The eastern and the western wings of Pakistan were separated by about 1,600 km. They were united solely by the bond of religion. The rulers of Pakistan suppressed the people of the eastern wing and denied them any say in the affairs of the government. They reduced East Bengal to the position of a colony of West Pakistan and exploited her, Under the leadership of Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rehman and his party (A wami League), the people of East Bengal demanded restoration of democracy and an end to their exploitation by West Pakistan.Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rehman was arrested and the Pakistani army let loose a reign of terror against the pecople of East Bengal. As a result, about 10 million people of East Bengal escaped to India. It created a great human problem for Inida. In the meantime, the leaders of East Bengal declared East Bengal as a sovereign, independent nation (Bangladesh) and organised an army (Mukti Vahini) to free their country from the Pakistani army. On December 3, 1971, Pakistan, having failed to suppress the Mukti Vahini, declared war on India. This war came to an end within 14 days after the defeat of Pakistan. The Pakistani army surrendered on December 17, 1971. The eastern wing of Pakistan became an independent state under the name of Bangladesh. A conference of the leaders of India and pakistan was held at Shimla in 1972. Both the countries agreed to return the territories conquered by each other during the war. They also agreed to solve their mutual disputes through peaceful negotiations.
India was the first country to recognise the people's Republic of Bangladesh. Many other countries also recognised this new state. Bangladesh adopted the principles of democracy, socialism and secularism. During the time of Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rehman's government, the relations between the two countries were very cordial. India developed trade relatons with Bangladesh and helped in the rebuilding of Bangladesh in every possible way. The question relating to the Farakka Barrage was also resolved. Since 1971 both the countries have established close political, economic and cultural relations.
Although Bangladesh has seen many ups and downs since her establishment. India is trying its best to maintain friendly relations with her. Whenever there is any calamity, drought, flood etc., in Bangla-desh, India has always extended a helping hand to that country. India also agreed in 1992 to hand over Tin Bigha corridor to Bangladesh. Similary, Bangladesh also agreed to take back the Chakma refugees. In December 1996, Inida signed a historic treaty with Bangladesh, over the sharing of the Ganga waters. This treaty will remain in force for 30 years
Q. How did the policy reforms help in accelerating growth ?
(A) By exploiting the opportunities offered by technological breakthr-ough in agriculiture.
(B) By taking advantage of high liter-acy reate.
(C) By making a seriousdent in poverty in its various dimensions.