Read the context and answer the following question.
The Union ministry of environment, forest, and climate change, whose mandate is to preserve India's stressed natural wealth, has sought a reassessment of the sustainable mining plan for Saranda and Chaibasa forests in Jharkhand's Singhum district. Critics suspect this is to facilitate mining. The Saranda forests are India's largest, contiguous Sal forests spread over 82,000 hectares (ha). Other than being a rich biodiverse forest and a huge carbon sink, Saranda is home to a large number of animal, bird and reptile species. However, due to indiscriminate mining, Saranda has lost several plant and animal species. One key reason why forests areas of the country, which are also mineral-rich, face such threats of destruction is because India, while it pursues its goal of having 33% of its land under forest cover, is yet to have a new national forest policy. This policy can define a "forest", mark out the inviolate areas, and chart out a proper forest management system. The current National Forest Policy dates back to 1988, and cannot meet current challenges, where the trade-off between economic growth and infrastructure on the one hand, and safeguarding critical natural resources on the other, has only intensified. Additionally, along with assessing the value of minerals in Saranda-type forest areas, the Indian State must also measure the financial worth of the ecosystem services that a forest provides. Instead of looking for ways to facilitate mining, the ministry should focus on designing the new policy framework to protect forests.
Q. Which of the following, if true, would undermine the argument that Saranda has lost several plant and animal species due to indiscriminate mining?
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Munni Devi answered  •  6 hours ago
The statement would be undermined by option 3 as it states an alternative reason for the loss of several plant and animal species. It shifts the blame from indiscriminate mining to lightning strikes, providing an alternate explanation for the forest destruction and thereby undermining the argument.

Passage: The happy man is the man who lives objectively, who has free affections and wide interests, who secures his happiness through these interests and affections and through the fact that they in turn make him an object of interest and affection to many others. To be the recipient of affection is a potent cause of happiness, but the man who demands affection is not the man upon whom it is bestowed. The man who receives affection is, speaking broadly, the man who gives it. But it is useless to attempt to give it as a calculation, in the way in which one might lend money at interest, for a calculated affection is not genuine and is not felt to be so by the recipient. What then can a man do who is unhappy because he is encased in self? So long as he continues to think about the causes of his unhappiness, he continues to be self-centered and therefore does not get outside it. It must be by genuine interest, not by simulated interests adopted merely as a medicine. Although this difficulty is real, there is nevertheless much that he can do if he has rightly diagnosed his trouble. If for example, his trouble is due to a sense of sin, conscious or unconscious, he can first persuade his conscious mind that he has no reason to feel sinful, and then proceed, to plant this rational conviction in his unconscious mind, concerning himself meanwhile with some more or less neutral activity. If he succeeds in dispelling the sense of sin, it is possible that genuine objective interests will arise spontaneously. If his trouble is self-pity, he can deal with it in the same manner after first persuading himself that there is nothing extraordinarily unfortunate in his circumstances. If fear is his trouble, let him practice exercises designed to give courage. Courage has been recognized from time immemorial as an important virtue, and a great part of the training of boys and young men has been devoted to producing a type of character capable of fearlessness in battle. But moral courage and intellectual courage have been much less studied. They also, however, have their technique. Admit to yourself every day at least one painful truth, you will find it quite useful. Teach yourself to feel that life would still be worth living even if you were not, as of course you are, immeasurably superior to all your friends in virtue and in intelligence. Exercises of this sort prolonged through several years will at last enable doing, free you from the empire of fear over a very large field.
Q. What should a man do who is suffering from the feeling of self-pity? 
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Sheela Devi answered  •  6 hours ago
Consulting the passage, this option perfectly suits.

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.
In the case of Hardev Singh v. Harpreet Kaur and Others, the Supreme Court of India, while discerning the legislative intent behind this age disparity, observed that a higher minimum age is prescribed for men based on the prevailing societal norms that the age of 18 years is insufficient for a boy to attain the required level of economic independence and education. A similar observation was made in the Thirteenth Report of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Personnel, Public Grievances, Law and Justice.A natural conclusion of such reasoning is that it is not equally significant for a girl to possess the level of education and economic independence as it is for a boy, at the time of her marriage. This provides a tacit recognition to the stereotype that women constitute the dependant/inferior gender. Article 14 of the Constitution of India guarantees equality before law to all persons. It was held in NALSA v. Union of India that Article 14 is conditioned upon the assumption that all humans have equal value and hence should be provided same treatment. The age-disparity in minimum marriage age is tantamount to unequal treatment and therefore violates Article 14. It was held in State of West Bengal v. Anwar Ali Sarkar that differential treatment can be meted out to different classes under Article 14, if such classification has a rational nexus with the object that the Act seeks to secure. The object of Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 was to prevent solemnisation of child marriages, primarily for the benefit of girls. The gender-based classification for minimum marriage age would frustrate this object, rather than facilitate it, as it allows a girl to marry at an age which is not deemed enough to attain sufficient education/economic independence. The object of Section 4 (c), Special Marriage Act was to set a minimum age to allow for the development of necessary capacity for marriage. A gender-based classification would imply a nexus between the requirement of necessary capacity and the gender of the person. This linkage is based entirely upon the stereotypical conception of gender roles and therefore falls short of rationality. A gender-based classification which is rooted in stereotypical notions was strictly dealt with in Anuj Garg v. Union of India. The Court here struck down a statute disallowing women from seeking employment in areas where liquor was consumed by the public, when men above 25 years were allowed, as it was based on gender-based stereotypical fixations/conceptions. In Joseph Shine v. Union of India, the Court decriminalised adultery (husbands were allowed to file a case for an adulterous relationship of their wives and not vice-versa) as it evoked the stereotype that wives are the chattel of their husbands. Moreover, Article 15 of the Constitution of India prohibits discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them. The age-disparity “solely” on the basis of gender violates this mandate.Article 21 of the Constitution of India provides the fundamental right to life to every person. As per judicial interpretation, aspect of human dignity is central and indispensable to the observance of this right. The essence of dignity was captured in the judgement of the Supreme Court of Canada in Law v. Canada, later accepted in Navtej Johar v. Union of India. The Court held that human dignity means that an individual/group feels self-worth and is harmed by differential treatment premised upon personal traits which do not relate to individual needs/capacities/ merits. The age-disparity in the current context is entirely situated upon the difference of gender, which in the wrongful opinion of the legislature, percolates to create different roles in society. Such classification harms the self-worth of women by tacitly positioning them in a place of dependence vis-à-vis men, thereby violating their right to live “with dignity".
Q. As per the author of the above passage, what is the natural conclusion of the disparity in the minimum legal marriageable age of a girl and a boy in India?
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Shyama Devi answered  •  6 hours ago
The statement mentioned in (A) is the reason to justify the disparity in the minimum legal marriageable age of a girl and a boy in India. However, the author of the above passage argues that the disparity clearly shows that it is not equally significant for a girl to possess the level of education and economic independence as it is for a boy, at the time of her marriage.

Rajinder Kaur asked   •  22 minutes ago

Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.
Under the Constitution of India, in Articles 19 and 21, every person throughout the territory of India is conferred with the right to freedom of movement and is guaranteed personal liberty. In furtherance of this objective set up by the Constitution, the Indian Penal Code lays down penal sanctions in case a person violates the freedom of movement or personal liberty of another. Sections 339 and 340 of Indian Penal Code define wrongful restraint and wrongful confinement, respectively. The Indian Penal Code, 1860, makes wrongful restraint and wrongful confinement punishable under Section 339 to 348.
According to Section 339 of the Indian Penal Code, "Whoever voluntarily obstructs any person so as to prevent that person from proceeding in any direction in which that person has a right to proceed, is said wrongfully to restrain that person." Further, the section also lays down an exception, which is that if a person in good faith believes himself to have a lawful right to obstruct and so obstructs a private way over land or water, then it does not amount to wrongful restraint. To establish the offence of wrongful restraint, the complainant must prove that there was an obstruction; the obstruction prevented the complainant from proceeding in any direction; the person/complainant so proceeding must have a right to proceed in the direction concerned.
Wrongful confinement is defined under Section 340 of the Indian Penal Code. Section 342 of the Indian Penal Code provides punishment for wrongful confinement. Wrongful confinement means that a person is wrongfully restrained from proceeding beyond certain circumscribing limits. Section 340 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860, defines wrongful confinement as: "Whoever wrongfully restrains any person in such a manner as to prevent that person from proceeding beyond certain circumscribing limits, is said "wrongfully to confine" that person." Section 342 of the Indian Penal Code says that whoever wrongfully confines any person shall be punished with simple imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both. The offence under Section 340 of the Code is cognizable, bailable compoundable and triable by any Magistrate. Section 343 of the Indian Penal Code says that whoever wrongfully confines any person for three days or more, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both. The offence under this section is cognizable, bailable, compoundable with the permission of the court and triable by any Magistrate.
Q. Deepa lives in ABC apartment on the 6th floor. Deepa being health conscious prefers taking the stairs rather than lift to her floor. Mr. Verma, who lives at the 3rd floor, has a dog which usually sleeps peacefully outside Verma's flat. Deepa being scared of dogs couldn't make it to her floor. Is this a case of wrongful restraint? Decide.
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Directions: The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.
The Transfer of Property Act (hereinafter mentioned as TOPA, 1882) was enacted in the year 1882 to regulate the process of transferring of property and various other conditions associated with it. Section 6 of the Act states that property of any kind may be transferred, except as otherwise provided by this Act or by any other law for the time being in force. Therefore, this provision of the Act deals with the demarcation between transferable and non-transferable property. This section has 9 sub clauses, each of which explains the different kinds of transfer of property that can be transferred. Everything else according to the Act can be legally transferred in various means and forms. Property here also means ownership.
The first of these, Section 6(a) titled Spes Succession clause provides that such a property cannot be transferred if there is chance of an heir-apparent succeeding to an estate, a chance of a relation obtaining a legacy on the death of kinsman or any other mere possibility of a like nature.
Section 6(b) provides that a mere right of re-entry for breach of a condition subsequent cannot be transferred to anyone except the owner of the property affected thereby. The right of re-entry being a mere incident of the rights of the owner in leased premises, its transfer is prohibited by Law.
Section 6(e) provides that a mere right to sue cannot be transferred. The word "mere" implies that the transferee acquires no interest in the subject of transfer other than the right to sue as an ostensible owner of the property claimed of which, it may be, the real owner is somebody else. However, property with an incidental right to sue for damages may be transferred.
Section 6(h) provides that transfer of any property that can lead to an act that is against the interest affected thereby, or for committing an act that is for an unlawful object or consideration, or when is transferred to someone who is legally disqualified to be a transferee, then such transfer shall be deemed to be invalid.
Q. Aman's grandfather gave 3 acres of land to Aman on his birth in 1998. After 3 years, his grandfather died, and when Aman was 11 years old, his father sold the land to Mahesh. When Aman became 19 years of age, he transferred the said land of 3 acres to other person Ramesh. Now, Ramesh sued the father of Aman for unauthorised transfer of land. Decide.
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Sona Devi answered  •  6 hours ago
Where a major person transfers property unauthorisedly which had been sold legitimately by his legal guardian during his minority and in his interest, such a transfer of property does not transfer the right to sue and the interest in the property. When no property was transferred to Ramesh, he won't have the right to sue as well. Therefore, his claim will not succeed.

Read the passage and answer the following question.
Maximum City will now stay open for business round the clock, at least some parts of it. We welcome the Maharashtra government's decision to let eateries and shopping malls stay open at night, if they want to, in the city of Mumbai. We hope the remaining restrictions on the types of establishments that can stay open and on the areas of the city that can enjoy this freedom would be phased out, and that other cities of India would follow the example.
The commercial hubs of globalising India cannot really shut down totally when some node or the other of its interconnected business is buzzing.
For some time now, satellite photographs of a country at night have been used as a snapshot of regional variation in prosperity. Agglomerations of light indicate urban centres humming with economic activity and dark patches indicate economic backwaters. Modern cities pulsate with life, whatever the time of the day.
Some would condemn such nocturnal freedom as an infraction of Indian virtue and culture. They are slaves to Victorian morality, unaware of their land's tradition and past, in which a Vasantasena in ancient times or an Umrao Jaan not so long ago held court, enthralling audiences with not just their nubile charms but mastery, as well, of dance, music, wit and passion. Cities should celebrate human freedom, and cast aside as many restraints as possible, subject only to the principle, do no harm.
Q. Which of the following illustrates the point that modern cities pulsate with life, whatever the time of the day?
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Kuldeep Kaur answered  •  6 hours ago
In order to best illustrate the point in the given question, two aspects should be highlighted 'liveliness' and 'any time of the day'. This is best presented by option 1.

Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the United States unprecedented opportunities - as well as new and significant risks. Civil rights activists have long argued that one of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics, other minority groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the sizable orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies. Now Congress, in apparent agreement, has required by law, that businesses awarded federal contracts of more than $500,000 do their best to find agreement, has subcontractors and record their efforts to do so on forms filed with the government. Indeed, some federal and local agencies have gone so far as to set specific percentage goals for apportioning parts of public works contracts to minority enterprises. Corporate response appears to have been substantial. According to figures collected in 1977, the total of corporate contracts with minority businesses rose from $77 million in 1972 to $1. 1 billion in 1977. The projected total of corporate contracts with minority businesses for the early 1980's is estimated to be over 53 billion per year with no letup anticipated in the next decade. Promising as it is for minority businesses, this increased patronage poses dangers for them, too.
First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and overextending themselves financially, since most are small concerns and, unlike large businesses, they often need to make substantial investments in new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order to perform work subcontracted to them. If, there-after, their subcontracts are for some reason reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling fixed expenses. The world of corporate purchasing can be frustrating for small entrepreneurs who get requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids. Both consume valuable time and resources, and a small company's efforts must soon result in orders, or both the morale and the financial health of the business will suffer.
A second risk is that white-owned companies may seek to cash in on the increasing apportionments through formation of joint ventures with minority-owned concerns. Of course, in many instances there are legitimate reasons for joint ventures: clearly, white and minority enterprises can team up to acquire business that neither could acquire alone. But civil rights groups arid minority business owners have complained to Congress about minorities being set up as "fronts" with white backing, rather than being accepted as full partners in legitimate joint ventures.
Third, a minority enterprise that secures the business of one large corporate customer often runs the danger of becoming- and remaining-dependent. Even in the best of circumstances, fierce competition from larger, more established companies makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden their customer bases: when such firms have nearly guaranteed orders from a single corporate benefactor, they may truly have to struggle against complacency arising from their current success.
Q. The author implies that a minority-owned concern that does the greater part of its business with one large corporate customer should
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Dayawati answered  •  6 hours ago
Refer to the third paragraph, it is clearly implied that getting all your business from one customer can be dangerous when something goes wrong with this customer-hence the advice to seek other customers.

Jeet Singh asked   •  27 minutes ago

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.
India inked a direct deal with _____(i)______ to purchase 36 new Rafale fighter jets for 7.87 billion euro. Deal includes over 3 billion euros of work for the Indian industry over the next 7-8 years. India to get 28 single seater jets and 8 twin seaters for training. The Indian Rafales carry the RB series of tail numbers, named after current Air Force Chief RKS Bhadauria. The Rafale weapons package outguns all other weapons systems in the region and will give India the ability to engage Pakistan jets from a distance without being tracked.
Supreme Court dismissed a review petition seeking a court-monitored criminal probe into the Rafale fighter jet deal between the Indian government and _____(i)______.
The three-judge bench of the Supreme Court comprising Chief Justice of India (CJI) Ranjan Gogoi, _____(ii)______ and _____(iii)______ dismissed the review pleas in a unanimous judgment.
''We cannot lose sight of the fact that we are dealing with a contract for aircraft, which was pending before different governments for quite some time and the necessity for those aircraft has never been in dispute'', held the bench reiterating what it had held in its original judgment that it did not consider it appropriate to conduct a roving inquiry in an Article 32 (remedies for enforcement of rights) petition.
The Supreme Court gave a clean chit to the Narendra Modi government in the Rafale fighter jets deal case, saying review petitions against the deal lacked merit. The court struck down pleas that had sought re-examination of the December 14, 2018, verdict which said there was no occasion to doubt the decision-making process in the procurement of 36 Rafale fighter jets.
The bench also rejected a plea by former Union ministers Yashwant Sinha and Arun Shourie, and senior lawyer Prashant Bhushan to hold defence ministry officials liable for perjury.
The Indian Air Force is set to get the 'game changer' SCALP and Meteor missiles for its Rafale fighter jets next year which will outrange all known weapon systems in the region and will give India a definitive combat edge.
Q. In the above passage, what has been redacted with ___(i)___?
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Read the passage below and answer the question.
In many ways, the annual Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas is a hopeful way to start off the year. Tech companies show up in the desert with their latest and greatest inventions, innovations, and PowerPoint presentations in tow. Unfortunately, those promises don't always translate readily into real world products. It may be years before it makes into your actual life, if it ever gets there at all.
Lenovo's folding computer prototype was seen before CES 2020, but it officially became a consumer product at the show. The ThinkPad X1 will ship in the second half of 2020 for $2,500 if everything goes according to plan. That's good news if you're a fan of folding devices. As for the rest of the folding machines, however, they were still fully in prototype—or at least pre-production—mode.
Dell showed off a pair of folding computers, including the Ori, which has a folding display, and the Duet, which takes the XPS 13-inch 2-in-1 laptop design and replaces the keyboard with another full-sized screen. Neither of those are destined for the market, however—at least not yet.
And while Microsoft wasn't showing off its Surface Neo at CES, it is scheduled to arrive in Fall of 2020.
Q. Which of the following best represents the main point of the given passage?
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Parvati answered  •  6 hours ago
The context mentions "... those promises don't always translate readily into real world products. It may be years before it makes into your actual life, if it ever gets there at all." Thus the basic essence of the context is that various innovations take place in the technological environment; however, it takes a lot of time to be converted into physical products. This point is best captured by option 2.

Ishwer Devi asked   •  45 minutes ago

Read the context and answer the following question.
The Union Cabinet on Wednesday approved The Industrial Relations Code Bill, 2019, which proposes to amalgamate The Trade Unions Act, 1926, The Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946, and The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947. The draft of the Social Security Code has been circulated for public comments.
The threshold required for government permission for retrenchment has been kept unchanged at 100 employees, as against the proposal for 300 employees in an earlier draft of the Bill, which was opposed by trade unions. Instead, the government has now provided flexibility for changing the threshold through notification. While industry has welcomed the changes, others have said that the unclear provision regarding retrenchment would lead to uncertainty, and discretionary behaviour during implementation by the central or state government. K R Shyam Sundar, labour economist and professor of Human Resources Management at XLRI, said this change tries to please both parties — the employers and the trade unions. Fixed-term employment will help in keeping salaries and facilities to workers such as PF, gratuity, and medical benefits, the same as those for permanent labour, he said, adding that inclusion in the central law will help in applicability of fixed-term employment uniformly across the country. The rigidity of labour laws about laying off labour has often been cited by industry as the main reason limiting scalability and employment.
Q. Which of the following, if true, most undermines the labour bill mentioned in the above article?
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Kushal asked   •  1 hour ago

Principles: A. A minor is a person who is below the age of eighteen. However, where a guardian administers the minor’s property, the age of majority is twentyone.
B. A minor is not permitted by law to enter into a contract. Hence, where a minor enters into a contract with a major person, the contract is not enforceable. This effectively means that neither the minor nor the other party can make any claim on the basis of the contract.
C. In a contract with a minor, if the other party hands over any money or confers any other benefit on the minor, the same shall not be recoverable from the minor unless the other party was deceived by the minor to hand over money or any other benefit. The other party will have to show that the minor misrepresented her age, he was ignorant about the age of the minor and that he handed over the benefit on the basis of such representation.
Facts: Animesh convinces Kumud, a girl aged 18 that she would sell her land to him. Kumud’s mother Parineeti is her guardian. Nonetheless Kumud, without the permission of Parineeti, sells the land to Animesh for a total sum of rupees fifty lakh, paid in full and final settlement of the price. Parineeti challenges this transaction claiming the Kumud is a minor and hence the possession of the land shall not be given to Animesh. Thus Animesh is in a difficult situation and has no idea how to recover his money from Kumud.
Q. In order to defend the sale, Kumud will need to show that
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Tejaswini Sundar asked   •  1 hour ago

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.
Each one has his reasons; for one art is a flight; for another a means of conquering. But one can flee into a hermitage, into madness, into death. One can conquer by arms. Why does it have to be writing, why does one have to manage his escapes and conquests by writing? Because, behind the various aims of authors, there is a deeper and more immediate choice which is common to all of us. We shall try to elucidate this choice, and we shall see whether it is not in the name of this very choice of writing that the engagement of writers must be required.
Each of our perceptions is accompanied by the consciousness that human reality is a ‘revealer’, that is, it is through human reality that ‘there is’ being, or, put it differently, that man is the means by which things are manifested. It is our presence in the world which multiplies relations. It is we who set up a relationship between this tree and that bit of sky. Thanks to us, that star which has been dead for millennia, that quarter moon, and that dark river are disclosed in the unity of a landscape. It is the speed of our auto and our airplane which organizes the great masses of the earth. With each of our acts, the world reveals to us a new face. But, if we know that we are directors of being, we also know that we are not its producers. If we turn away from this landscape, it will sink back into its dark permanence. At least, it will sink back; there is no one mad enough to think that it is going to be annihilated. It is we who shall be annihilated, and the earth will remain in its lethargy until another consciousness comes along to awaken it. Thus to our inner certainty of being ‘revealers’ is added that of being inessential in relation to the thing revealed.
One of the chief motives of artistic creation is certainly the need of feeling that we are essential in relationship to the world. If I fix on canvas or in writing a certain aspect of the fields or the sea or a look on someone’s face which I have disclosed, I am conscious of having produced them by condensing relationships, by introducing order where there was none, by imposing the unity of mind on the diversity of things. That is, I think myself essential in relation to my creation. But this time it is the created object which escapes me; I cannot reveal and produce at the same time. The creation becomes inessential in relation to the creative activity. First of all, even if it appears to others as definitive, the created object always seems to us in a state of suspension; we can always change this line, that shade, that word. Thus, it never forces itself. A novice painter asked his teacher, ‘When should I consider my painting finished?’ And the teacher answered, ‘When you can look at it in amazement and say to yourself “I’m the one who did that!”’
Which amounts to saying ‘never’. For it is virtually considering one’s work with someone else’s eyes and revealing what has been created. But it is self-evident that we are proportionally less conscious of the thing produced and more conscious of our productive activity. When it is a matter of poetry or carpentry we work according to traditional norms, with tools whose usage is codified; it is Heidegger’s famous ‘they’ who are working with our hands. In this case, the result can seem to us sufficiently strange to preserve its objectivity in our eyes. But if we ourselves produce the rules of production, the measures, the criteria, and if our creative drive comes from the very depths of our heart, then we never find anything but ourselves in our work. It is we who have invented the laws by which we judge it. It is our history, our love, our gaiety that we recognize in it. Even if we should regard it without touching it any further, we never receive from it that gaiety or love. We put them into it. The results which we have obtained on canvas or paper never seem to us objective. We are too familiar with the processes of which they are the effects. These processes remain a subjective discovery; they are ourselves, our inspiration, our ruse, and when we seek to perceive our work, we create it again, we repeat mentally the operations which produced it; each of its aspects appears as a result. Thus in the perception the object is given as the essential thing and the subject as the inessential. The latter seeks essentiality in the creation and obtains it but then it is the object which becomes the inessential.
The dialectic is nowhere more apparent than in the art of writing, for the literary object is a peculiar top which exists only in movement. To make it come into view a concrete act called reading is necessary, and it lasts only as long as this act can last. Beyond that, there are only black marks on paper. Now, the writer cannot read what he writes, whereas the shoemaker can put on the shoes he has just made if they are to his size, and the architect can live in the house he has built. In reading, one foresees; one waits. He foresees the end of the sentence, the following sentence, the next page. He waits for them to confirm or disappoint his foresights. The reading is composed of a host of hypotheses, followed by awakenings, of hopes and deceptions. Readers are always ahead of the sentence they are reading in a merely probable future which partly collapses and partly comes together in proportion as they progress, which withdraws from one page to the next and forms the moving horizon of the literary object. Without waiting, without a future, without ignorance, there is no objectivity.
Q. It is the author's contention that:
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Amit Kumar asked   •  1 hour ago

When talks come to how India has done for itself in 50 years of independence, the world has nothing but praise for our success in remaining a democracy. On other front, the applause is less loud. In absolute terms, India has not done too badly, Of course, life expectancy has increased. So has literacy. Industry, which was barely a fledging, has grown tremendously, As far as agriculture is concerned, India has been transformed from a country perpetually on the edge of starvation into a success story held up for others to emulate. But these are competitive times when change is rapid, and to walk slowly when rest of the world is running is almost as bad standing still on walking backwards.
Compare with large chunks of what was then the developing world South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, China and what was till lately a separate Hong Kong- India has fared abysmally, It began with a far better infrastructure than most of these countries had. It suffered hardly or not at all during the Second World War It ha advantages like a English speaking elite, quality scientific manpower (including a Novel laureate and others who could be ranked according to their global competitiveness, it is tiny Singapore that figures at the top. Hong Kong is an export powerhouse. So is Taiwan. If a symbol were needed of, how far we have fallen back, note that while Korean Ceils are sold in India, no one is South Korea is rushing to by an Indian car. The reasons list themselves, Top most in economic isolationism.
The government discouraged imports and encouraged self-sufficiency. Whatever the aim was, the result was the creation of totally inefficient industry that failed to keep pace with global trends and, therefore, became absolutely uncompetitive. Only when the trade gates were opened a little did this become apparent. The years since then have been spent in merely trying to catch up. That the government actually sheltered it’s the years since then have been spent in merely trying to catch up. That the government actually sheltered its industrialists from foreign competition is a little strange. For in all other respects, it operated under the conviction that businessman were little more than crooks how were to be prevented from entering the most important area of the economy, how were to be hamstrung in as many ways as possible, how were to be tolerated in the same way as an in excisable wart. The high expropriator rates taxation, the licensing laws, the reservation of whole swathes of industry for the public sector, and the granting of monopolies to the public sector firms were the principle manifestations of this attitude. The government forget that before wealth could be distributed, it had to be created.
The government forgot that it itself could not create, but only squander wealth, Some of the manifestations of the old attitude have changed, Tax rates have fallen, Licensing has been al but abolished. And the gates of global trade have been open wide. But most of these changes were first by circumstances partly by the funds of support the public sector, leave alone expand it. Weather the attitude of the government itself, of that of more than handful of ministers, has changed, is open of question. In many other ways, however, the government has not changed one with. Business till has to negotiable a welter of negotiations. Transparency is still a longer way off. And there is no exit policy. In defending the existing policy, politicians betray and inability to see beyond their noses. A no-exit policy for labour is equivalent to a no-entry policy for new business. If one industry is not allowed to retrench labour, other industries will think a hundred times before employing new labour. In other ways, the government hurts industries.
Public sector monopolies like the department of telecommunications and Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd. make it possible for Indian business to operator only at cost several times that off their counterparts abroad. The infrastructure is in a shambles partly because it is unable to formulate a sufficiently remunerative policy for private business, and partly because it does not have the stomach to change market rates for services. After a burst of activity in the early nineties, the government is dragging its feet. At the rate it is going, it will be another fifty years before the government realizes that a pro-business policy is the best pro-people policy. By then of course, the world would have moved even further ahead.
Q. According to the writer India should have performed better thant the other Asian nations because…..
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Balbir Singh Bhardwaj asked   •  1 hour ago

Principles: A. A minor is a person who is below the age of eighteen. However, where a guardian administers the minor’s property, the age of majority is twentyone.
B. A minor is not permitted by law to enter into a contract. Hence, where a minor enters into a contract with a major person, the contract is not enforceable. This effectively means that neither the minor nor the other party can make any claim on the basis of the contract.
C. In a contract with a minor, if the other party hands over any money or confers any other benefit on the minor, the same shall not be recoverable from the minor unless the other party was deceived by the minor to hand over money or any other benefit. The other party will have to show that the minor misrepresented her age, he was ignorant about the age of the minor and that he handed over the benefit on the basis of such representation.
Facts: Animesh convinces Kumud, a girl aged 18 that she would sell her land to him. Kumud’s mother Parineeti is her guardian. Nonetheless Kumud, without the permission of Parineeti, sells the land to Animesh for a total sum of rupees fifty lakh, paid in full and final settlement of the price. Parineeti challenges this transaction claiming the Kumud is a minor and hence the possession of the land shall not be given to Animesh. Thus Animesh is in a difficult situation and has no idea how to recover his money from Kumud.
Q. Which of the following is correct?
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Pydha Keerthi asked   •  2 hours ago

Principle 1 – The Principal is liable for all acts of the agent done in the course of employment.
Principle 2 – When a servant commits a mistake while acting on behalf of his master, causing loss to the plaintiff thereby, the master will be liable for the same.
Principle 3 – Generally, the employer is not liable for torts committed by an independent contractor working for him.
Exception – The employer will be held liable for the acts of an independent contractor if he authorizes the doing of an illegal act.
Explanation – An independent contractor is one who is not under the complete direction and control of the employer.
Principle 4 – If the servant acts negligently in the performance of his duties or displays reckless behaviour, thereby causing loss to the plaintiff, the master will be held liable.
Principle 5 – If the servant does an act in defiance of an express prohibition, and the act is outside the course of employment, then the master cannot be held liable for harm arising out of such an act.
Facts – Fast Carz is a company that providescars for rented use in the city of New Heights.A University in the city was organising aLiterary Festival, and had to pick up and dropoff eminent guests from the airport, and hadhired a car from Zoom Carz for a period of twodays. The Company had put up two noticeson each of its cars. One of them read that nounauthorized person was allowed to take a liftin the car. The other read that the driver hadbeen told expressly, not to give lifts tounauthorized people. He was only authorizedto pick up and drop off persons as instructedby the University. On his way to the airport topick up Amit Nayar, a famous author, thedriver sees a friend on the sidewalk anddecides to give him a lift. While driving on thehighway to the airport, the driver caused anaccident due to rash and negligent driving,and the friend sustained a head injury andwas paralysed for life. Who is to be heldliable?
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Sujan Kaur asked   •  2 hours ago

Paragraph: The establishment of Islamic Courts (Darul Qaza) is for the application & implementation of Shariat Laws on the Muslim Ummah. Establishment and functioning of Imarat-e-Sharia in Bihar and Orissa is a glaring example of Darul Qaza. These courts are rendering great services to the masses in the aforesaid states particularly for Muslims. It is headed by Chief Qazi and there are about six courts of additional Qazi at the Headquarter and there are 34 Sub-Judicial Courts in different districts of Bihar.
These courts have been established to decide the disputes amongst the Muslims with regard to the Inheritance, marriage, divorce and waqf in particular and other property related matters in accordance with Shariat Laws, so that the Muslims could be saved from costly and time taking procedure of general Courts of Land. Disputes are solved amicably, only judgements are not delivered, rather efforts are made to arouse the feeling of brotherhood, oneness and mutual love and affection between the parties in dispute. Fairness and transparent judicial pronouncement of these Islamic Courts have succeeded in attracting faith and confidence of majority of Muslims belonging to the state of Bihar and Orissa in particular and of other parts of India in general. The people believed in unbiased justice delivered by the Chief Qazi who perform the role of Judge. All India Muslim Personal Law Board has also established Darul Qaza in different parts of India. They are in Thane (Maharashtra), Akola Dholiya (Rajasthan), Indore (Madhya Pradesh), South & East Delhi, Asansol & Purulia (West Bengal), Lucknow & Sitapur (Uttar Pradesh).
The question of utmost importance before the Muslim Community is whether the Courts in India will accept the decisions given by Darul Qaza or will they pay any attention to the decisions given by the aforesaid institution? If the decisions given by this Institution are not accepted by the Courts it will lose its face value. It will be a futile exercise. Generally, in India the Courts do not recognize the existence of Shariat Court.
In 2005 the Supreme Court admitted a Public Interest Litigation petition to examine the legality of the Islamic Shariah Court in the country allegedly posing challenge to the Indian Legal System. However, the Government of India in its affidavit had said that Fatwa's issued by Muslim Clerics are simply the opinions and cannot be imposed or enforced on anyone. The Court said Darul Qaza and Nizam-e-Qaza are not parallel judicial system and did not prevent Muslims from setting up their case under the law of land.
Q. In a dispute between Shah Rukh and Amir, an Islamic court has asked both the parties to divide the property equally as a part of settlement and has asked Amir to pay a compensation of 50,000 rupees as punishment for the mental harassment caused to Shah Rukh. Amir has approached court against this decision.
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Laxmi asked   •  2 hours ago

Paragraph: The establishment of Islamic Courts (Darul Qaza) is for the application & implementation of Shariat Laws on the Muslim Ummah. Establishment and functioning of Imarat-e-Sharia in Bihar and Orissa is a glaring example of Darul Qaza. These courts are rendering great services to the masses in the aforesaid states particularly for Muslims. It is headed by Chief Qazi and there are about six courts of additional Qazi at the Headquarter and there are 34 Sub-Judicial Courts in different districts of Bihar.
These courts have been established to decide the disputes amongst the Muslims with regard to the Inheritance, marriage, divorce and waqf in particular and other property related matters in accordance with Shariat Laws, so that the Muslims could be saved from costly and time taking procedure of general Courts of Land. Disputes are solved amicably, only judgements are not delivered, rather efforts are made to arouse the feeling of brotherhood, oneness and mutual love and affection between the parties in dispute. Fairness and transparent judicial pronouncement of these Islamic Courts have succeeded in attracting faith and confidence of majority of Muslims belonging to the state of Bihar and Orissa in particular and of other parts of India in general. The people believed in unbiased justice delivered by the Chief Qazi who perform the role of Judge. All India Muslim Personal Law Board has also established Darul Qaza in different parts of India. They are in Thane (Maharashtra), Akola Dholiya (Rajasthan), Indore (Madhya Pradesh), South & East Delhi, Asansol & Purulia (West Bengal), Lucknow & Sitapur (Uttar Pradesh).
The question of utmost importance before the Muslim Community is whether the Courts in India will accept the decisions given by Darul Qaza or will they pay any attention to the decisions given by the aforesaid institution? If the decisions given by this Institution are not accepted by the Courts it will lose its face value. It will be a futile exercise. Generally, in India the Courts do not recognize the existence of Shariat Court.
In 2005 the Supreme Court admitted a Public Interest Litigation petition to examine the legality of the Islamic Shariah Court in the country allegedly posing challenge to the Indian Legal System. However, the Government of India in its affidavit had said that Fatwa's issued by Muslim Clerics are simply the opinions and cannot be imposed or enforced on anyone. The Court said Darul Qaza and Nizam-e-Qaza are not parallel judicial system and did not prevent Muslims from setting up their case under the law of land.
Q. What according to the author is the reason of popularity for the Islamic Courts?
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Tisha asked   •  3 hours ago

Directions : Read the following information carefully and answer the questions given below:
Five different TV channels – Star Plus, B4U, Sony, Zee and DDI – have announced to show quiz programmes by different hosts – Hrithik Roshan, Aishwarya Rai, Amitabh Bachchan, Karishma Kapoor and Shahrukh Khan – on their respective channels in prime time. All hosts signed for different numbers of episodes with their respective channels. Among the given programmes, the longest one has a duration of 100 episodes. Shahrukh Khan will host, an 80-episdoe programme but neither on Zee nor on B4U channel. DDI will show an 100-episode programme but hosted neither by Hrithik nor by Karishma. Aishwarya has signed neither with Sony nor with Star Plus. Amitabh has signed exactly double the no. of episodes than Hrithik. Sony TV will be exactly in the middle, when all the channels will be compared in terms of the no. of episodes. B4U will show a 60-episode programme, not by Hrithik Roshan. Krishma Kapoor will host ¾ times with respect to Amitabh but not on B4U and Zee TV. Amitabh will show 100 episode programme.
Q.
What is the total number of episodes for the programme on Sony channel?
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Somti Devi asked   •  3 hours ago

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.
On January 10, 2020, the Ministry of Steel launched the "__{X}__" programme, under which major PSUs like SAIL, IOCL and Coal India and concerned departments of five states; West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand and Odisha will be working towards accelerating steel production in the region. For this purpose, the steel ministry is looking to invest $70 billion, that is likely to result in $35 billion addition to the GDP, and creation of 2.5 million jobs.
Kickstarting the programme here, the Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas & Steel said that the idea was to promote the region as an integrated steel hub, which can foster growth towards a $5 trillion economy. Kolkata could be the epicentre of this growth, facilitated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi's visit to the city.
The steel ministry would anchor in coordinating various stake holders across central ministries, state governments and private investors, and a policy facilitating the creation of steel clusters has thus been put in place. Kalinganagar and Bokaro have been identified as pilot locations for steel clusters around integrated steel plants, and task forces and working groups with respective state governments have been formed for detailed planning for operationalisation of these clusters.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi, as part of his Kolkata visit, attended the 150th anniversary of Kolkata Port Trust. While Paradip Port Trust has been taken as a major stakeholder in the "__{X}__" initiative, Kolkata Port will play a vital role in developing inter-state connectivity through inland waterways.
Critical logistics and infrastructure projects were identified for expedition across the twelve major steel zones, which include rail, road and port capacity expansion projects. The twelve major steel zones identified are Kalinganagar, Angul, Rourkela, Jharsuguda, Nagarnar, Bhilai, Jamshedpur, Raipur, Bokaro, Durgapur, Kolkata and Vizag.
At a later stage, Bihar will be included within the cluster for driving growth in steel consumption, and that political differences between the centre and state governments, would not be a hindrance to uplift the 57 backward districts of the region.
According to the National Steel Policy announced in 2017, the government aims at a total production capacity of 300 million tonne by 2030-31 and out of which, around 200 million tonne is to be envisaged from the five eastern states.
Eastern region at present contributes 70% of the country's total steel production. This will go up to 87% with the integrated steel hub in place quotes by ___blank (i)___, IOCL Chairman and Managing Director. The oil and gas sector has been a major consumer of steel and the expansion would boost the steel industry thereby increasing the share of manufacturing to services.
Q. After reading the above passage, consider the following statements and choose the correct option.
Statement I: '__{X}__' aims at achieving India's steel policy target of 300 million tonne by 2030.
Statement II: Jharkhand is the largest producer of steel in India.
Statement III: '__{X}__' aims to promote Jharkhand as an integrated steel hub.
Statement IV: '__{X}__' would contribute towards the transformation of logistics and utilities infrastructure.
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Anil Kumar asked   •  3 hours ago

Justice [X] midnight transfer raises both immediate and deeper questions. Although we were forewarned that he would be transferred, the post midnight marching orders were clearly punitive because he wanted FIRs to be filed against hate speech provocateurs against whom more than a prima facie existed on video. His orders were to immediately register the FIR's which were bypassed to the Chief Justice of Delhi to whom the case went who gave 4 extra weeks to file the criminal cases. FIRs are to be filed immediately. In fact in criminal jurisprudence delay in filing a FIR goes to veracity. If several murders are committed, you do not wait for all murders to cease to start investigation. Thus the Chief Justice of Delhi and Solicitor General who had the gall to make such a request have a lot to answer for.
This is a fundamental question whether High Court judges can be transferred from one High Court to another like civil servants even though the Constitution gives the power to do so.
Before the 99th amendment of the Constitution of 2014 (Article 222) gave the President the power to transfer judges. In constitutional terms, under the parliamentary system, this meant on the advice of the Prime Minister. That amendment was struck down by the Supreme Court because of the way the commission was constructed it would have undermined the independence of the judiciary to restore the status quo of judicial approval but powerfully influenced by the Prime Minister and his law minister.
Q. Which of the following statements is not true?
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Siram Jaisree asked   •  3 hours ago

Passage for Question 
In Manu Joseph’s debut novel Serious Men, the protagonist, Ayyan Mani; is a sly, scheming Dalit-Buddhist who almost gets away with passing off his partially deaf son, Adi, as a prodigy, a genius who can recite the first 1,000 prime numbers. The garb of satire—where almost every character cuts a sorry figure—gives the author the licence to offer one of the most bleak and pessimistic portrayals of urban Dalits. Despite his savage portrayal of Dalit (and female) characters—or perhaps because of it?—Serious Men has won critical appreciation from a cross-section of readers and critics.
At a time when a formidable body of Dalit literature—writing by Dalits about Dalit lives—has created a distinct space for itself, how and why is it that a novel such as Serious Men, with its gleefully skewed portrayal of an angry Dalit man, manages to win such accolades? In American literature—and particularly in the case of African-American authors and character—these issues of representation have been debated for decades. But in India, the sustained refusal to address issues related to caste in everyday life—and the continued and unquestioned predominance of a Brahminical stranglehold over cultural production—have led us to a place where non-Dalit portrayal of Dalits in literature, cinema and art remains the norm.
The journey of modern Dalit literature has been a difficult one. But even though it has not necessarily enjoyed the support of numbers we must engage with what Dalits are writing—not simply for reasons of authenticity, or as a concession to identity politics, but simply because of the aesthetic value of this body of writing, and for the insights it offers into the human condition. In a society that is still largely unwilling to recognize Dalits as equal, rights-bearing human beings, in a society that is inherently indifferent to the everyday violence against Dalits, in a society unwilling to share social and cultural resources equitably with Dalits unless mandated by law (as seen in the anti-reservation discourse), Dalit literature has the potential to humanize non-Dalits and sensitise them to a world into which they have no insight. But before we can understand what Dalit literature is seeking to accomplish, we need first to come to terms with the stranglehold of non-Dalit representations of Dalits.
Rohinton Mistry’s A Fine Balance, published 15 years ago, chronicles the travails of two Dalit characters— uncle Ishvar and nephew Omprakash—who migrate to Bombay and yet cannot escape brutality. While the present of the novel is set at the time of the Emergency, Ishvar’s father Dukhi belongs to the era of the anti-colonial nationalist movement. During one of Dukhi’s visits to the town, he chances upon a meeting of the Indian National Congress, where speakers spread the “Mahatma’s message regarding the freedom struggle, the struggle for justice,” and wiping out “the disease of untouchability, ravaging us for centuries, denying dignity to our fellow human beings.”
Neither in the 1940s, where the novel’s past is set, nor in the Emergency period of the 1970s—when the minds and bodies Ishvar and Omprakash, are savaged by the state—do we find any mention of a figure like BR Ambedkar or of Dalit movements. In his ‘nationalist’ understanding of modern Indian history, Mistry seems to have not veered too far from the road charted by predecessors like Mulk Raj Anand and Premchand. Sixty years after Premchand, Mistry’s literary imagination seems stuck in the empathy-realism mode, trapping Dalits in abjection. Mistry happily continues the broad stereotype of the Dalit as a passive sufferer, without consciousness of caste politics.
Q.
The writer refers to the ‘anti-reservation discourse’ in order to argue that:
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Neelam Sunda asked   •  4 hours ago

Paragraph: A news piece resurfaced recently about how the Delhi High Court had granted a divorce to a man who said he was subjected to repeated verbal cruelty by his wife. She allegedly taunted him about his weight and his inability to maintain conjugal relations. Of course there must have been more than frivolous abuses that led to the breakdown of this marriage but the fact that the Court had taken a strong view of their bitter exchanges, which the wife had quite reasonably contended were vague and non-specific, suggests a departure from the sympathy with which courts view a woman’s situation in such cases. “When two parties are in a marital relationship neither is expected to maintain a logbook and note therein each and every instance of a matrimonial offence committed by the other,” the judge had concluded, before sanctioning the divorce.
This judge appears to have a very idealistic idea of the kinds of conversations couples have but in a long relationship, often, it is precisely a mental logbook documenting old grievances and laments that come up during a fight. Laws are framed for the greater good and Indian legislation is generous to women stuck in abusive marriages, at least on paper. The perils of living in a (slightly more) gender-equal world is that occasionally, the ball will roll to the other side. In another divorce case, a Delhi court asked a woman to look for a job saying since she was so qualified she should not be burdening her estranged husband. The woman had argued that she had married young and never held a job, or travelled alone. The judge had acerbically replied that if she could come to court to fight litigation alone, she could very well go looking for a job alone. If the message from these cases is that we’re all expected to look after ourselves and the historic security system that marriage offered can no longer be taken for granted, it is worth looking at how horribly risky a marriage is for women, to begin with.
In the first case, it seems the wife was supposed to make peace with being stuck forever in a loveless marriage with an unattractive man who was fine with the status quo and wilfully indifferent to her unhappiness. Her asking for compensation for her opportunity cost (where she could have been if she hadn’t married him) backfired. In the second case, the aftermath of a divorce is far more terrifying. The judgment failed to take into account the vagaries inbuilt in Indian marriages and the unspoken pressures that women in every economic strata have to cope with. Perhaps this qualified woman didn’t work because her in-laws didn’t approve or she was raised to believe her career shouldn’t undermine her husband’s. As for her being urged to seek employment post the separation, there is the very practical reality that despite whatever degrees you hold, if you’ve been out of the workplace for years, it’s very difficult to explain a long gap in a resume.
Q. Which of the following views can be attributed to the author of the above passage?
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Urja Sharma asked   •  4 hours ago

Instruction : This section consists of five problems  in total. Each problem consists of a set of rules and facts. Apply the specified rules to the set of facts and answer the questions.
Rules: Problem 2 
A. Partnership is the relation between persons who have agreed to share the profits of a business carried on by all or any of them acting for all.
B. The relation of partnership arises from contract and not from the status.
C. Partners are bound to carry on the bound to carry on the business of the firm to the greatest common advantage, to be just faithful to each other, and to render true accounts and full information of all things affecting the firm to any partner or his legal representative.
D. Every partner shall be indemnifying the firm for any loss caused to it by his fraud in the conduct of the business firm.
Facts : X, Y and Z are three friends who decided to enter into a partnership and they opened a firm called XYZ partners which dealt with stationary. Decide the following questionMr. X entered into a contract with an another for the supply of stationary instead selling the goods of the company he sold his own purchased stationary and kept all the profits made in the transaction. Does he have to share the profits?
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Paramjeet Kaur asked   •  4 hours ago

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.
{X} hailed a "very productive visit" in his visit in February 2020 to India but said he would keep working with Indian PM Narendra Modi for "a comprehensive trade deal".
The US is one of India's biggest trade partners. The two leaders hope the visit will mend a rift over tariffs.
Mr {X}'s visit to Delhi has been marred by the deadliest religious unrest in the capital for decades.
Asked about the violence, he told reporters that the incident was "up to India" to handle.
However, he said he had brought up the issue of religious freedom in the country and was impressed by Mr Modi's response.
"He [Modi] was incredible, he told me - 'In India we have worked very hard to have religious freedoms," Mr {X} said.
Ten people, including a policeman, have been killed and about 150 injured in protests against a controversial new citizenship law, which critics say discriminates against Muslims.
Mr Modi's Hindu nationalist government denies this, saying the law only seeks to give amnesty to persecuted minorities.
Correspondents say the timing of the unrest is an embarrassment to Mr Modi and the violence has taken the spotlight away from Mr {X}'s visit.
"We also agreed to open negotiations on a big trade deal. At the global level, our relationship is depended on the similar democratic values we share," Mr Modi said.
But deals in other areas were announced.
India is to buy attack helicopters and other US military equipment worth $3 bn, Mr {X} said.
They also announced co-operation in fighting radical Islamist terrorism and deepening energy ties, as well as pledging to work together to make 5G technology safer. As part of the deals announced, US firm Exxon Mobil Corporation and {Z} have signed an agreement to help India import more {Y}.
Bilateral trade between the two countries totalled $142.6 bn (£110.3 bn) in 2018. But in June 2019, the US ended preferential trade status for India.
India imposed retaliatory tariffs on 28 US products, causing a diplomatic rift between the two countries.
Q. Who has been redacted with {X}?
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Santosh asked   •  5 hours ago

Read the information given below carefully and answer the following question.
''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''
Murder, this term traces its origin from the Germanic word 'morth' where it means secret killing. Murder means when one person is killed with an intent of another person with malice or forethought. Moreover, an offence will not amount to murder, unless it includes an offence which falls under the definition of culpable homicide. To broadly explain, we can say that murder is a species where culpable homicide is a genus. Murder consists of four main components which can also be known as essentials of murder, before going in-depth with essentials, here are the core concepts discussed: culpable homicide amounts to murder, except in some cases wherein the act, which caused murder, should be done with an intention to cause death or such intention of causing death should cause a bodily injury to that person or if such intention of causing death causes a bodily injury and that bodily injury must have caused the death of that person or he must have the knowledge that the act he has done is immediately dangerous in all probable sense to cause death or a bodily injury that is likely to cause death of a person. And it is a crime to commit an act, even after knowing that the act he does is a risk of causing death or such injury as discussed above.
In a case, Milmadhub Sirchar Vs. R (1885), the deceased was kicked and beaten several times by the offender, even after the victim falling senseless. Court held that the murderer would have known that beating and kicking several times would surely result in the death of such person. Thus, he was accused of murder. In other case, Sheik Choollye Vs. R (1865), a person got his head fractured after a man struck his head with a stick while he was asleep. Court held that the offender should have known the likelihood to causing death to that person. And thus, he was convicted for murder. Thirdly, if the act done by the offender is done with an intention to cause any bodily injury as it is sufficient in normal sense to result in death of that person - the subjective factor ends with the fact that in any ordinary course of action, if a person acts to kill or harm a person with full knowledge of causing a bodily injury which is sufficient to cause death of such person. There is no need of any further inquiry in this context. In the case of Visra Singh Vs. State of Punjab (1958), the SC ruled that when the offender fails to prove that the act was done accidentally or unintentionally, then Court might charge him with that offence and hence, the presumption is that he would have intended to act to cause a deadly injury to the victim of such crime.
Q. What is culpable homicide as per your understanding of the passage?
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Utkarsh Anurag asked   •  5 hours ago

Today the import duty on a complete machine is 35% for all practical purposes, whereas the import duty on the raw material and components ranges from 40 % to 85%. The story does not end here. After paying such high import duties on suffers excise duty from 5% to 10% (including on the custom duty already paid). At the time of sale, the machine tools suffer further taxation that is central 4% to 16%. This is too much for the tax angle. Another factor which pushes the cost manufactures of machines tools is the very high rate of interest payable to banks ranging upto 22%, as against 4% to 7% prevailing in advanced countries.
The production of machine tools in India being not of the same scale as it is in other countries, the price which India’s machine tools builder have to pay for components is more or less based on pattern of high pricing applicable to the prices of spares. The above represents only a few of the extraneous reason for the high cost of Indian machines.
The machine tool industry in India has an enviable record of very quick technology absorption, assimilation and development. There are a number of success stories about how machine tool builder were of help at the most critical times. It will be a pity, in fact a tragedy, if we allow this industry to die and disappear from the scene.
It is to be noted that India is at least 6000 km away from any dependable source of supply of machine tools. The government of India has always given a great deal of small scale and medium scale industries. This industry has also performed pretty well. Today, they are in need of help from India’s machine tool industry to enable them to produce quality components at reduced costs. It is anybody case that their needs of this fragile sector (which needs tender care) will be met from 6000 km away.
Then, what is it that the industry requests from the government? It wants level playing field. In facts, all of us must have a deep introspection and recognize the fact that the machine tool industry has a very special place in the country from the point of strategic & vital interest of the nation. Most important, it request for the Government consideration and understanding.
Q.
If the bank’s rate of interest in India is made on par with that in advanced countries, the cost of manufacture of machine tool.
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Rishu Jangra asked   •  5 hours ago

PRINCIPLES: 1. A master shall be liable for the fraudulent acts of his servants committed in the course of employment.
2. Whether an act is committed in the course of employment has to be judged in the context of the case.
3. Both master and third parties must exercise reasonable care in this regard.
FACTS: Rama Bhai was an uneducated widow and she opened an S.B. account with Syndicate Bank with the help of her nephew by name Keshav who was at that time working as a clerk in the Bank. Keshav used to deposit the money of Rama Bhai from time to time and get the entries done in the passbook. After a year or so, Keshav was dismissed from the service by the Bank. Being unaware of this fact, Rama Bhai continued to hand over her savings to him and Keshav misappropriated them. Rama Bhai realised this only when Keshav disappeared from the scene one day, and she sought compensation from the Bank.
POSSIBLE DECISIONS:
(a) Syndicate Bank shall be liable to compensate Rama Bhai.
(b) Syndicate Bank shall not be liable to compensate Rama Bhai.
(C) Rama Bhai cannot blame others for her negligence.
POSSIBLE REASONS:
(i) Keshav was not an employee of the Bank when the fraud was committed.
(ii) The Bank was not aware of the special arrangement between Rama Bhai and Keshav
(iii) It is the Bank’s duty to take care of vulnerable customers.
(iv) Rama Bhai should have checked about Keshav in her own interest.
Your decision with the reason:
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Arundhati Dixit asked   •  6 hours ago

Passage for Question 
In recent weeks the writers William Dalrymple and Patrick French, among others, have come before a fusillade of criticism in India, much of it questioning not their facts, not their interpretations, but their foreignness.
“Who gets to write about India?” The Wall Street Journal asked on Wednesday in its own report on this Indian literary feuding. It is a complicated question, not least because to decide who gets to write about India, you would need to decide who gets to decide who gets to write about India. Rather than conjecturing some Committee for the Deciding of the Deciding of Who Gets to Write About India, it might be easier to let writers write what they please and readers read what they wish.
The accusations pouring forth from a section of the Indian commentariat are varied. Some criticism is of a genuine literary nature, fair game, customary, expected. But lately a good amount of the reproaching has been about identity.
In the case of Mr. Dalrymple, a Briton who lives in New Delhi, it is—in the critics’ view—that his writing is an act of re-colonization. In the case of Mr. French, it is that he belongs to a group of foreign writers who use business-class lounges and see some merit in capitalism and therefore do not know the real India, which only the commentarial member in question does.
What is most interesting about these appraisals is that their essential nature makes reading the book superfluous, as one of my Indian reviewers openly admitted. (His review was not about the book but about his refusal to read the book). The book is not necessary in these cases, for the argument is about who can write about India, not what has been written.
For critics of this persuasion, India surely seems a lonely land. A country with a millennial history of Hindus, Christians, Jews, Muslims and Buddhists living peaceably together; a country of hundreds of dialects in which so many. Indians are linguistic foreigners to each other, and happily, tolerantly so; a country that welcomes foreign seekers (of yoga poses, of spiritual wisdom, of ancestral roots) with open arms; a country where, outside the elite world of South Delhi and South Bombay, I have not heard an Indian ask whether outsiders have a right to write, think or exist on their soil.
But it is not just this deep-in-the-bones pluralism that challenges the who-gets-to-write-about-India contingent. It is also that at the very heart of India’s multifarious changes today is this glimmering idea: that Indians must be rewarded for what they do, not who they are.
Identities you never chose—caste, gender, birth order—are becoming less important determinants of fate. Your deeds—how hard you work, what risks you take—are becoming more important. It is this idea, which I have found pulsating throughout the Indian layers, that leaves a certain portion of the intelligentsia out of sync with the surrounding country. As Mr. French has observed, there is a tendency in some of these writers to value social mobility only for themselves. When the new economy lifts up the huddled masses, then it becomes tawdry capitalism and rapacious imperialism and soulless globalization.
Fortunately for those without Indian passports, the nativists’ vision of India is under demographic siege. The young and the relentless are India’s future. They could not think more differently from these literatis. They savour the freedom they are gaining to seek their own level in the society and to find their voice; and they tend to be delighted at the thought that some foreigners do the same in India and love their country as much as they do.
Q.
Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage:
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