe, so it comes as no shock that many of those clothes end up in UK landfills each year: 300,000 tonnes of them, to be exact. This waste of clothing is destructive to our planet, releasing greenhouse gasses as clothes are burnt as well as bleeding toxins and dyes into the surrounding soil and water. As ecologist Chelsea Rochman bluntly put it, “The mismanagement of our waste has even come back to haunt us on our dinner plate.”
    It’s not surprising, then, that people are scrambling for a solution, the most common of which is second-hand shopping. Retailers selling consigned clothing are currently expanding at a rapid rate . . . If everyone bought just one used item in a year, it would save 449 million lbs of waste, equivalent to the weight of 1 million Polar bears. “Thrifting” has increasingly become a trendy practice. London is home to many second-hand, or more commonly coined ‘vintage’, shops across the city from Bayswater to Brixton.
    So you’re cool and you care about the planet; you’ve killed two birds with one stone. But do people simply purchase a second-hand item, flash it on Instagram with #vintage and call it a day without considering whether what they are doing is actually effective?
    According to a study commissioned by Patagonia, for instance, older clothes shed more microfibres. These can end up in our rivers and seas after just one wash due to the worn material, thus contributing to microfibre pollution. To break it down, the amount of microfibres released by laundering 100,000 fleece jackets is equivalent to as many as 11,900 plastic grocery bags, and up to 40 per cent of that ends up in our oceans. . . . So where does this leave second-hand consumers? [They would be well advised to buy] high-quality items that shed less and last longer [as this] combats both microfibre pollution and excess garments ending up in landfills. . . .
    Luxury brands would rather not circulate their latest season stock around the globe to be sold at a cheaper price, which is why companies like ThredUP, a US fashion resale marketplace, have not yet caught on in the UK. There will always be a market for consignment but there is also a whole generation of people who have been taught that only buying new products is the norm; second-hand luxury goods are not in their psyche. Ben Whitaker, director at Liquidation Firm B-Stock, told Prospect that unless recycling becomes cost-effective and filters into mass production, with the right technology to partner it, “high-end retailers would rather put brand before sustainability.”
    The act of “thrifting”, as described in the passage, can be considered ironic because it:
    ... more

    Arnav Trivedi asked a question

    The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
    The Second Hand September campaign, led by Oxfam . . . seeks to encourage shopping at local organisations and charities as alternatives to fast fashion brands such as Primark and Boohoo in the name of saving our planet. As innocent as mindless scrolling through online shops may seem, such consumers are unintentionally—or perhaps even knowingly —contributing to an industry that uses more energy than aviation. . . .
    Brits buy more garments than any other country in Europe, so it comes as no shock that many of those clothes end up in UK landfills each year: 300,000 tonnes of them, to be exact. This waste of clothing is destructive to our planet, releasing greenhouse gasses as clothes are burnt as well as bleeding toxins and dyes into the surrounding soil and water. As ecologist Chelsea Rochman bluntly put it, “The mismanagement of our waste has even come back to haunt us on our dinner plate.”
    It’s not surprising, then, that people are scrambling for a solution, the most common of which is second-hand shopping. Retailers selling consigned clothing are currently expanding at a rapid rate . . . If everyone bought just one used item in a year, it would save 449 million lbs of waste, equivalent to the weight of 1 million Polar bears. “Thrifting” has increasingly become a trendy practice. London is home to many second-hand, or more commonly coined ‘vintage’, shops across the city from Bayswater to Brixton.
    So you’re cool and you care about the planet; you’ve killed two birds with one stone. But do people simply purchase a second-hand item, flash it on Instagram with #vintage and call it a day without considering whether what they are doing is actually effective?
    According to a study commissioned by Patagonia, for instance, older clothes shed more microfibres. These can end up in our rivers and seas after just one wash due to the worn material, thus contributing to microfibre pollution. To break it down, the amount of microfibres released by laundering 100,000 fleece jackets is equivalent to as many as 11,900 plastic grocery bags, and up to 40 per cent of that ends up in our oceans. . . . So where does this leave second-hand consumers? [They would be well advised to buy] high-quality items that shed less and last longer [as this] combats both microfibre pollution and excess garments ending up in landfills. . . .
    Luxury brands would rather not circulate their latest season stock around the globe to be sold at a cheaper price, which is why companies like ThredUP, a US fashion resale marketplace, have not yet caught on in the UK. There will always be a market for consignment but there is also a whole generation of people who have been taught that only buying new products is the norm; second-hand luxury goods are not in their psyche. Ben Whitaker, director at Liquidation Firm B-Stock, told Prospect that unless recycling becomes cost-effective and filters into mass production, with the right technology to partner it, “high-end retailers would rather put brand before sustainability.”
    Based on the passage, we can infer that the opposite of fast fashion, ‘slow fashion’, would most likely refer to clothes that:
    ... more

    Avani Patel asked a question

    The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
    The Second Hand September campaign, led by Oxfam . . . seeks to encourage shopping at local organisations and charities as alternatives to fast fashion brands such as Primark and Boohoo in the name of saving our planet. As innocent as mindless scrolling through online shops may seem, such consumers are unintentionally—or perhaps even knowingly —contributing to an industry that uses more energy than aviation. . . .
    Brits buy more garments than any other country in Europe, so it comes as no shock that many of those clothes end up in UK landfills each year: 300,000 tonnes of them, to be exact. This waste of clothing is destructive to our planet, releasing greenhouse gasses as clothes are burnt as well as bleeding toxins and dyes into the surrounding soil and water. As ecologist Chelsea Rochman bluntly put it, “The mismanagement of our waste has even come back to haunt us on our dinner plate.”
    It’s not surprising, then, that people are scrambling for a solution, the most common of which is second-hand shopping. Retailers selling consigned clothing are currently expanding at a rapid rate . . . If everyone bought just one used item in a year, it would save 449 million lbs of waste, equivalent to the weight of 1 million Polar bears. “Thrifting” has increasingly become a trendy practice. London is home to many second-hand, or more commonly coined ‘vintage’, shops across the city from Bayswater to Brixton.
    So you’re cool and you care about the planet; you’ve killed two birds with one stone. But do people simply purchase a second-hand item, flash it on Instagram with #vintage and call it a day without considering whether what they are doing is actually effective?
    According to a study commissioned by Patagonia, for instance, older clothes shed more microfibres. These can end up in our rivers and seas after just one wash due to the worn material, thus contributing to microfibre pollution. To break it down, the amount of microfibres released by laundering 100,000 fleece jackets is equivalent to as many as 11,900 plastic grocery bags, and up to 40 per cent of that ends up in our oceans. . . . So where does this leave second-hand consumers? [They would be well advised to buy] high-quality items that shed less and last longer [as this] combats both microfibre pollution and excess garments ending up in landfills. . . .
    Luxury brands would rather not circulate their latest season stock around the globe to be sold at a cheaper price, which is why companies like ThredUP, a US fashion resale marketplace, have not yet caught on in the UK. There will always be a market for consignment but there is also a whole generation of people who have been taught that only buying new products is the norm; second-hand luxury goods are not in their psyche. Ben Whitaker, director at Liquidation Firm B-Stock, told Prospect that unless recycling becomes cost-effective and filters into mass production, with the right technology to partner it, “high-end retailers would rather put brand before sustainability.”
    According to the author, companies like ThredUP have not caught on in the UK for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that:
    ... more

    Bhumi Patel asked a question

    The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
    Over the past four centuries liberalism has been so successful that it has driven all its opponents off the battlefield. Now it is disintegrating, destroyed by a mix of hubris and internal contradictions, according to Patrick Deneen, a professor of politics at the University of Notre Dame. . . . Equality of opportunity has produced a new meritocratic aristocracy that has all the aloofness of the old aristocracy with none of its sense of noblesse oblige. Democracy has degenerated into a theatre of the absurd. And technological advances are reducing ever more areas of work into meaningless drudgery. “The gap between liberalism’s claims about itself and the lived reality of the citizenry” is now so wide that “the lie can no longer be accepted,” Mr Deneen writes. What better proof of this than the vision of 1,000 private planes whisking their occupants to Davos to discuss the question of “creating a shared future in a fragmented world”? . . .
    Deneen does an impressive job of capturing the current mood of disillusionment, echoing leftwing complaints about rampant commercialism, right-wing complaints about narcissistic and bullying students, and general worries about atomisation and selfishness. But when he concludes that all this adds up to a failure of liberalism, is his argument convincing? . . . He argues that the essence of liberalism lies in freeing individuals from constraints. In fact, liberalism contains a wide range of intellectual traditions which provide different answers to the question of how to trade off the relative claims of rights and responsibilities, individual expression and social ties. . . . liberals experimented with a range of ideas from devolving power from the centre to creating national education systems.
    Mr Deneen’s fixation on the essence of liberalism leads to the second big problem of his book: his failure to recognise liberalism’s ability to reform itself and address its internal problems. The late 19th century saw America suffering from many of the problems that are reappearing today, including the creation of a business aristocracy, the rise of vast companies, the corruption of politics and the sense that society was dividing into winners and losers. But a wide variety of reformers, working within the liberal tradition, tackled these problems head on. Theodore Roosevelt took on the trusts. Progressives cleaned up government corruption. University reformers modernised academic syllabuses and built ladders of opportunity. Rather than dying, liberalism reformed itself.
    Mr Deneen is right to point out that the record of liberalism in recent years has been dismal. He is also right to assert that the world has much to learn from the premodern notions of liberty as self-mastery and self-denial. The biggest enemy of liberalism is not so much atomisation but old-fashioned greed, as members of the Davos elite pile their plates ever higher with perks and share options. But he is wrong to argue that the only way for people to liberate themselves from the contradictions of liberalism is “liberation from liberalism itself”. The best way to read “Why Liberalism Failed” is not as a funeral oration but as a call to action: up your game, or else.
    The author of the passage is likely to disagree with all of the following statements, EXCEPT:
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    Wasima Thakur asked a question

    The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
    Over the past four centuries liberalism has been so successful that it has driven all its opponents off the battlefield. Now it is disintegrating, destroyed by a mix of hubris and internal contradictions, according to Patrick Deneen, a professor of politics at the University of Notre Dame. . . . Equality of opportunity has produced a new meritocratic aristocracy that has all the aloofness of the old aristocracy with none of its sense of noblesse oblige. Democracy has degenerated into a theatre of the absurd. And technological advances are reducing ever more areas of work into meaningless drudgery. “The gap between liberalism’s claims about itself and the lived reality of the citizenry” is now so wide that “the lie can no longer be accepted,” Mr Deneen writes. What better proof of this than the vision of 1,000 private planes whisking their occupants to Davos to discuss the question of “creating a shared future in a fragmented world”? . . .
    Deneen does an impressive job of capturing the current mood of disillusionment, echoing leftwing complaints about rampant commercialism, right-wing complaints about narcissistic and bullying students, and general worries about atomisation and selfishness. But when he concludes that all this adds up to a failure of liberalism, is his argument convincing? . . . He argues that the essence of liberalism lies in freeing individuals from constraints. In fact, liberalism contains a wide range of intellectual traditions which provide different answers to the question of how to trade off the relative claims of rights and responsibilities, individual expression and social ties. . . . liberals experimented with a range of ideas from devolving power from the centre to creating national education systems.
    Mr Deneen’s fixation on the essence of liberalism leads to the second big problem of his book: his failure to recognise liberalism’s ability to reform itself and address its internal problems. The late 19th century saw America suffering from many of the problems that are reappearing today, including the creation of a business aristocracy, the rise of vast companies, the corruption of politics and the sense that society was dividing into winners and losers. But a wide variety of reformers, working within the liberal tradition, tackled these problems head on. Theodore Roosevelt took on the trusts. Progressives cleaned up government corruption. University reformers modernised academic syllabuses and built ladders of opportunity. Rather than dying, liberalism reformed itself.
    Mr Deneen is right to point out that the record of liberalism in recent years has been dismal. He is also right to assert that the world has much to learn from the premodern notions of liberty as self-mastery and self-denial. The biggest enemy of liberalism is not so much atomisation but old-fashioned greed, as members of the Davos elite pile their plates ever higher with perks and share options. But he is wrong to argue that the only way for people to liberate themselves from the contradictions of liberalism is “liberation from liberalism itself”. The best way to read “Why Liberalism Failed” is not as a funeral oration but as a call to action: up your game, or else.
    All of the following statements are evidence of the decline of liberalism today, EXCEPT:
    ... more

    Jiya Bhatia asked a question

    The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
    Over the past four centuries liberalism has been so successful that it has driven all its opponents off the battlefield. Now it is disintegrating, destroyed by a mix of hubris and internal contradictions, according to Patrick Deneen, a professor of politics at the University of Notre Dame. . . . Equality of opportunity has produced a new meritocratic aristocracy that has all the aloofness of the old aristocracy with none of its sense of noblesse oblige. Democracy has degenerated into a theatre of the absurd. And technological advances are reducing ever more areas of work into meaningless drudgery. “The gap between liberalism’s claims about itself and the lived reality of the citizenry” is now so wide that “the lie can no longer be accepted,” Mr Deneen writes. What better proof of this than the vision of 1,000 private planes whisking their occupants to Davos to discuss the question of “creating a shared future in a fragmented world”? . . .
    Deneen does an impressive job of capturing the current mood of disillusionment, echoing leftwing complaints about rampant commercialism, right-wing complaints about narcissistic and bullying students, and general worries about atomisation and selfishness. But when he concludes that all this adds up to a failure of liberalism, is his argument convincing? . . . He argues that the essence of liberalism lies in freeing individuals from constraints. In fact, liberalism contains a wide range of intellectual traditions which provide different answers to the question of how to trade off the relative claims of rights and responsibilities, individual expression and social ties. . . . liberals experimented with a range of ideas from devolving power from the centre to creating national education systems.
    Mr Deneen’s fixation on the essence of liberalism leads to the second big problem of his book: his failure to recognise liberalism’s ability to reform itself and address its internal problems. The late 19th century saw America suffering from many of the problems that are reappearing today, including the creation of a business aristocracy, the rise of vast companies, the corruption of politics and the sense that society was dividing into winners and losers. But a wide variety of reformers, working within the liberal tradition, tackled these problems head on. Theodore Roosevelt took on the trusts. Progressives cleaned up government corruption. University reformers modernised academic syllabuses and built ladders of opportunity. Rather than dying, liberalism reformed itself.
    Mr Deneen is right to point out that the record of liberalism in recent years has been dismal. He is also right to assert that the world has much to learn from the premodern notions of liberty as self-mastery and self-denial. The biggest enemy of liberalism is not so much atomisation but old-fashioned greed, as members of the Davos elite pile their plates ever higher with perks and share options. But he is wrong to argue that the only way for people to liberate themselves from the contradictions of liberalism is “liberation from liberalism itself”. The best way to read “Why Liberalism Failed” is not as a funeral oration but as a call to action: up your game, or else.
    The author of the passage refers to “the Davos elite” to illustrate his views on:
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    Soumya Iyer asked a question

    Measuring more than five feet tall and ten feet long, the Javan rhinoceros is often called the rarest large mammal on earth. None exist in zoos. Like the Indian rhino, the Javan has only one horn; African and Sumatran rhinos have two. While the Javan rhino habitat once extended across southern Asia, now there are fewer than one hundred of the animals in Indonesia and under a dozen in Vietnam. Very little is known about Javan rhinos because they lead secretive and solitary lives in remote jungles.
    Until recently, scientists debated whether females even have horns, and most scientific work has had to rely on DNA garnered from dung.
    The near extinction of the Javan rhino is the direct result of human actions. For centuries, farmers, who favored the same habitat, viewed them as crop eating pests and shot them on sight. During the colonial period, hunters slaughtered thousands. Now, human efforts to save them may well prove futile. The Vietnamese herd is probably doomed, as too few remain to maintain the necessary genetic variation. Rhinos from Java cannot supplement the Vietnamese numbers because in the millions of years since Indonesia separated from the mainland, the two groups have evolved into separate sub-species. In Indonesia, the rhinos are protected on the Ujung Kulon peninsula, which is unsettled by humans, and still have sufficient genetic diversity to have a chance at survival.
    Ironically, however, the lack of human disturbance allows mature forests to replace the shrubby vegetation the animals prefer. Thus, human benevolence may prove little better for these rhinos than past human maltreatment.
    Q.
    Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
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