All India Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) Group

The line-to-line voltage of 3-phase T-type inverter has …….. levels?

Akshay Nair answered  •  2 hours ago


Line-to-Line Voltage Levels of 3-Phase T-Type Inverter:

Explanation:

1. Phase Voltage Levels:
  • Phase voltage refers to the voltage between any one phase and neutral in a 3-phase system.
  • In a T-type inverter, the phase voltage levels are determined by the switching pattern of the inverter.
  • The phase voltage lev... more



2. Line-to-Line Voltage Levels:
  • Line-to-line voltage refers to the voltage between two phases in a 3-phase system.
  • In a T-type inverter, the line-to-line voltage levels are determined by the combination of phase voltages based on the inverter topology.
  • The line-to-line voltage levels can be calculated using the phase voltage levels and the phase shift between the phases.



3. Levels of Line-to-Line Voltage:
  • The line-to-line voltage of a 3-phase T-type inverter can have different levels based on the switching states of the inverter.
  • Common levels of line-to-line voltage include:
    • Low voltage level - when only one leg of the inverter is active.
    • Medium voltage level - when two legs of the inverter are active.
    • High voltage level - when all three legs of the inverter are active.


  • The levels of line-to-line voltage determine the output voltage of the inverter and impact the overall performance of the system.


A control system is said to be robust when
  • a)
    it has low sensitivities
  • b)
    it is stable over a wide range of parameter variation
  • c)
    both (a) and (b)
  • d)
    neither (a) nor (b)
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Imtiaz Ahmad answered  •  11 hours ago
Explanation of a robust control system:

- Low sensitivities: A robust control system should have low sensitivities to uncertainties and disturbances. This means that even if there are slight variations or disturbances in the system, the control system should be able to maintain stability and performance without significant changes. Low sensitivities ensure that the system can effectively handle variations in parameters without compromising its operation.

- Stable over a wide range of parameter variation: Another important aspect of a robust control system is its ability to remain stable over a wide range of parameter variations. This means that the system should be able to maintain its stability and performance even when there are significant changes in the parameters or operating conditions. A robust control system should be able to adapt to different conditions and still perform optimally.

- Both (a) and (b): Therefore, a robust control system is one that not only has low sensitivities to uncertainties and disturbances but also remains stable over a wide range of parameter variations. By combining these two characteristics, a robust control system can effectively handle uncertainties and variations in the system, ensuring reliable and consistent performance.

Logical expression (A+B) (A+C) is equal to
  • a)
    A + B + C
  • b)
    A + B.C
  • c)
    A.B + A.C
  • d)
    A.B.C
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Saanvi Joshi answered  •  14 hours ago
Explanation:

Given Expression: (A + B) (A + C)

Expanding the expression:
(A + B) (A + C) = A(A + C) + B(A + C)
= A.A + A.C + B.A + B.C
= A + AC + BA + BC
= A + AC + AB + BC
= A(1 + C) + B(C)
= A + AC + BC

Final Simplified Expression: A + B.C
Therefore, the logical expression (A + B) (A + C) is equal to
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Air craft of Jet Airways at Ahmedabad airport arrive according to a Poisson process at a rate of 12 per hour. All aircraft are handled by one air traffic controller. If the controller takes a 2 – minute coffee break, what is the probability that he will miss one or more arriving aircraft?
  • a)
    0.33
  • b)
    0.44
  • c)
    0.55
  • d)
    0.66
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Jayant Chopra answered  •  22 hours ago
Understanding the Problem:
The arrival of aircraft at Jet Airways follows a Poisson process with a rate of 12 per hour. The air traffic controller takes a 2-minute coffee break. We need to find the probability that he will miss one or more arriving aircraft during this break.

Calculating the Arrival Rate:
Given that aircraft arrive at a rate of 12 per hour, we ca
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The power spectral density of deterministic signal is given by [sin(f)/f]2. where 'f' is frequency. The auto-correlation function of the signal in the time domain is -
  • a)
    a sine pulse
  • b)
    a delta function
  • c)
    a triangular pulse
  • d)
    a rectangular pulse
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Rahul Ahuja answered  •  3 days ago
Explanation:

Power Spectral Density (PSD) given by [sin(f)/f]^2:
- The power spectral density of a deterministic signal is given by [sin(f)/f]^2.
- This means that the frequency content of the signal is proportional to the square of the sine function divided by the frequency.

Auto-correlation function in the time domain:
- The auto-correlat
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Assertion (A): In India we use CCIR-B standard
Reason (R): Video signals are frequency modulated.
  • a)
    Both A and R are correct and R is correct explanation of A
  • b)
    Both A and R are correct but R is not correct explanation of A
  • c)
    A is correct but R is wrong
  • d)
    A is wrong but R is correct
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Rahul Ahuja answered  •  3 days ago
Explanation:

Assertion (A):
- The statement is correct. In India, the CCIR-B standard is commonly used for television broadcasting.

Reason (R):
- The reason provided is incorrect. Video signals are actually amplitude modulated, not frequency modulated.
Therefore, option 'C' is the correct answer as Assertion (A) is correct but the Reason (
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Consider a silicon n+p junction solar cell with a 1 cm2 surface area and NA = 1015/cm3. Calculate IL (light current) and Voc (open circuit voltage).
Assume Dn = 35cm2sec-1, τn = 2.57 μsec and GL = 2.7 × 1019 cm3 sec-1, VT = 25.86 x 10-3 V, ni = 1.5 x 1010 cm3
  • a)
    IL = 1.33 x 10-10 A, VOC = 0.505 V
  • b)
    IL = 40.95 mA, VOC​ = 0.505 V
  • c)
    IL = 1.33 x 10-10 A, VOC​ = 0.852 V
  • d)
    IL = 40.95 mA, VOC​ = 0.852 V
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Bhavya Singh answered  •  3 days ago
Calculating IL (light current) and Voc (open circuit voltage)
1. Calculating IL (light current):
Given parameters:
- NA = 10^15/cm^3
- Dn = 35 cm^2/sec
- τn = 2.57 μsec
- GL = 2.7 x 10^19 cm^3 sec^-1
- VT = 25.86 x 10^-3 V
- ni = 1.5 x 10^10 cm^3
Using the formula for IL:
IL = q * GL * τn * NA * VT / (2 * Dn)
Substitut
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Let E = (-200ax + 30ay + 70az) cos 10t V/m at point 'P which lies on the surface of a perfect conductor P (3, -4,1). If a material adjacent to the conductor has ∈r = 5, μf = 0, σ = 0, then surface charge density on the conductor surface at P
  • a)
    ±5.2 cos2 10t 
  • b)
    ± 3.48 cos 102t
  • c)
    ± 5.2 cos 104t
  • d)
    ± 3.48 cos 104t
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Bhavya Singh answered  •  3 days ago
Given Information:
- Electric field E = (-200ax+ 30ay + 70az) cos 104t V/m at point P (3, -4,1)
- Point P lies on the surface of a perfect conductor
- Material adjacent to the conductor has r = 5, f = 0, θ = 0

Surface Charge Density Calculation:
- The surface charge density on a perfect conductor is given by σ = n * E
- Where n is the u
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Amplitude distortion is due to ___________
  • a)
    Shift in Q-point
  • b)
    Change in input
  • c)
    Linear amplification
  • d)
    Small input signal
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Chhavi Gupta answered  •  4 days ago
Amplitude distortion is due to Shift in Q-point
- Shift in Q-point:
When the Q-point of a transistor amplifier shifts from its ideal position, it can lead to amplitude distortion in the output signal. The Q-point is the operating point of the transistor where it remains in active region for amplification. If the Q-point shifts due to factors like temperature variations, component
... more

The nominal quiescent collector current of a transistor is 1.2 mA. If the range of β for this transistor is 80 ≤ β ≤ 120 and if the quiescent collector current changes by +-10 percent, the range in value for rπ is
  • a)
    1.73 kΩ < rπ < 2.59 kΩ
  • b)
    1.93 kΩ < rπ <  2.59 kΩ
  • c)
    1.73 kΩ < rπ < 2.59 kΩ
  • d)
    1.56 kΩ  < rπ <  2.88 kΩ
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Chhavi Gupta answered  •  4 days ago
Given Data:
Nominal quiescent collector current = 1.2 mA
Range of β for the transistor = 80 to 120
Change in quiescent collector current = ±10%

Calculation:
1. Calculate the range of quiescent collector current:
Minimum quiescent collector current = 1.2 mA - 10% of 1.2 mA
= 1.2 mA - 0.12 mA
= 1.08 mA
Maximum quiescent collector curre
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Which one of the following is a true statement
  • a)
    1/2 (bxy + byx ) = r
  • b)
    1/2 (bxy + byx ) < r
  • c)
    1/2 (bxy + byx ) > r
  • d)
    none of these
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Pranav Bhatia answered  •  4 days ago
Explanation:

Given expression:
1/2 (bxy+ byx)

Simplifying the expression:
1/2 (bxy+ byx) = 1/2 * bxy + 1/2 * byx
= bxy/2 + byx/2

Comparing with the given options:
Option a) 1/2 (bxy+ byx) = r is incorrect
Option b) 1/2 (bxy+ byx) r is incorrect
Option c) 1/2 (bxy+ byx) r is correct
Option d) none of the
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The minterm expansion of f (P, Q, R) = PQ + QR̅ + PR̅ is
  • a)
    m2 + m4 + m6 + m7
  • b)
    m0 + m1 + m6 + m7
  • c)
    m2 + m3 + m4 + m5
  • d)
    m0 + m1 + m3 + m7
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Yash Khurana answered  •  4 days ago
Explanation:

Minterms:
- In Boolean algebra, a minterm is a product term that contains all the variables of the function in either their true or complemented form.
- For a function of three variables P, Q, and R, there are 2^3 = 8 possible minterms (m0 to m7).

Minterm Expansion:
- The given function f(P, Q, R) = PQ + QR + PR can be expresse
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In TV signals colour burst is used
  • a)
    to maintain colour sequence
  • b)
    to ensure I and Q phase correctly
  • c)
    to synchronise colours
  • d)
    for interlacing of horizontal lines
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Yash Khurana answered  •  4 days ago
Explanation:
Colour Burst in TV Signals
- The colour burst is a signal used in television broadcasting to ensure that the I and Q phases are correct.
- It is a reference signal that is sent during the horizontal blanking period of the video signal.
- The colour burst signal contains information about the phase and amplitude of the colour carrier signal.
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The absorption spectrum of O2 shows vibrational structure which becomes a continuous at 56876cm-¹; the upper electronic state dissociation into one ground state atom and one excited atom. Estimate the dissociation energy of g... more

Devang Choudhary answered  •  5 days ago
Estimating Dissociation Energy of Ground State O2
Estimating the Dissociation Energy requires understanding the absorption spectrum of O2 and the vibrational structure it exhibits.

Vibrational Structure of O2 Absorption Spectrum
- The absorption spectrum of O2 shows vibrational structure until it becomes continuous at 56876 cm-1.
- This vibrational structur
... more

The total efficiency of an injection laser with a GaAs active region is 18%. The voltage applied to the device is 2.5 V and the bandgap energy for GaAs is 1.43 eV. The external power efficiency of the device is
  • a)
    5%
  • b)
    10%
  • c)
    15%
  • d)
    20%
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Gautam Rao answered  •  5 days ago
Given data:
- Total efficiency of injection laser = 18%
- Voltage applied to the device = 2.5 V
- Bandgap energy for GaAs = 1.43 eV

Calculating External Power Efficiency:
- The total efficiency of the laser can be broken down into internal quantum efficiency (ηi) and external power efficiency (ηext) as follows:
Total efficiency = ηi * ηext
-
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An amplier has three stages te1=150k?

Aditya Sharma answered  •  6 days ago
Amplifier with Three Stages (Te1=150k)

Introduction:
An amplifier with three stages refers to a circuit with three separate amplification stages that work together to increase the strength of an input signal. In this case, Te1=150k indicates the transconductance of the first stage in the amplifier, which is a crucial parameter for determining the overall performance o
... more
Eshan Agnihotri asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
RESIDENTS of Lozère, a hilly department in southern France, recite complaints familiar to many rural corners of Europe. In remote hamlets and villages, with names such as Le Bacon and Le Bacon Vieux, mayors grumble about a lack of local schools, jobs, or phone and internet connections. Farmers of grazing animals add another concern: the return of wolves. Eradicated from France last century, the predators are gradually creeping back to more forests and hillsides. “The wolf must be taken in hand,” said an aspiring parliamentarian, Francis Palombi, when pressed by voters in an election campaign early this summer. Tourists enjoy visiting a wolf park in Lozère, but farmers fret over their livestock and their livelihoods. .
. .
As early as the ninth century, the royal office of the Luparii—wolf-catchers—was created in France to tackle the predators. Those official hunters (and others) completed their job in the 1930s, when the last wolf disappeared from the mainland. Active hunting and improved technology such as rifles in the 19th century, plus the use of poison such as strychnine later on, caused the population collapse. But in the early 1990s the animals reappeared. They crossed the Alps from Italy, upsetting sheep farmers on the French side of the border. Wolves have since spread to areas such as Lozère, delighting environmentalists, who see the predators’ presence as a sign of wider ecological health. Farmers, who say the wolves cause the deaths of thousands of sheep and other grazing animals, are less cheerful. They grumble that green activists and politically correct urban types have allowed the return of an old enemy.
Various factors explain the changes of the past few decades. Rural depopulation is part of the story. In Lozère, for example, farming and a once-flourishing mining industry supported a population of over 140,000 residents in the mid-19th century. Today the department has fewer than 80,000 people, many in its towns. As humans withdraw, forests are expanding. In France, between 1990 and 2015, forest cover increased by an average of 102,000 hectares each year, as more fields were given over to trees. Now, nearly one-third of mainland France is covered by woodland of some sort. The decline of hunting as a sport also means more forests fall quiet. In the mid-to-late 20th century over 2m hunters regularly spent winter weekends tramping in woodland, seeking boars, birds and other prey. Today the Fédération Nationale des Chasseurs, the national body, claims 1.1m people hold hunting licences, though the number of active hunters is probably lower. The mostly protected status of the wolf in Europe—hunting them is now forbidden, other than when occasional culls are sanctioned by the state—plus the efforts of NGOs to track and count the animals, also contribute to the recovery of wolf populations.
As the lupine population of Europe spreads westwards, with occasional reports of wolves seen closer to urban areas, expect to hear of more clashes between farmers and those who celebrate the predators’ return. Farmers’ losses are real, but are not the only economic story. Tourist venues, such as parks where wolves are kept and the animals’ spread is discussed, also generate income and jobs in rural areas.
The inhabitants of Lozère have to grapple with all of the following problems, EXCEPT:
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Naman Khanna asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
The Second Hand September campaign, led by Oxfam . . . seeks to encourage shopping at local organisations and charities as alternatives to fast fashion brands such as Primark and Boohoo in the name of saving our planet. As innocent as mindless scrolling through online shops may seem, such consumers are unintentionally—or perhaps even knowingly —contributing to an industry that uses more energy than aviation. . . .
Brits buy more garments than any other country in Europe, so it comes as no shock that many of those clothes end up in UK landfills each year: 300,000 tonnes of them, to be exact. This waste of clothing is destructive to our planet, releasing greenhouse gasses as clothes are burnt as well as bleeding toxins and dyes into the surrounding soil and water. As ecologist Chelsea Rochman bluntly put it, “The mismanagement of our waste has even come back to haunt us on our dinner plate.”
It’s not surprising, then, that people are scrambling for a solution, the most common of which is second-hand shopping. Retailers selling consigned clothing are currently expanding at a rapid rate . . . If everyone bought just one used item in a year, it would save 449 million lbs of waste, equivalent to the weight of 1 million Polar bears. “Thrifting” has increasingly become a trendy practice. London is home to many second-hand, or more commonly coined ‘vintage’, shops across the city from Bayswater to Brixton.
So you’re cool and you care about the planet; you’ve killed two birds with one stone. But do people simply purchase a second-hand item, flash it on Instagram with #vintage and call it a day without considering whether what they are doing is actually effective?
According to a study commissioned by Patagonia, for instance, older clothes shed more microfibres. These can end up in our rivers and seas after just one wash due to the worn material, thus contributing to microfibre pollution. To break it down, the amount of microfibres released by laundering 100,000 fleece jackets is equivalent to as many as 11,900 plastic grocery bags, and up to 40 per cent of that ends up in our oceans. . . . So where does this leave second-hand consumers? [They would be well advised to buy] high-quality items that shed less and last longer [as this] combats both microfibre pollution and excess garments ending up in landfills. . . .
Luxury brands would rather not circulate their latest season stock around the globe to be sold at a cheaper price, which is why companies like ThredUP, a US fashion resale marketplace, have not yet caught on in the UK. There will always be a market for consignment but there is also a whole generation of people who have been taught that only buying new products is the norm; second-hand luxury goods are not in their psyche. Ben Whitaker, director at Liquidation Firm B-Stock, told Prospect that unless recycling becomes cost-effective and filters into mass production, with the right technology to partner it, “high-end retailers would rather put brand before sustainability.”
The central idea of the passage would be undermined if:
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Gaurav Bhandari asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
The Second Hand September campaign, led by Oxfam . . . seeks to encourage shopping at local organisations and charities as alternatives to fast fashion brands such as Primark and Boohoo in the name of saving our planet. As innocent as mindless scrolling through online shops may seem, such consumers are unintentionally—or perhaps even knowingly —contributing to an industry that uses more energy than aviation. . . .
Brits buy more garments than any other country in Europe, so it comes as no shock that many of those clothes end up in UK landfills each year: 300,000 tonnes of them, to be exact. This waste of clothing is destructive to our planet, releasing greenhouse gasses as clothes are burnt as well as bleeding toxins and dyes into the surrounding soil and water. As ecologist Chelsea Rochman bluntly put it, “The mismanagement of our waste has even come back to haunt us on our dinner plate.”
It’s not surprising, then, that people are scrambling for a solution, the most common of which is second-hand shopping. Retailers selling consigned clothing are currently expanding at a rapid rate . . . If everyone bought just one used item in a year, it would save 449 million lbs of waste, equivalent to the weight of 1 million Polar bears. “Thrifting” has increasingly become a trendy practice. London is home to many second-hand, or more commonly coined ‘vintage’, shops across the city from Bayswater to Brixton.
So you’re cool and you care about the planet; you’ve killed two birds with one stone. But do people simply purchase a second-hand item, flash it on Instagram with #vintage and call it a day without considering whether what they are doing is actually effective?
According to a study commissioned by Patagonia, for instance, older clothes shed more microfibres. These can end up in our rivers and seas after just one wash due to the worn material, thus contributing to microfibre pollution. To break it down, the amount of microfibres released by laundering 100,000 fleece jackets is equivalent to as many as 11,900 plastic grocery bags, and up to 40 per cent of that ends up in our oceans. . . . So where does this leave second-hand consumers? [They would be well advised to buy] high-quality items that shed less and last longer [as this] combats both microfibre pollution and excess garments ending up in landfills. . . .
Luxury brands would rather not circulate their latest season stock around the globe to be sold at a cheaper price, which is why companies like ThredUP, a US fashion resale marketplace, have not yet caught on in the UK. There will always be a market for consignment but there is also a whole generation of people who have been taught that only buying new products is the norm; second-hand luxury goods are not in their psyche. Ben Whitaker, director at Liquidation Firm B-Stock, told Prospect that unless recycling becomes cost-effective and filters into mass production, with the right technology to partner it, “high-end retailers would rather put brand before sustainability.”
The act of “thrifting”, as described in the passage, can be considered ironic because it:
... more

Arnav Trivedi asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
The Second Hand September campaign, led by Oxfam . . . seeks to encourage shopping at local organisations and charities as alternatives to fast fashion brands such as Primark and Boohoo in the name of saving our planet. As innocent as mindless scrolling through online shops may seem, such consumers are unintentionally—or perhaps even knowingly —contributing to an industry that uses more energy than aviation. . . .
Brits buy more garments than any other country in Europe, so it comes as no shock that many of those clothes end up in UK landfills each year: 300,000 tonnes of them, to be exact. This waste of clothing is destructive to our planet, releasing greenhouse gasses as clothes are burnt as well as bleeding toxins and dyes into the surrounding soil and water. As ecologist Chelsea Rochman bluntly put it, “The mismanagement of our waste has even come back to haunt us on our dinner plate.”
It’s not surprising, then, that people are scrambling for a solution, the most common of which is second-hand shopping. Retailers selling consigned clothing are currently expanding at a rapid rate . . . If everyone bought just one used item in a year, it would save 449 million lbs of waste, equivalent to the weight of 1 million Polar bears. “Thrifting” has increasingly become a trendy practice. London is home to many second-hand, or more commonly coined ‘vintage’, shops across the city from Bayswater to Brixton.
So you’re cool and you care about the planet; you’ve killed two birds with one stone. But do people simply purchase a second-hand item, flash it on Instagram with #vintage and call it a day without considering whether what they are doing is actually effective?
According to a study commissioned by Patagonia, for instance, older clothes shed more microfibres. These can end up in our rivers and seas after just one wash due to the worn material, thus contributing to microfibre pollution. To break it down, the amount of microfibres released by laundering 100,000 fleece jackets is equivalent to as many as 11,900 plastic grocery bags, and up to 40 per cent of that ends up in our oceans. . . . So where does this leave second-hand consumers? [They would be well advised to buy] high-quality items that shed less and last longer [as this] combats both microfibre pollution and excess garments ending up in landfills. . . .
Luxury brands would rather not circulate their latest season stock around the globe to be sold at a cheaper price, which is why companies like ThredUP, a US fashion resale marketplace, have not yet caught on in the UK. There will always be a market for consignment but there is also a whole generation of people who have been taught that only buying new products is the norm; second-hand luxury goods are not in their psyche. Ben Whitaker, director at Liquidation Firm B-Stock, told Prospect that unless recycling becomes cost-effective and filters into mass production, with the right technology to partner it, “high-end retailers would rather put brand before sustainability.”
Based on the passage, we can infer that the opposite of fast fashion, ‘slow fashion’, would most likely refer to clothes that:
... more

Avani Patel asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
The Second Hand September campaign, led by Oxfam . . . seeks to encourage shopping at local organisations and charities as alternatives to fast fashion brands such as Primark and Boohoo in the name of saving our planet. As innocent as mindless scrolling through online shops may seem, such consumers are unintentionally—or perhaps even knowingly —contributing to an industry that uses more energy than aviation. . . .
Brits buy more garments than any other country in Europe, so it comes as no shock that many of those clothes end up in UK landfills each year: 300,000 tonnes of them, to be exact. This waste of clothing is destructive to our planet, releasing greenhouse gasses as clothes are burnt as well as bleeding toxins and dyes into the surrounding soil and water. As ecologist Chelsea Rochman bluntly put it, “The mismanagement of our waste has even come back to haunt us on our dinner plate.”
It’s not surprising, then, that people are scrambling for a solution, the most common of which is second-hand shopping. Retailers selling consigned clothing are currently expanding at a rapid rate . . . If everyone bought just one used item in a year, it would save 449 million lbs of waste, equivalent to the weight of 1 million Polar bears. “Thrifting” has increasingly become a trendy practice. London is home to many second-hand, or more commonly coined ‘vintage’, shops across the city from Bayswater to Brixton.
So you’re cool and you care about the planet; you’ve killed two birds with one stone. But do people simply purchase a second-hand item, flash it on Instagram with #vintage and call it a day without considering whether what they are doing is actually effective?
According to a study commissioned by Patagonia, for instance, older clothes shed more microfibres. These can end up in our rivers and seas after just one wash due to the worn material, thus contributing to microfibre pollution. To break it down, the amount of microfibres released by laundering 100,000 fleece jackets is equivalent to as many as 11,900 plastic grocery bags, and up to 40 per cent of that ends up in our oceans. . . . So where does this leave second-hand consumers? [They would be well advised to buy] high-quality items that shed less and last longer [as this] combats both microfibre pollution and excess garments ending up in landfills. . . .
Luxury brands would rather not circulate their latest season stock around the globe to be sold at a cheaper price, which is why companies like ThredUP, a US fashion resale marketplace, have not yet caught on in the UK. There will always be a market for consignment but there is also a whole generation of people who have been taught that only buying new products is the norm; second-hand luxury goods are not in their psyche. Ben Whitaker, director at Liquidation Firm B-Stock, told Prospect that unless recycling becomes cost-effective and filters into mass production, with the right technology to partner it, “high-end retailers would rather put brand before sustainability.”
According to the author, companies like ThredUP have not caught on in the UK for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that:
... more

Bhumi Patel asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
Over the past four centuries liberalism has been so successful that it has driven all its opponents off the battlefield. Now it is disintegrating, destroyed by a mix of hubris and internal contradictions, according to Patrick Deneen, a professor of politics at the University of Notre Dame. . . . Equality of opportunity has produced a new meritocratic aristocracy that has all the aloofness of the old aristocracy with none of its sense of noblesse oblige. Democracy has degenerated into a theatre of the absurd. And technological advances are reducing ever more areas of work into meaningless drudgery. “The gap between liberalism’s claims about itself and the lived reality of the citizenry” is now so wide that “the lie can no longer be accepted,” Mr Deneen writes. What better proof of this than the vision of 1,000 private planes whisking their occupants to Davos to discuss the question of “creating a shared future in a fragmented world”? . . .
Deneen does an impressive job of capturing the current mood of disillusionment, echoing leftwing complaints about rampant commercialism, right-wing complaints about narcissistic and bullying students, and general worries about atomisation and selfishness. But when he concludes that all this adds up to a failure of liberalism, is his argument convincing? . . . He argues that the essence of liberalism lies in freeing individuals from constraints. In fact, liberalism contains a wide range of intellectual traditions which provide different answers to the question of how to trade off the relative claims of rights and responsibilities, individual expression and social ties. . . . liberals experimented with a range of ideas from devolving power from the centre to creating national education systems.
Mr Deneen’s fixation on the essence of liberalism leads to the second big problem of his book: his failure to recognise liberalism’s ability to reform itself and address its internal problems. The late 19th century saw America suffering from many of the problems that are reappearing today, including the creation of a business aristocracy, the rise of vast companies, the corruption of politics and the sense that society was dividing into winners and losers. But a wide variety of reformers, working within the liberal tradition, tackled these problems head on. Theodore Roosevelt took on the trusts. Progressives cleaned up government corruption. University reformers modernised academic syllabuses and built ladders of opportunity. Rather than dying, liberalism reformed itself.
Mr Deneen is right to point out that the record of liberalism in recent years has been dismal. He is also right to assert that the world has much to learn from the premodern notions of liberty as self-mastery and self-denial. The biggest enemy of liberalism is not so much atomisation but old-fashioned greed, as members of the Davos elite pile their plates ever higher with perks and share options. But he is wrong to argue that the only way for people to liberate themselves from the contradictions of liberalism is “liberation from liberalism itself”. The best way to read “Why Liberalism Failed” is not as a funeral oration but as a call to action: up your game, or else.
The author of the passage is likely to disagree with all of the following statements, EXCEPT:
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Wasima Thakur asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
Over the past four centuries liberalism has been so successful that it has driven all its opponents off the battlefield. Now it is disintegrating, destroyed by a mix of hubris and internal contradictions, according to Patrick Deneen, a professor of politics at the University of Notre Dame. . . . Equality of opportunity has produced a new meritocratic aristocracy that has all the aloofness of the old aristocracy with none of its sense of noblesse oblige. Democracy has degenerated into a theatre of the absurd. And technological advances are reducing ever more areas of work into meaningless drudgery. “The gap between liberalism’s claims about itself and the lived reality of the citizenry” is now so wide that “the lie can no longer be accepted,” Mr Deneen writes. What better proof of this than the vision of 1,000 private planes whisking their occupants to Davos to discuss the question of “creating a shared future in a fragmented world”? . . .
Deneen does an impressive job of capturing the current mood of disillusionment, echoing leftwing complaints about rampant commercialism, right-wing complaints about narcissistic and bullying students, and general worries about atomisation and selfishness. But when he concludes that all this adds up to a failure of liberalism, is his argument convincing? . . . He argues that the essence of liberalism lies in freeing individuals from constraints. In fact, liberalism contains a wide range of intellectual traditions which provide different answers to the question of how to trade off the relative claims of rights and responsibilities, individual expression and social ties. . . . liberals experimented with a range of ideas from devolving power from the centre to creating national education systems.
Mr Deneen’s fixation on the essence of liberalism leads to the second big problem of his book: his failure to recognise liberalism’s ability to reform itself and address its internal problems. The late 19th century saw America suffering from many of the problems that are reappearing today, including the creation of a business aristocracy, the rise of vast companies, the corruption of politics and the sense that society was dividing into winners and losers. But a wide variety of reformers, working within the liberal tradition, tackled these problems head on. Theodore Roosevelt took on the trusts. Progressives cleaned up government corruption. University reformers modernised academic syllabuses and built ladders of opportunity. Rather than dying, liberalism reformed itself.
Mr Deneen is right to point out that the record of liberalism in recent years has been dismal. He is also right to assert that the world has much to learn from the premodern notions of liberty as self-mastery and self-denial. The biggest enemy of liberalism is not so much atomisation but old-fashioned greed, as members of the Davos elite pile their plates ever higher with perks and share options. But he is wrong to argue that the only way for people to liberate themselves from the contradictions of liberalism is “liberation from liberalism itself”. The best way to read “Why Liberalism Failed” is not as a funeral oration but as a call to action: up your game, or else.
All of the following statements are evidence of the decline of liberalism today, EXCEPT:
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Jiya Bhatia asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
Over the past four centuries liberalism has been so successful that it has driven all its opponents off the battlefield. Now it is disintegrating, destroyed by a mix of hubris and internal contradictions, according to Patrick Deneen, a professor of politics at the University of Notre Dame. . . . Equality of opportunity has produced a new meritocratic aristocracy that has all the aloofness of the old aristocracy with none of its sense of noblesse oblige. Democracy has degenerated into a theatre of the absurd. And technological advances are reducing ever more areas of work into meaningless drudgery. “The gap between liberalism’s claims about itself and the lived reality of the citizenry” is now so wide that “the lie can no longer be accepted,” Mr Deneen writes. What better proof of this than the vision of 1,000 private planes whisking their occupants to Davos to discuss the question of “creating a shared future in a fragmented world”? . . .
Deneen does an impressive job of capturing the current mood of disillusionment, echoing leftwing complaints about rampant commercialism, right-wing complaints about narcissistic and bullying students, and general worries about atomisation and selfishness. But when he concludes that all this adds up to a failure of liberalism, is his argument convincing? . . . He argues that the essence of liberalism lies in freeing individuals from constraints. In fact, liberalism contains a wide range of intellectual traditions which provide different answers to the question of how to trade off the relative claims of rights and responsibilities, individual expression and social ties. . . . liberals experimented with a range of ideas from devolving power from the centre to creating national education systems.
Mr Deneen’s fixation on the essence of liberalism leads to the second big problem of his book: his failure to recognise liberalism’s ability to reform itself and address its internal problems. The late 19th century saw America suffering from many of the problems that are reappearing today, including the creation of a business aristocracy, the rise of vast companies, the corruption of politics and the sense that society was dividing into winners and losers. But a wide variety of reformers, working within the liberal tradition, tackled these problems head on. Theodore Roosevelt took on the trusts. Progressives cleaned up government corruption. University reformers modernised academic syllabuses and built ladders of opportunity. Rather than dying, liberalism reformed itself.
Mr Deneen is right to point out that the record of liberalism in recent years has been dismal. He is also right to assert that the world has much to learn from the premodern notions of liberty as self-mastery and self-denial. The biggest enemy of liberalism is not so much atomisation but old-fashioned greed, as members of the Davos elite pile their plates ever higher with perks and share options. But he is wrong to argue that the only way for people to liberate themselves from the contradictions of liberalism is “liberation from liberalism itself”. The best way to read “Why Liberalism Failed” is not as a funeral oration but as a call to action: up your game, or else.
The author of the passage refers to “the Davos elite” to illustrate his views on:
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Soumya Iyer asked a question

Measuring more than five feet tall and ten feet long, the Javan rhinoceros is often called the rarest large mammal on earth. None exist in zoos. Like the Indian rhino, the Javan has only one horn; African and Sumatran rhinos have two. While the Javan rhino habitat once extended across southern Asia, now there are fewer than one hundred of the animals in Indonesia and under a dozen in Vietnam. Very little is known about Javan rhinos because they lead secretive and solitary lives in remote jungles.
Until recently, scientists debated whether females even have horns, and most scientific work has had to rely on DNA garnered from dung.
The near extinction of the Javan rhino is the direct result of human actions. For centuries, farmers, who favored the same habitat, viewed them as crop eating pests and shot them on sight. During the colonial period, hunters slaughtered thousands. Now, human efforts to save them may well prove futile. The Vietnamese herd is probably doomed, as too few remain to maintain the necessary genetic variation. Rhinos from Java cannot supplement the Vietnamese numbers because in the millions of years since Indonesia separated from the mainland, the two groups have evolved into separate sub-species. In Indonesia, the rhinos are protected on the Ujung Kulon peninsula, which is unsettled by humans, and still have sufficient genetic diversity to have a chance at survival.
Ironically, however, the lack of human disturbance allows mature forests to replace the shrubby vegetation the animals prefer. Thus, human benevolence may prove little better for these rhinos than past human maltreatment.
Q.
Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
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