All India CLAT Group

Passage - 1
Power in all its forms is irrational; - it is like the horse that drags the carriage blindfolded. The moral element in it is only represented in the man who drives the horse. Passive resistance is a force which is not necessarily moral in itself; it can be used against truth as well as for it. The danger inherent in all force grows stronger when it is likely to gain success, for then it becomes temptation. I know your teaching is to fight against evil by the help of good. But such a fight is for heroes and not for men led by impulses of the moment. Evil on one side naturally begets evil on the other, injustice leading to violence and insult to vengefulness. Unfortunately, such a force has already been started, and either through panic or through wrath our authorities has shown us the claws whose sure effect is to drive some of us into the secret path of resentment and others into utter demoralization. In this crisis you, as a great leader of men, have stood among us to proclaim your faith in the ideal which you know to be that of India, the ideal which is both against the cowardliness of hidden revenge and the cowed submissiveness of the terror-stricken. This power of good must prove its truth and strength by its fearlessness, by its refusal to accept any imposition which depends for its success upon its power to produce frightfulness and is not ashamed to use its machines of destruction to terrorize a population completely disarmed. We must know that moral conquest does not consist in success, that failure does not deprive it of its dignity and worth. Those who believe in spiritual life know that to stand against wrong which has overwhelming material power behind it is victory itself, it is the victory of the active faith in the ideal in the teeth of evident defeat. [Extracted, with edits and revisions, from selected letters from the selected works of Mahatma Gandhi, a letter from Rabindranath Tagore to Gandhi.]
Which of the following best reflects the ideals of Gandhi as mentioned in the passage?
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Siddhi Sharma answered  •  3 days ago
Dharani Katepalli asked a question

Directions  Below is given a passage followed by several possible inferences which can be drawn from the facts stated in the passage? You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity. 
Statement  : The quest for big money is enticing professionals in some sectors to shift to more lucrative areas. Take engineers, with their salaries moving at the slowest rates it is no wonder that many engineering graduates are switching over to management courses. And over 80% of the students at the IIM in Calcutta are engineers. Says Ramanuj Majumdar, professor of marketing at the institute. “This trend seems to be market-driven since pay packages are more attractive in management.” Like engineering, chartered accountancy (CA) too has been witnessing a relatively sluggish growth. This is partly because CAs, who were the phenomenon of the 70s, have been overtaken by the MBAs.
 Engineers are not satisfied with their salaries in  India.
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Prakash Shankar asked a question

Directions  Below is given a passage followed by several possible inferences which can be drawn from the facts stated in the passage? You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity. Mark answer
1)   if the inference is “definitely true”, i.e. it   properly follows from the statement of facts  given.
2)   if the inference is “probably true” though not   “definitely true” in the light of the facts given.
3)   if the inference is “probably false” though not   “definitely false” in the light of the facts given.
4)   if the inference is “definitely false”, i.e. it cannot   possibly be drawn from the facts given for it  contradicts the given facts
Q. Statement (1-5): In India, we are still struggling with elementary problems of healthcare. Our performance in health-related sectors like provision of drinking water, sanitation, education and nutrition remain poor. The healthcare system itself is extremely inadequate and particularly missing at the village level. As our bureaucrats systematically decimated the Community Health Worker (CHW) programme, we face an unenviable prospect of facing the old and new health challenges without infrastructure at the grassroots. Ironically, in the name of infrastructure, various Indian states are busy building tertiary institutes – hospitals – on World Bank loans. Aid agencies are also pushing one programme after another, overlooking the absence of adequate infrastructure at the village level. Unfortunately, no one talks of facilities at the village level.
Building new hospitals does not add to the existing infrastructure in healthcare
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Aiswaria P J asked a question

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.
Job performance is affected by a number of factors. Motivation alone does not lead to increase in performance. Ability and technology moderates the relationship between motivation and performance. The higher the levels of ability and motivation, the higher the level of performance will be. However, increasing motivation beyond an optimal level tends to produce a dysfunctional result because it is accompanied by an increasing level of anxiety. A high level of anxiety often disrupts performances.
The relationship between satisfaction and performance is not clear. Satisfaction may or may not lead to high performance depending on the perceived availability of valued outcomes and the perceived expectancy that a person’s effort and performance will lead to receiving the valued rewards. If the person expects that his performance will lead to increased rewards which he values, the level of his motivational effort will increase, if he anticipates less, his motivational effort will increase, if he anticipates less, his motivational effort will be lower.
The relationship between job dissatisfaction and poor performance seems to be clearer than that between satisfaction and performance. Dissatisfaction leads to poor performance by means of apathy, absenteeism, turnover, sabotage, and strike. In addition, high performers are more vulnerable to job dissatisfaction because they tend to expect more from their jobs than low performers.
Job satisfaction is more closely related to the decision to join and remain in an organisation than to the motivation to produce. The motivation to produce largely depends on the availability of valued outcomes (valence), the perceived instrumentality of performance for receiving incentive rewards, and the perceived expectancy that effort leads to performance. The task of satisfying employees is much easier than the task of motivating them because the former can be achieved by rewarding them while the latter requires such additional constraints as establishing performance-reward contingencies and designing motivating work systems.
Q. Which of the following combination of factors affects job performance?
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Parshi Mishra asked a question

If anything, the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has taught us to rethink our lifestyles and question our need to travel to work every day. After all, in the age of internet, zoom meetings and webinars can be virtually conducted and physical distancing is possible. A large nature of work in cities is of tertiary nature, a major part of which can be done from home. This can affect the way offices function and reduce the need for all employees to be physically present every day. Information Technology companies are already contemplating a move of making many of its employees work from home and make this a ‘new normal‘. If more firms follow suit, the need for huge office buildings and central business districts would change. Apartments cannot get bigger at the same rate, and people may not have the space or atmosphere to work from home. This would mean that more people would opt for co-working spaces close to their homes. This could be a game changer, for it would provide the cities to better distribute their activities throughout the spaces and rid themselves of the idea of zoning. Only a handful of professionals are allowed to function from residential zones, including doctors, lawyers, architects, etc. This needs serious rethinking. Many more professions of similar nature that do not disturb surrounding residence and have no requirements of special services should be added to the list. This new work culture would bring associated demand for food joints, cafés, stationary shops, etc.
Q. Consider the following statement: “Work from home culture is a sustainable method of business and should be extended to all professions.” Which of the following weakens the Author‘s argument?
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Gurpreet Chugh asked a question

It should rank as an irony that as a founder-leader of the International Solar Alliance, India has not yet e lectrified a significant number of government schools, while extolling the elegance and virtue of ___(1)___ electricity talked about in International Solar Alliance to the rest of the world. The lack of power in schools is taken note of by the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Human Resource Development in its latest report on budgetary grants for school education and literacy for 2020-21. Under the framework of concurrent powers, the Centre operates its own schemes and sponsors several school education programmes covering the States, notably Samagra Shiksha and the Mid Day Meal scheme. Yet, as the panel found from data for 2017-18, only 56.45% of government schools had electricity and 56.98% a playground, while almost 40% lacked a boundary wall. There are some high-performing States, but even in politically wellrepresented Uttar Pradesh, almost 70% of schools lacked electricity. Other depressing insights from the district information database as of end-2019, are: neglect of toilet construction for children with special needs, failure to build toilets for girls in a third of secondary schools and laboratories for higher secondary science students.
The tardy progress on such important facilities, in spite of the projects having been sanctioned, shows the low priority that school education is being accorded.
Q. ‘Samagra Shiksha – an integrated scheme for school education’. Is a scheme for school education extending from ………?
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Santro Devi asked a question

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.
Besides the physical protection given to prisoners and the elimination of unnecessary restraints, many other issues regarding the rights of the prisoners have attracted the attention of courts in India. The Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 showed its concern for prisoners. The constitutional rights of prisoners also cover a wide range of rights of personal and political nature including rights such as pertaining to religion, association, election etc.
The Supreme Court of India has been active in responding to human right violations in Indian jails, and it recognised a number of rights of prisoners by interpreting Articles 21, 19, 22, 32, 37 and 39 A of the Constitution in a humane way. The Supreme Court of India in the recent four decades has been very active against violation of the Human Rights of the prisoners. The Jail Reforms Committee 1980−1983 has also made recommendations regarding prisoners' rights.
It has recommended the incorporation of some rights in proposed scheme of National Prison legislation like-right to human dignity, right to minimum needs, right to access to law, right to communication, right against arbitrary prison.
Punishment, right to meaningful and gainful employment and right to be released on due date. In present day context, after-care programmes are increasing.
It implies all efforts to enable the prisoner to overcome various social, economic and psychological problems after his release. Under the treatment philosophy, the after-care work commences as soon as the convict begins his prison life. At the time of departure, the prisoner is given some money by the State or his savings, made out of the wages earned in the prison, and a set of clothes to equip him for the new life. At present, some good work is being done by a few public societies. In UP, one of the functions of the Crime Prevention Society is to carry on after-care work through its District Committees.
In India, owing to mass illiteracy, most of the prisoners do not have even elementary education. Only 33 per cent of male convicts are literate and in case of women, the percentage is only 12. Academic education gives a sense of achievement to the prisoner which goes a long way in exercising corrective influences. In India, rules in the jail manuals recognise the significance of religion and religious instruction for the reformation of prisoners. Prisoners of all communities are offered facilities for their religious observance. Teachers selected by the District Magistrates deliver lectures on religious and moral subjects for an hour, once a week.
Q. Which of the following is not recommended by the Jail Reforms Committee?
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Vi Vi asked a question

Passage-1:-  In the second week of august 1998, just a few days after the incidents of bombing the US embassies in Nairobi & Dar-er-Salaam, a high powered, brainstorming session was held near Washington DC, to discuss various aspects of terrorism. The meeting was attended by ten of America’s leading experts in various fields such as germ & chemical warfare, public health, disease control & also by the doctor and the law enforcing officers. Being asked to describe the horror of possible bio-attack, one of the experts narrated the following "gloomy" scenario.
A culprit in a crowded business centre or in a busy shopping mall of a town empties a test tube containing some fluid, which in turn creates an unseen cloud of germ of a dreaded disease like anthrax, capable of inflicting a horrible death within 5 days on anyone who inhales it. At first, 500 or son victims felt that they have mild influenza which may recede after a day or two. Then the symptoms return again and their lungs start filling with fluid. They rush to local hospitals for treatment, but the panic stricken people may find that the Medicare services run quickly out of drugs due to excessive demand. But no one would be able to realize that a terrorist attack has occurred. One cannot deny the possibility that the germ involved would be of contagious variety capable of causing an epidemic. The meeting concluded that "such attacks", apart from causing immediate human tragedy, would have dire long term effect on the political & social fabric of a country by way of ending people’s trust on the competence of the government.
The experts also said that the bombs used in Kenya & Tanzania were of the old fashion variety & involved large quantities of high explosives, but new terrorism will prove to be more deadly & probably more "elusive" than hi jacking an aero-plane or a gelignite or previous decades.  According to Bruce Hoffman, an American specialist on political violence, old terrorism generally had a specific manifesto to overthrow a colonial power or the capitalist system and so on. These terrorists were not shy about planting a bomb or hijacking an aircraft and they set some limit to their brutality. Killing so many innocent people might turn their natural supporters off. Political terrorists want a lot of people watching, but not a lot of people dead. Old terrorism sought to change the word while the new sort is often practiced by those who believe that the world has gone beyond redemption, he added.
Hoffman says, “New Terrorism has no long term agenda, but is ruthless in its short term intentions”. It is often just a "cacophonous cry" of protest or an outburst of religious intolerance or a protest against the west in general & the US in particular. Its may be religious fanatics or die-hard opponents of a government and see no reason to show restraint. They are simply intent on inflicting the maximum amount of pain on the victim.
In what way would the new terrorism be different from that of the earlier years?i. More dangerous & less bafflingii. More hazardous for victimsiii. Less complicated for terrorists
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