All India Electrical Engineering (EE) Group

Consider the following statements, with reference to the Gaganyaan Mission:
  1. It aims to launch human beings (three crew members) to low earth orbit and bring them back safely to earth.
  2. The Launch Vehicle Mark-3 (LVM3) is the launch vehicle for the mission.
Which of the statements given above is/are not correct?
  • a)
    1 only 
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2 
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Sahil Datta answered  •  6 hours ago
Incorrect Statements regarding Gaganyaan Mission:

Statement 1:
The first statement is correct. The Gaganyaan Mission indeed aims to launch human beings (three crew members) to low earth orbit and bring them back safely to earth. This mission is India's first manned space mission and is a significant milestone in its space exploration efforts.

Statement 2
... more
The second statement is also correct. The Launch Vehicle Mark-3 (LVM3) is the launch vehicle chosen for the Gaganyaan Mission. LVM3 is a heavy-lift launch vehicle developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and is capable of carrying heavy payloads, including crewed spacecraft.

Explanation:
Both statements 1 and 2 are accurate and not incorrect. Therefore, the correct answer is option 'D' - Neither 1 nor 2. The Gaganyaan Mission is a prestigious project for India's space program, aiming to demonstrate its capability to send humans into space and safely return them to Earth. The selection of LVM3 as the launch vehicle showcases ISRO's technological advancements in the field of space exploration.

There is an application which required pulsating loads, punch presses. The most preferred machines would be
  • a)
    compound dc machine
  • b)
    series dc machine
  • c)
    shunt dc machine
  • d)
    all of the mentioned
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Sahil Datta answered  •  6 hours ago
Compound DC Machine is the most preferred machine for pulsating loads in punch presses due to its characteristics:

1. Ability to handle varying loads:
Compound DC machines have both series and shunt field windings, allowing them to adjust their speed and torque characteristics based on the load requirements. This makes them suitable for applications with pulsating loa
... more

Long back ago, magnetic casette were in use, having permanent magnet dc motors which had
  • a)
    magnets on stator and armature on rotor
  • b)
    magnet on rotor and armature on stator
  • c)
    electronic commutation
  • d)
    all of the mentioned
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Sahil Datta answered  •  6 hours ago
Magnetic Cassette Motors in Use
The magnetic cassette motors used in the past had a specific design in terms of the placement of magnets and armatures for their operation.

Permanent Magnet DC Motors
These motors typically had permanent magnets on the stator and armature on the rotor. This configuration allowed for efficient operation of the motor.

S
... more
- The stator, which is the stationary part of the motor, had magnets attached to it.
- The rotor, the rotating part of the motor, had the armature connected to it.

Functionality
- The magnetic interaction between the stator magnets and rotor armature created the necessary magnetic field for the motor to function.
- As electricity passed through the motor, the interaction between the magnetic fields caused the rotor to rotate, thus powering the cassette mechanism.

Advantages of this Configuration
- This configuration provided a simple and effective way to convert electrical energy into mechanical motion.
- The use of permanent magnets eliminated the need for external power sources for creating the magnetic field.

In conclusion, the placement of magnets on the stator and armature on the rotor was a common design for magnetic cassette motors. This configuration allowed for efficient operation and conversion of electrical energy into mechanical motion.

In Overlap save method of long sequence filtering, what is the length of the input sequence block?
  • a)
    L+M+1
  • b)
    L+M
  • c)
    L+M-1
  • d)
    None of the mentioned
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Sahil Datta answered  •  6 hours ago
Explanation:

Length of the input sequence block in Overlap save method:
The length of the input sequence block in the Overlap save method can be calculated as follows:
- Let L be the length of the filter impulse response.
- Let M be the length of the input sequence block.
Therefore, the total length of the sequence block needed for the Overlap save meth
... more

In a 3-phase, 4-pole, 50 Hz synchronous motor, the frequency, pole number and load torque all are halved. The motor speed will be
  • a)
    3000 r.p.m.
  • b)
    1500 r.p.m.
  • c)
    750 r.p.m
  • d)
    none of the above
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Manoj Mehra answered  •  15 hours ago
Motor Speed Calculation
To determine the new speed of the motor after the changes in frequency, pole number, and load torque, we can use the formula:
\[N_1 = \frac{120 \times f}{P}\]
where:
- \(N_1\) = Speed of the motor (in rpm)
- \(f\) = Frequency of the power supply (in Hz)
- \(P\) = Number of poles in the motor

Given Parameters:
- Ori
... more

A 500 W discharge lamp takes a current of 4 A at unity p.f. Find the inductance of a choke required to enable the lamp to work on 250 V, 50 Hz main.
  • a)
    1.72 mH
  • b)
    17.2 mH
  • c)
    0.172 H
  • d)
    0.172 mH
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Vaishnavi Nair answered  •  15 hours ago
Given data:
- Power of discharge lamp (P) = 500 W
- Current (I) = 4 A
- Voltage (V) = 250 V
- Frequency (f) = 50 Hz
- Power factor (p.f.) = Unity

Calculating apparent power (S):
S = V * I = 250 V * 4 A = 1000 VA

Calculating reactive power (Q):
Q = √(S^2 - P^2) = √(1000^2 - 500^2) = √(1000000 - 250000) = √750000 = 866.03
... more

The phenomena of ‘limit cycles’ and ‘jump resonance’ are observed in
  • a)
    linear systems
  • b)
    distributed systems
  • c)
    non-linear systems
  • d)
    discrete time systems
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Starcoders answered  •  18 hours ago
Limit Cycles and Jump Resonance in Non-linear Systems
 

  • Limit Cycles in Non-linear Systems:
    Limit cycles are periodic orbits in non-linear dynamical systems where the system oscillates within a bounded region indefinitely without either converging towards a fixed point or diverging towards infinity. These cycles are characteristic of non-linear systems and can exhibit a variety of complex behaviors such as chaotic oscillations.



  •  
  • Jump Resonance in Non-linear Systems:
    Jump resonance occurs in non-linear systems when the system response suddenly jumps to a different state due to a small change in the input or parameters. This phenomenon is a form of nonlinear resonance where the system's behavior changes abruptly, often leading to unexpected and complex dynamics. Jump resonance can arise in various systems such as mechanical, electrical, or biological systems.



  •  


In summary, limit cycles and jump resonance are interesting phenomena observed in non-linear systems, highlighting the rich dynamics and behaviors that can emerge in such systems. These behaviors are distinct from those seen in linear systems and can provide valuable insights into understanding and analyzing complex systems with non-linear dynamics.

The difference between the output response and the reference signal is known as the _____ signal.
  • a)
    actuating    
  • b)
    bias
  • c)
    velocity    
  • d)
    none of these
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Imtiaz Ahmad answered  •  18 hours ago
Actuating Signal

- The actuating signal is the difference between the output response and the reference signal in a control system.
- It is used to drive the system towards the desired setpoint by adjusting the input signals.
- The actuating signal is crucial for maintaining stability and accuracy in control systems.
- By continuously comparing the output response with the reference signal, the actuating signal ensures that the system stays on track and responds appropriately to any changes or disturbances.
- Overall, the actuating signal plays a key role in ensuring that the control system operates effectively and achieves its desired objectives.

A standard signal used for comparison in a closed-loop control system is called the
  • a)
    step input    
  • b)
    reference input
  • c)
    error input    
  • d)
    ramp input
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Starcoders answered  •  18 hours ago
Reference Input in Closed-Loop Control Systems

- In a closed-loop control system, the reference input is a standard signal that is used for comparison with the output of the system.
- It represents the desired or target value that the system is trying to achieve.
- The reference input is typically a known signal that is used to evaluate the performance of the system.
- By comparing the output of the system to the reference input, the controller can make adjustments to ensure that the system operates as desired.
- The reference input can take various forms, such as a step input, ramp input, sinusoidal input, etc.
- The controller uses the error between the reference input and the actual output of the system to adjust the control signals and minimize the error.
- The reference input plays a crucial role in closed-loop control systems by providing a benchmark for performance evaluation and adjustment of control signals.

Aliasing is caused when:
  • a)
    Sampling frequency must be equal to the message signal
  • b)
    Sampling frequency must be greater to the message signal
  • c)
    Sampling frequency must be less to the message signal
  • d)
    Sampling frequency must be greater than or equal to the message signal
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Subham Chaudhary answered  •  22 hours ago
Aliasing in Sampling:
Aliasing occurs when the sampling frequency is less than the message signal frequency. This phenomenon leads to incorrect interpretation of the sampled signal and distortion in the reconstructed signal.

Cause of Aliasing:
- When the sampling frequency is insufficient to capture the signal frequency accurately, higher frequency components of
... more

Directions: In this type of questions, some particular words are assigned certain substituted names. Then a question is asked that is to be answered in the substituted code language.
If 'cushion' is called 'pillow', 'pillow' is called 'mat', 'mat' is called 'bedsheet' and 'bedsheet' is called 'cover', which will be spread on the floor ?
  • a)
    Cover
  • b)
    Bedsheet
  • c)
    Mat
  • d)
    Pillow
  • e)
    None of these
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Abhay Khanna answered  •  yesterday
Explanation:

Given Information:
- Cushion is called pillow
- Pillow is called mat
- Mat is called bedsheet
- Bedsheet is called cover

Identifying the correct option:
- We need to find out what will be spread on the floor according to the given substitutions.
- According to the substitutions:
- Pillow is called mat
... more

 The NMOS transistors in the circuit shown have Vt = 1 V, μnCOX = 120 μA/V2, λ = 0, and L1= L2 = L3 = 1μm. Then which of the following is not the value of the width of these MOSFETs shown
  • a)
    2 µm
  • b)
    8µm
  • c)
    All of the mentioned
  • d)
    None of the mentioned
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Nandita Bajaj answered  •  yesterday
Analysis:
- Given parameters:
- Threshold voltage (Vt) = 1 V
- Electron mobility (μnCOX) = 120 μA/V^2
- Channel length (L1 = L2 = L3) = 1 μm
- Channel width (W) = ?
- Channel modulation factor (λ) = 0

Calculation:
- In the equation for drain current in NMOS transistor:
- Id = 0.5 * μnCOX * W/L * (Vgs - Vt)^2 * (1 + λ * Vds)... more

Three transformers having identical dimensions but with core of iron, aluminium and wood are wound with same number of turns and have same supply.Then choose the order for hysteresis losses.
  • a)
    wood > aluminium > iron
  • b)
    aluminium > iron > wood
  • c)
    iron > wood > aluminium
  • d)
    iron > aluminium > wood
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Nandita Bajaj answered  •  yesterday
Explanation:

1. Hysteresis losses in transformers:
Hysteresis losses in transformers occur due to the repeated magnetization and demagnetization of the core material. This results in energy being lost in the form of heat.

2. Core materials:
- Iron: Iron has high magnetic permeability, making it a commonly used material for transformer cores.
... more

Find the false statement.
  • a)
    Wheatstone bridge is analogous to superficial level system
  • b)
    A galvanometer with low resistance in series is an ammeter
  • c)
    Wheatstone bridge cannot be used for precision measurement because of the error introduced in contact resistance
  • d)
    Wheatstone bridge is susceptible to high DC
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Nandita Bajaj answered  •  yesterday
False Statement Explanation:

Statement D: Wheatstone bridge is susceptible to high DC

Explanation:

Background: Wheatstone bridge is a circuit used to measure an unknown electrical resistance by balancing two legs of a bridge circuit.

Reasoning:
- Wheatstone bridge is designed to operate with DC (Direct Current) as
... more

The phenomenon of perfect diamagnetism is called ___________
  • a)
    Superconductivity
  • b)
    Diamagnetic Effect
  • c)
    Zero Kelvin Effect
  • d)
    Meissner Effect
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Sanskriti Kaur answered  •  2 days ago



Meissner Effect:
The phenomenon of perfect diamagnetism is called the Meissner Effect. This effect occurs in superconductors when they are cooled below their critical temperature.

Definition:
The Meissner Effect is the expulsion of magnetic field lines from the interior of a superconductor as it transitions into the superconducting s
... more

Which of the following equation gives amplitude of oscillation in Colpitts oscillator using describing function method? (Where Ic is the is the bias current RL is the load resistor and C1 & C2 are the upper and lower capacitance of voltage divider bias)
  • a)
    2ICRL/C1+C2
  • b)
    2ICC2/C1+C2
  • c)
    2ICRL C2/C1+C2
  • d)
    2ICRL C2/C1
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Jaya Dasgupta answered  •  2 days ago
Amplitude of oscillation in Colpitts oscillator using describing function method
The amplitude of oscillation in a Colpitts oscillator using the describing function method can be determined by analyzing the circuit and applying the appropriate equations. In this case, the equation that gives the amplitude of oscillation is:

d) 2ICRLC2/C1

Explanation:
... more

Why the synchronous generator called as alternator?

Akanksha Chopra answered  •  2 days ago



Why is a Synchronous Generator called an Alternator?
Synchronous generators are commonly known as alternators due to their ability to produce alternating current (AC) electricity. Let's delve into the details of why they are called alternators.

Operating Principle
- Synchronous generators operate on the principle of Faraday's law of
... more

Which of the following network is used to give feedback to transistor of Hartley oscillator?
  • a)
    Inductive fixed bias
  • b)
    Capacitive fixed bias
  • c)
    Capacitive voltage divider
  • d)
    Inductive voltage divider
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Akanksha Chopra answered  •  2 days ago
Inductive voltage divider in Hartley oscillator:
The inductive voltage divider network is used to provide feedback to the transistor in a Hartley oscillator. This network consists of two inductors connected in series, with a tap taken from the midpoint to provide feedback to the transistor.

Function of inductive voltage divider:
- The inductive voltage divider ne
... more

The maximum head of a Kaplan turbine is limited to
a)25 m
b)70 m
c)125 m
d)None of these
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Akanksha Chopra answered  •  2 days ago
Maximum Head Limit of a Kaplan Turbine:
The maximum head of a Kaplan turbine is limited to 70 m.

Explanation:

Kaplan Turbine:
- A Kaplan turbine is a type of propeller turbine used for hydroelectric power generation.
- It is a reaction turbine, which means that the working fluid changes pressure as it moves through the turbine.

<
... more

Consider the following statements associated with single phase full converters:
1. Mid-point converter configuration is used in case the terminals on dc side have to be grounded.
2. The transformer rating in mid-point converter is double the load rating.
3. SCRs are subjected to a peak inverse voltage of 2 Vm in single phase mid-point converter.
4. Bridge converter is preferred over mid-point converter.
Which of these statements are correct?
  • a)
    1,3 and 4    
  • b)
    2, 3 and 4
  • c)
    1,2 and 3    
  • d)
    1, 2, 3 and 4
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Upasana Joshi answered  •  3 days ago
Explanation:

Misconception:
There is a misconception in statement 2. The transformer rating in mid-point converter is not double the load rating.

Correct Statements:
1. Mid-point converter configuration is used in case the terminals on dc side have to be grounded.
This statement is correct. In a mid-point converter, grounding the te
... more

The circuit diagram shown here corresponds to the logic gate
  • a)
    OR
  • b)
    NAND
  • c)
    NOR
  • d)
    AND
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Naroj Boda answered  •  3 days ago
CONCEPT:
  • OR gate - The OR gate is defined as the gate in which if one of the inputs is true then the result will also true.
  • AND gate - The AND gate is defined as the gate in which if one of the inputs is false then the result will also false.
  • NOT gate - The NOT gate is defined as the output attains state 1 if and only if the input does not attain state 1.
  • NOR gate - NOR gate is defined as it is the combination of NOT and OR gate.
CALCULATION:
Let us the different cases.
Case I - When A = 0, B = 0
The LED will glow.
Therefore, Y = 1
Case II - When A = 1, B = 0
The LED will not glow.
Therefore, Y = 0
Case III - When A = 0, B = 1
The LED will not glow.
Therefore, Y = 0
Case IV - When A = 1, B = 1
The LED will glow.
Therefore, Y = 0
The truth table is written as;

Here we see the results it will show the nature of NOR.
Hence, option 3) is the correct answer.

For the logic circuit shown, the truth table is :
  • a)
  • b)
  • c)
  • d)
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Naroj Boda answered  •  3 days ago
CONCEPT:
" NOT " gate - " NOT " gate is the logic gate in which input and output data are swapped. For example, if we are having input is 0 then its output is 1 and vice versa.
" NOR " gate - " NOR " gate is the type of logic gate and it is made up of the " OR " gate and the " NOT " gate.
CALCULATION:

In the above figure, we have two NOT gates after the input of A and B and after that, we have a NOR gate.
" NOT " gate is represented as  and " NOR " gate of  is represented as 

Using the boolean algebra rule we have; 

⇒  A.B 
⇒ AND Gate
Truth Table

Hence, Option 3) is the correct answer.

If peak voltage for a half wave rectifier circuit is 5V and diode cut in voltage is 0.7, then peak inverse voltage on diode will be?
  • a)
    5V
  • b)
    4.9V
  • c)
    4.3V
  • d)
    6.7V
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Prerna Tiwari answered  •  3 days ago
Calculation of Peak Inverse Voltage:
1. Given Data:
- Peak Voltage = 5V
- Diode Cut-in Voltage = 0.7V
2. Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV):
- PIV is the maximum voltage that appears across the diode when it is reverse-biased.
- PIV can be calculated as PIV = Peak Voltage - Diode Cut-in Voltage
- PIV = 5V - 0.7V
- PIV = 4.3V
3. Con
... more
- Therefore, the Peak Inverse Voltage on the diode in the given half wave rectifier circuit is 4.3V.
Therefore, option 'C' (4.3V) is the correct answer.

2’s complement of 11001011 is ____________
  • a)
    01010111
  • b)
    11010100
  • c)
    00110101
  • d)
    11100010
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Prerna Tiwari answered  •  3 days ago
2's complement of 11001011
To find the 2's complement of a binary number, we have to first find the 1's complement (flipping all the bits) and then add 1 to the result.
- 1's complement of 11001011
- The 1's complement of 11001011 is obtained by flipping all the bits: 00110100
- Adding 1 to the 1's complement
- To get the 2's complement, we add 1 to
... more

The forbidden band in germanium at 0ºK is –
  • a)
    0.03 eV
  • b)
    0.785 eV
  • c)
    1.5 eV
  • d)
    2.0 eV
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Sakshi Tiwari answered  •  3 days ago
Forbidden Band in Germanium at 0K
The forbidden band in germanium at 0K is crucial in understanding the electrical properties of this material. It refers to the energy gap between the valence band and the conduction band, where no electrons are allowed to exist.

Correct Answer: Option B - 0.785 eV

Explanation:
  • Germanium: Germanium... more
  • Forbidden Band: At absolute zero temperature (0K), germanium has a forbidden band gap of approximately 0.785 eV. This means that no electrons have enough energy to move from the valence band to the conduction band.
  • Conduction Band: The conduction band is the band in which electrons are free to move and conduct electricity. In germanium, this band is separated from the valence band by the forbidden band gap.
  • Valence Band: The valence band is the band in which electrons are tightly bound to atoms and cannot conduct electricity. It is located below the conduction band in the energy band diagram.
  • Energy Gap: The energy gap of 0.785 eV in germanium determines its electrical conductivity and other electronic properties. By applying external energy, such as heat or light, electrons can be excited across this gap, allowing for conduction.


Understanding the forbidden band in germanium is essential for designing electronic devices and optimizing their performance based on the material's properties.

P, Q, R and S crossed a lake in a boat that can hold a maximum of two persons, with only one set of oars. The following additional facts are available
i. The boat held two persons on each of the three forward trips across lake and one person on each of the two return trips.
ii. P is unable to row when someone else is in the boat.
iii. Q is unable to row with anyone else except R.
iv. Each person rowed for at least one trip.
v. Only one person can row during a trip.
Who rowed twice?
  • a)
    P
  • b)
    Q
  • c)
    R
  • d)
    S
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Sakshi Tiwari answered  •  3 days ago
Analysis:

Given Facts:
- The boat can hold a maximum of two persons.
- There were three forward trips across the lake and two return trips.
- P cannot row when someone else is in the boat.
- Q can only row with R.
- Each person rowed for at least one trip.
- Only one person can row during a trip.

Solution:
1. First Tr
... more P and Q row across the lake.
2. Second Trip: Q returns alone.
3. Third Trip: R and S row across the lake.
4. Fourth Trip: P returns alone.
5. Fifth Trip: P and Q row across the lake.

Analysis:
- P rowed in the first and fifth trips.
- Q rowed in the first and fifth trips.
- R rowed in the third trip.
- S rowed in the third trip.
Therefore, R rowed twice in this scenario.

 If X(z) is the z-transform of the signal x(n), then what is the z-transform of the signal x(-n)? 
  • a)
    X(-z)
  • b)
    X(z-1)
  • c)
    X-1(z)
  • d)
    None of the mentioned
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Sakshi Tiwari answered  •  3 days ago
Explanation:

Definition of z-transform:
The z-transform of a discrete-time signal x(n) is defined as X(z) = Σ [x(n) * z^(-n)], where the summation is taken over all values of n.

Transforming x(-n) using z-transform definition:
To find the z-transform of x(-n), we substitute -n in place of n in the definition of z-transform:
X(z) = Σ [x(-n)
... more

 MOS transistor structure is
  • a)
    symmetrical
  • b)
    non symmetrical
  • c)
    semi symmetrical
  • d)
    pseudo symmetrical
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Sakshi Tiwari answered  •  3 days ago
Explanation:

Symmetrical MOS Transistor Structure:
- In a symmetrical MOS transistor structure, the source and drain regions are identical.
- This means that the transistor can be operated in either direction without affecting its performance.
- The symmetrical structure allows for better flexibility and efficiency in circuit design.

Non-symmet
... more
- In a non-symmetrical MOS transistor structure, the source and drain regions are not identical.
- This can lead to asymmetrical behavior of the transistor, affecting its performance in different operating conditions.
- Non-symmetrical structures are less commonly used in modern integrated circuits due to their limitations.

Semi-symmetrical MOS Transistor Structure:
- A semi-symmetrical MOS transistor structure has some degree of symmetry between the source and drain regions.
- While not completely symmetrical, this structure offers a balance between the benefits of symmetrical and non-symmetrical designs.

Pseudo-symmetrical MOS Transistor Structure:
- A pseudo-symmetrical MOS transistor structure may appear symmetrical at first glance but has subtle differences in the source and drain regions.
- This can lead to unexpected performance variations in certain operating conditions.
In conclusion, a symmetrical MOS transistor structure is preferred in most applications due to its flexibility and balanced performance characteristics.
Eshan Agnihotri asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
RESIDENTS of Lozère, a hilly department in southern France, recite complaints familiar to many rural corners of Europe. In remote hamlets and villages, with names such as Le Bacon and Le Bacon Vieux, mayors grumble about a lack of local schools, jobs, or phone and internet connections. Farmers of grazing animals add another concern: the return of wolves. Eradicated from France last century, the predators are gradually creeping back to more forests and hillsides. “The wolf must be taken in hand,” said an aspiring parliamentarian, Francis Palombi, when pressed by voters in an election campaign early this summer. Tourists enjoy visiting a wolf park in Lozère, but farmers fret over their livestock and their livelihoods. .
. .
As early as the ninth century, the royal office of the Luparii—wolf-catchers—was created in France to tackle the predators. Those official hunters (and others) completed their job in the 1930s, when the last wolf disappeared from the mainland. Active hunting and improved technology such as rifles in the 19th century, plus the use of poison such as strychnine later on, caused the population collapse. But in the early 1990s the animals reappeared. They crossed the Alps from Italy, upsetting sheep farmers on the French side of the border. Wolves have since spread to areas such as Lozère, delighting environmentalists, who see the predators’ presence as a sign of wider ecological health. Farmers, who say the wolves cause the deaths of thousands of sheep and other grazing animals, are less cheerful. They grumble that green activists and politically correct urban types have allowed the return of an old enemy.
Various factors explain the changes of the past few decades. Rural depopulation is part of the story. In Lozère, for example, farming and a once-flourishing mining industry supported a population of over 140,000 residents in the mid-19th century. Today the department has fewer than 80,000 people, many in its towns. As humans withdraw, forests are expanding. In France, between 1990 and 2015, forest cover increased by an average of 102,000 hectares each year, as more fields were given over to trees. Now, nearly one-third of mainland France is covered by woodland of some sort. The decline of hunting as a sport also means more forests fall quiet. In the mid-to-late 20th century over 2m hunters regularly spent winter weekends tramping in woodland, seeking boars, birds and other prey. Today the Fédération Nationale des Chasseurs, the national body, claims 1.1m people hold hunting licences, though the number of active hunters is probably lower. The mostly protected status of the wolf in Europe—hunting them is now forbidden, other than when occasional culls are sanctioned by the state—plus the efforts of NGOs to track and count the animals, also contribute to the recovery of wolf populations.
As the lupine population of Europe spreads westwards, with occasional reports of wolves seen closer to urban areas, expect to hear of more clashes between farmers and those who celebrate the predators’ return. Farmers’ losses are real, but are not the only economic story. Tourist venues, such as parks where wolves are kept and the animals’ spread is discussed, also generate income and jobs in rural areas.
The inhabitants of Lozère have to grapple with all of the following problems, EXCEPT:
... more

Naman Khanna asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
The Second Hand September campaign, led by Oxfam . . . seeks to encourage shopping at local organisations and charities as alternatives to fast fashion brands such as Primark and Boohoo in the name of saving our planet. As innocent as mindless scrolling through online shops may seem, such consumers are unintentionally—or perhaps even knowingly —contributing to an industry that uses more energy than aviation. . . .
Brits buy more garments than any other country in Europe, so it comes as no shock that many of those clothes end up in UK landfills each year: 300,000 tonnes of them, to be exact. This waste of clothing is destructive to our planet, releasing greenhouse gasses as clothes are burnt as well as bleeding toxins and dyes into the surrounding soil and water. As ecologist Chelsea Rochman bluntly put it, “The mismanagement of our waste has even come back to haunt us on our dinner plate.”
It’s not surprising, then, that people are scrambling for a solution, the most common of which is second-hand shopping. Retailers selling consigned clothing are currently expanding at a rapid rate . . . If everyone bought just one used item in a year, it would save 449 million lbs of waste, equivalent to the weight of 1 million Polar bears. “Thrifting” has increasingly become a trendy practice. London is home to many second-hand, or more commonly coined ‘vintage’, shops across the city from Bayswater to Brixton.
So you’re cool and you care about the planet; you’ve killed two birds with one stone. But do people simply purchase a second-hand item, flash it on Instagram with #vintage and call it a day without considering whether what they are doing is actually effective?
According to a study commissioned by Patagonia, for instance, older clothes shed more microfibres. These can end up in our rivers and seas after just one wash due to the worn material, thus contributing to microfibre pollution. To break it down, the amount of microfibres released by laundering 100,000 fleece jackets is equivalent to as many as 11,900 plastic grocery bags, and up to 40 per cent of that ends up in our oceans. . . . So where does this leave second-hand consumers? [They would be well advised to buy] high-quality items that shed less and last longer [as this] combats both microfibre pollution and excess garments ending up in landfills. . . .
Luxury brands would rather not circulate their latest season stock around the globe to be sold at a cheaper price, which is why companies like ThredUP, a US fashion resale marketplace, have not yet caught on in the UK. There will always be a market for consignment but there is also a whole generation of people who have been taught that only buying new products is the norm; second-hand luxury goods are not in their psyche. Ben Whitaker, director at Liquidation Firm B-Stock, told Prospect that unless recycling becomes cost-effective and filters into mass production, with the right technology to partner it, “high-end retailers would rather put brand before sustainability.”
The central idea of the passage would be undermined if:
... more

Gaurav Bhandari asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
The Second Hand September campaign, led by Oxfam . . . seeks to encourage shopping at local organisations and charities as alternatives to fast fashion brands such as Primark and Boohoo in the name of saving our planet. As innocent as mindless scrolling through online shops may seem, such consumers are unintentionally—or perhaps even knowingly —contributing to an industry that uses more energy than aviation. . . .
Brits buy more garments than any other country in Europe, so it comes as no shock that many of those clothes end up in UK landfills each year: 300,000 tonnes of them, to be exact. This waste of clothing is destructive to our planet, releasing greenhouse gasses as clothes are burnt as well as bleeding toxins and dyes into the surrounding soil and water. As ecologist Chelsea Rochman bluntly put it, “The mismanagement of our waste has even come back to haunt us on our dinner plate.”
It’s not surprising, then, that people are scrambling for a solution, the most common of which is second-hand shopping. Retailers selling consigned clothing are currently expanding at a rapid rate . . . If everyone bought just one used item in a year, it would save 449 million lbs of waste, equivalent to the weight of 1 million Polar bears. “Thrifting” has increasingly become a trendy practice. London is home to many second-hand, or more commonly coined ‘vintage’, shops across the city from Bayswater to Brixton.
So you’re cool and you care about the planet; you’ve killed two birds with one stone. But do people simply purchase a second-hand item, flash it on Instagram with #vintage and call it a day without considering whether what they are doing is actually effective?
According to a study commissioned by Patagonia, for instance, older clothes shed more microfibres. These can end up in our rivers and seas after just one wash due to the worn material, thus contributing to microfibre pollution. To break it down, the amount of microfibres released by laundering 100,000 fleece jackets is equivalent to as many as 11,900 plastic grocery bags, and up to 40 per cent of that ends up in our oceans. . . . So where does this leave second-hand consumers? [They would be well advised to buy] high-quality items that shed less and last longer [as this] combats both microfibre pollution and excess garments ending up in landfills. . . .
Luxury brands would rather not circulate their latest season stock around the globe to be sold at a cheaper price, which is why companies like ThredUP, a US fashion resale marketplace, have not yet caught on in the UK. There will always be a market for consignment but there is also a whole generation of people who have been taught that only buying new products is the norm; second-hand luxury goods are not in their psyche. Ben Whitaker, director at Liquidation Firm B-Stock, told Prospect that unless recycling becomes cost-effective and filters into mass production, with the right technology to partner it, “high-end retailers would rather put brand before sustainability.”
The act of “thrifting”, as described in the passage, can be considered ironic because it:
... more

Arnav Trivedi asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
The Second Hand September campaign, led by Oxfam . . . seeks to encourage shopping at local organisations and charities as alternatives to fast fashion brands such as Primark and Boohoo in the name of saving our planet. As innocent as mindless scrolling through online shops may seem, such consumers are unintentionally—or perhaps even knowingly —contributing to an industry that uses more energy than aviation. . . .
Brits buy more garments than any other country in Europe, so it comes as no shock that many of those clothes end up in UK landfills each year: 300,000 tonnes of them, to be exact. This waste of clothing is destructive to our planet, releasing greenhouse gasses as clothes are burnt as well as bleeding toxins and dyes into the surrounding soil and water. As ecologist Chelsea Rochman bluntly put it, “The mismanagement of our waste has even come back to haunt us on our dinner plate.”
It’s not surprising, then, that people are scrambling for a solution, the most common of which is second-hand shopping. Retailers selling consigned clothing are currently expanding at a rapid rate . . . If everyone bought just one used item in a year, it would save 449 million lbs of waste, equivalent to the weight of 1 million Polar bears. “Thrifting” has increasingly become a trendy practice. London is home to many second-hand, or more commonly coined ‘vintage’, shops across the city from Bayswater to Brixton.
So you’re cool and you care about the planet; you’ve killed two birds with one stone. But do people simply purchase a second-hand item, flash it on Instagram with #vintage and call it a day without considering whether what they are doing is actually effective?
According to a study commissioned by Patagonia, for instance, older clothes shed more microfibres. These can end up in our rivers and seas after just one wash due to the worn material, thus contributing to microfibre pollution. To break it down, the amount of microfibres released by laundering 100,000 fleece jackets is equivalent to as many as 11,900 plastic grocery bags, and up to 40 per cent of that ends up in our oceans. . . . So where does this leave second-hand consumers? [They would be well advised to buy] high-quality items that shed less and last longer [as this] combats both microfibre pollution and excess garments ending up in landfills. . . .
Luxury brands would rather not circulate their latest season stock around the globe to be sold at a cheaper price, which is why companies like ThredUP, a US fashion resale marketplace, have not yet caught on in the UK. There will always be a market for consignment but there is also a whole generation of people who have been taught that only buying new products is the norm; second-hand luxury goods are not in their psyche. Ben Whitaker, director at Liquidation Firm B-Stock, told Prospect that unless recycling becomes cost-effective and filters into mass production, with the right technology to partner it, “high-end retailers would rather put brand before sustainability.”
Based on the passage, we can infer that the opposite of fast fashion, ‘slow fashion’, would most likely refer to clothes that:
... more

Avani Patel asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
The Second Hand September campaign, led by Oxfam . . . seeks to encourage shopping at local organisations and charities as alternatives to fast fashion brands such as Primark and Boohoo in the name of saving our planet. As innocent as mindless scrolling through online shops may seem, such consumers are unintentionally—or perhaps even knowingly —contributing to an industry that uses more energy than aviation. . . .
Brits buy more garments than any other country in Europe, so it comes as no shock that many of those clothes end up in UK landfills each year: 300,000 tonnes of them, to be exact. This waste of clothing is destructive to our planet, releasing greenhouse gasses as clothes are burnt as well as bleeding toxins and dyes into the surrounding soil and water. As ecologist Chelsea Rochman bluntly put it, “The mismanagement of our waste has even come back to haunt us on our dinner plate.”
It’s not surprising, then, that people are scrambling for a solution, the most common of which is second-hand shopping. Retailers selling consigned clothing are currently expanding at a rapid rate . . . If everyone bought just one used item in a year, it would save 449 million lbs of waste, equivalent to the weight of 1 million Polar bears. “Thrifting” has increasingly become a trendy practice. London is home to many second-hand, or more commonly coined ‘vintage’, shops across the city from Bayswater to Brixton.
So you’re cool and you care about the planet; you’ve killed two birds with one stone. But do people simply purchase a second-hand item, flash it on Instagram with #vintage and call it a day without considering whether what they are doing is actually effective?
According to a study commissioned by Patagonia, for instance, older clothes shed more microfibres. These can end up in our rivers and seas after just one wash due to the worn material, thus contributing to microfibre pollution. To break it down, the amount of microfibres released by laundering 100,000 fleece jackets is equivalent to as many as 11,900 plastic grocery bags, and up to 40 per cent of that ends up in our oceans. . . . So where does this leave second-hand consumers? [They would be well advised to buy] high-quality items that shed less and last longer [as this] combats both microfibre pollution and excess garments ending up in landfills. . . .
Luxury brands would rather not circulate their latest season stock around the globe to be sold at a cheaper price, which is why companies like ThredUP, a US fashion resale marketplace, have not yet caught on in the UK. There will always be a market for consignment but there is also a whole generation of people who have been taught that only buying new products is the norm; second-hand luxury goods are not in their psyche. Ben Whitaker, director at Liquidation Firm B-Stock, told Prospect that unless recycling becomes cost-effective and filters into mass production, with the right technology to partner it, “high-end retailers would rather put brand before sustainability.”
According to the author, companies like ThredUP have not caught on in the UK for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that:
... more

Bhumi Patel asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
Over the past four centuries liberalism has been so successful that it has driven all its opponents off the battlefield. Now it is disintegrating, destroyed by a mix of hubris and internal contradictions, according to Patrick Deneen, a professor of politics at the University of Notre Dame. . . . Equality of opportunity has produced a new meritocratic aristocracy that has all the aloofness of the old aristocracy with none of its sense of noblesse oblige. Democracy has degenerated into a theatre of the absurd. And technological advances are reducing ever more areas of work into meaningless drudgery. “The gap between liberalism’s claims about itself and the lived reality of the citizenry” is now so wide that “the lie can no longer be accepted,” Mr Deneen writes. What better proof of this than the vision of 1,000 private planes whisking their occupants to Davos to discuss the question of “creating a shared future in a fragmented world”? . . .
Deneen does an impressive job of capturing the current mood of disillusionment, echoing leftwing complaints about rampant commercialism, right-wing complaints about narcissistic and bullying students, and general worries about atomisation and selfishness. But when he concludes that all this adds up to a failure of liberalism, is his argument convincing? . . . He argues that the essence of liberalism lies in freeing individuals from constraints. In fact, liberalism contains a wide range of intellectual traditions which provide different answers to the question of how to trade off the relative claims of rights and responsibilities, individual expression and social ties. . . . liberals experimented with a range of ideas from devolving power from the centre to creating national education systems.
Mr Deneen’s fixation on the essence of liberalism leads to the second big problem of his book: his failure to recognise liberalism’s ability to reform itself and address its internal problems. The late 19th century saw America suffering from many of the problems that are reappearing today, including the creation of a business aristocracy, the rise of vast companies, the corruption of politics and the sense that society was dividing into winners and losers. But a wide variety of reformers, working within the liberal tradition, tackled these problems head on. Theodore Roosevelt took on the trusts. Progressives cleaned up government corruption. University reformers modernised academic syllabuses and built ladders of opportunity. Rather than dying, liberalism reformed itself.
Mr Deneen is right to point out that the record of liberalism in recent years has been dismal. He is also right to assert that the world has much to learn from the premodern notions of liberty as self-mastery and self-denial. The biggest enemy of liberalism is not so much atomisation but old-fashioned greed, as members of the Davos elite pile their plates ever higher with perks and share options. But he is wrong to argue that the only way for people to liberate themselves from the contradictions of liberalism is “liberation from liberalism itself”. The best way to read “Why Liberalism Failed” is not as a funeral oration but as a call to action: up your game, or else.
The author of the passage is likely to disagree with all of the following statements, EXCEPT:
... more

Wasima Thakur asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
Over the past four centuries liberalism has been so successful that it has driven all its opponents off the battlefield. Now it is disintegrating, destroyed by a mix of hubris and internal contradictions, according to Patrick Deneen, a professor of politics at the University of Notre Dame. . . . Equality of opportunity has produced a new meritocratic aristocracy that has all the aloofness of the old aristocracy with none of its sense of noblesse oblige. Democracy has degenerated into a theatre of the absurd. And technological advances are reducing ever more areas of work into meaningless drudgery. “The gap between liberalism’s claims about itself and the lived reality of the citizenry” is now so wide that “the lie can no longer be accepted,” Mr Deneen writes. What better proof of this than the vision of 1,000 private planes whisking their occupants to Davos to discuss the question of “creating a shared future in a fragmented world”? . . .
Deneen does an impressive job of capturing the current mood of disillusionment, echoing leftwing complaints about rampant commercialism, right-wing complaints about narcissistic and bullying students, and general worries about atomisation and selfishness. But when he concludes that all this adds up to a failure of liberalism, is his argument convincing? . . . He argues that the essence of liberalism lies in freeing individuals from constraints. In fact, liberalism contains a wide range of intellectual traditions which provide different answers to the question of how to trade off the relative claims of rights and responsibilities, individual expression and social ties. . . . liberals experimented with a range of ideas from devolving power from the centre to creating national education systems.
Mr Deneen’s fixation on the essence of liberalism leads to the second big problem of his book: his failure to recognise liberalism’s ability to reform itself and address its internal problems. The late 19th century saw America suffering from many of the problems that are reappearing today, including the creation of a business aristocracy, the rise of vast companies, the corruption of politics and the sense that society was dividing into winners and losers. But a wide variety of reformers, working within the liberal tradition, tackled these problems head on. Theodore Roosevelt took on the trusts. Progressives cleaned up government corruption. University reformers modernised academic syllabuses and built ladders of opportunity. Rather than dying, liberalism reformed itself.
Mr Deneen is right to point out that the record of liberalism in recent years has been dismal. He is also right to assert that the world has much to learn from the premodern notions of liberty as self-mastery and self-denial. The biggest enemy of liberalism is not so much atomisation but old-fashioned greed, as members of the Davos elite pile their plates ever higher with perks and share options. But he is wrong to argue that the only way for people to liberate themselves from the contradictions of liberalism is “liberation from liberalism itself”. The best way to read “Why Liberalism Failed” is not as a funeral oration but as a call to action: up your game, or else.
All of the following statements are evidence of the decline of liberalism today, EXCEPT:
... more

Jiya Bhatia asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
Over the past four centuries liberalism has been so successful that it has driven all its opponents off the battlefield. Now it is disintegrating, destroyed by a mix of hubris and internal contradictions, according to Patrick Deneen, a professor of politics at the University of Notre Dame. . . . Equality of opportunity has produced a new meritocratic aristocracy that has all the aloofness of the old aristocracy with none of its sense of noblesse oblige. Democracy has degenerated into a theatre of the absurd. And technological advances are reducing ever more areas of work into meaningless drudgery. “The gap between liberalism’s claims about itself and the lived reality of the citizenry” is now so wide that “the lie can no longer be accepted,” Mr Deneen writes. What better proof of this than the vision of 1,000 private planes whisking their occupants to Davos to discuss the question of “creating a shared future in a fragmented world”? . . .
Deneen does an impressive job of capturing the current mood of disillusionment, echoing leftwing complaints about rampant commercialism, right-wing complaints about narcissistic and bullying students, and general worries about atomisation and selfishness. But when he concludes that all this adds up to a failure of liberalism, is his argument convincing? . . . He argues that the essence of liberalism lies in freeing individuals from constraints. In fact, liberalism contains a wide range of intellectual traditions which provide different answers to the question of how to trade off the relative claims of rights and responsibilities, individual expression and social ties. . . . liberals experimented with a range of ideas from devolving power from the centre to creating national education systems.
Mr Deneen’s fixation on the essence of liberalism leads to the second big problem of his book: his failure to recognise liberalism’s ability to reform itself and address its internal problems. The late 19th century saw America suffering from many of the problems that are reappearing today, including the creation of a business aristocracy, the rise of vast companies, the corruption of politics and the sense that society was dividing into winners and losers. But a wide variety of reformers, working within the liberal tradition, tackled these problems head on. Theodore Roosevelt took on the trusts. Progressives cleaned up government corruption. University reformers modernised academic syllabuses and built ladders of opportunity. Rather than dying, liberalism reformed itself.
Mr Deneen is right to point out that the record of liberalism in recent years has been dismal. He is also right to assert that the world has much to learn from the premodern notions of liberty as self-mastery and self-denial. The biggest enemy of liberalism is not so much atomisation but old-fashioned greed, as members of the Davos elite pile their plates ever higher with perks and share options. But he is wrong to argue that the only way for people to liberate themselves from the contradictions of liberalism is “liberation from liberalism itself”. The best way to read “Why Liberalism Failed” is not as a funeral oration but as a call to action: up your game, or else.
The author of the passage refers to “the Davos elite” to illustrate his views on:
... more

Fetching relevant content for you