Which of the statement is incorrect
  • a)
    unreported judgments have as much binding authority as reported ones
  • b)
    the decisions of the supreme court are of the highest authority
  • c)
    The decision of a single judge is binding on another single judge of the same High Court.
  • d)
    the decisions of one High court are authoritative with regard to another High court
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Aspire Academy answered  •  1 hour ago
High Court. The decisions of the high court are binding on all subordinate courts. In case of a conflict between two benches of similar authority, the latter decision is to be followed. ... Article 141 of the constitution says that any law decided by the supreme court shall be binding on all courts of the country.

Diego Garcia Island according to Indian Ocean Territory, to be transferred from UK to which country?
  • a)
    Mozambique
  • b)
    Maldives
  • c)
    Mauritius
  • d)
    Peru
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

S.S Career Academy answered  •  1 hour ago
Diego Garcia is an island of the British Indian Ocean Territory, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom. It is a militarised atoll just south of the equator in the central Indian Ocean, and the largest of 60 small islands comprising the Chagos Archipelago. It was first discovered by Europeans and named by the Portuguese, settled by the French in the 1790s and transferred to British rule after the Napoleonic Wars. It was one of the "Dependencies" of the British Colony of Mauritius until the Chagos Islands were detached for inclusion in the newly created British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) in 1965.

In which year International Criminal Court established?
  • a)
    2002
  • b)
    1898
  • c)
    1996
  • d)
    1894
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

S.S Career Academy answered  •  1 hour ago
17 July is celebrated as World Day for International Justice because this day is the anniversary of the adoption of the Rome Statute in 1998. With the help of this treaty, the International Criminal Court (ICC) was established. In 1998 since that day, 139 countries have signed the Court's treaty and nearly 80 States, representative of every region of the world, have ratified it.

Which of the following international airport of India introduced contactless car parking due to Covid-19 in July 2020?
  • a)
    Visakhapatnam International Airport, Andhra Pradesh
  • b)
    Indira Gandhi International Airport, Delhi
  • c)
    GMR Hyderabad International Airport, Telangana
  • d)
    Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport, Maharashtra
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

S.S Career Academy answered  •  1 hour ago
The GMR, Hyderabad international airport introduced India’s first fully contactless car parking in the wake of covid-19. Apart from offering an end-to-end contact-less boarding experience for safe travel, GHIAL has also scaled up its NETC (National Electronic Toll Collection) FASTag Car Parking in collaboration with NPCI (National Payments Corporation of India)

Name of the first Indian woman to win Magsaysay Award?
  • a)
    Kamla Nehru
  • b)
    Indira Gandhi
  • c)
    MS Subhalakshi
  • d)
    Mother Teresa
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Glance Learning Institute answered  •  1 hour ago
  • inobha Bhave was the first Indian to win Magsaysay Award.
  • CD Deshmukh was the first Indian Bureaucrat who won this award.
  • First Indian woman who won Ramon Magsaysay Award- Mother Teresa.
  • CD Deshmukh, Kiran Bedi, Arvind Kejriwal, TN Sheshan and JM Lyngdoh are some eminent personalities who won Mags... more
  • Jay Prakash Narayan was the first Indian who won this award for Public Service.

Which of the following places is NOT associated with the Kumbh Mela?
  • a)
    Nashik-Trimbakeshwar
  • b)
    Ujjain
  • c)
    Haridwar
  • d)
    Puri
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Glance Learning Institute answered  •  1 hour ago
• Puri is NOT associated with the Kumbh Mela.
• Kumbh Mela is celebrated in a cycle of approximately 12 years at 4 river-bank pilgrimage sites.
• The sites are following:-
  • Ujjain (Shipra)
  • The Allahabad (Ganges-Yamuna Sarasvati rivers confluence)
  • Nashik (Godavari)
  • Haridwar (Ganges)
• The famous Jagannath Temple located in the Puri city.
• For Hindus, It is one of the original "Char Dham pilgrimage” sites.

Football was officially included as a competitive game in Olympics in:
  • a)
    1924
  • b)
    1908 
  • c)
    1916
  • d)
    1900
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Glance Learning Institute answered  •  1 hour ago
● Football was officially included as a competitive game in the Olympics in 1908.
● It is the national game of Mauritius, Italy, Israel and France.
● The All India Football Federation is the governing body of Football.
Sushila Bohat asked   •  40 minutes ago

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions: MY LOVE OF NATURE, goes right back to my childhood, to the times when I stayed on my grandparents' farm in Suffolk. My father was in the armed forces, so we were always moving and didn't have a home base for any length of time, but I loved going there. I think it was my grandmother who encouraged me more than anyone: she taught me the names of wild flowers and got me interested in looking at the countryside, so it seemed obvious to go on to do Zoology at University.
I didn't get my first camera until after I'd graduated, when I was due to go diving in Norway and needed a method of recording the sea creatures I would find there. My father didn't know anything about photography, but he bought me an Exacta, which was really quite a good camera for the time, and I went off to take my first pictures of sea anemones and starfish. I became keen very quickly, and learned how to develop and print; obviously I didn't have much money in those days, so I did more black and white photography than colour, but it was all still using the camera very much as a tool to record what I found both by diving and on the shore. I had no ambition at all to be a photographer then, or even for some years afterwards.
Unlike many of the wildlife photographers of the time, I trained as a scientist and therefore my way of expressing myself is very different. I've tried from the beginning to produce pictures, which are always biologically correct. There are people who will alter things deliberately: you don't pick up sea creatures from the middle of the shore and take them down to attractive pools at the bottom of the shore without knowing you're doing it. In so doing you're actually falsifying the sort of seaweeds they live on and so on, which may seem unimportant, but it is actually changing the natural surroundings to make them prettier. Unfortunately, many of the people who select pictures are looking for attractive images and, at the end of the day, whether it's truthful or not doesn't really matter to them.
It's important to think about the animal first, and there are many occasions when I've not taken a picture because it would have been too disturbing. Nothing is so important that you have to get that shot; of course, there are cases when it would be very sad if you didn't, but it's not the end of the world. There can be a lot of ignorance in people's behaviour towards wild animals and it's a problem that more and more people are going to wild places: while some animals may get used to cars, they won't get used to people suddenly rushing up to them. The sheer pressure of people, coupled with the fact that there are increasingly fewer places where no-one else has photographed, means that over the years, life has become much more difficult for the professional wildlife photographer. Nevertheless, wildlife photographs play a very important part in educating people about what is out there and what needs conserving. Although photography can be an enjoyable pastime, as it is to many people, it is also something that plays a very important part in educating young and old alike. Of the qualities it takes to make a good wildlife photographer, patience is perhaps the most obvious - you just have to be prepared to sit it out. I'm actually more patient now because I write more than ever before, and as long as I've got a bit of paper and a pencil, I don't feel I'm wasting my time. And because I photograph such a wide range of things, even if the main target doesn't appear I can probably find something else to concentrate on instead.
How is she different from some of the other wildlife photographers she meets?
... more

Which of the following terms is associated with the architecture of a Buddhist Stupa?
  • a)
    Gopuram
  • b)
    Harmika
  • c)
    Garbhagriha
  • d)
    Mandapam
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Future Foundation Institute answered  •  1 hour ago
  • The harmika is a small platform with a railing located at the very top of a Buddhist stupa. Sometimes umbrellas were mounted in the harmika as a symbol of honour and respect.
  • A gopuram is a monumental entrance tower at the entrance of a Hindu temple in the Dravidian architecture of Tamil Nadu.
  • Mandapam is a Hindu temple architecture; it is a pillared hall or pavilion for... more
  • A garbhagriha or sannidhanam is the sanctum sanctorum, the innermost sanctuary of Hindu and Jain temples where murti resides.
Sanjib Bhanja asked   •  41 minutes ago

Read the following passage and answer the question.
In 2017, the Ministry of Food Processing Industries which is a ministry of the Government of India was looking into several ways to promote and spread awareness about World Food India 2017 - an event organised by the ministry to promote India as the world's food factory. They desperately needed a way to raise awareness about how India being the largest producer of food and food products, suffers from an acute shortage of food.
India is the fastest-growing economy in the world, yet 40% of its food production is wasted annually. Realising this, the ministry realised that the country, especially its youth, needed a wake-up call and the World Food Day was an ideal time for it.
The Ministry found out that youth of the country is highly active on social media platforms, and therefore they need to look for innovative digital marketing strategies to reach out to them. In order to achieve this, they hired a digital marketing agency that designed a creative marketing strategy that emphasised on food wastage and the ways to tackle it. The agency published creative posts to gather the attention of the target audience, hence engaging them with the campaign.
Q. Which of the following statements presents a paradox that is mentioned in the text?
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FSSAI has launched which project to address Vitamin D deficiencies (VDD) amongst youngsters?
  • a)
    Project Sun
  • b)
    Project Sky
  • c)
    Project Dhoop
  • d)
    Project Sunlight
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Future Foundation Institute answered  •  1 hour ago
The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has launched a unique initiative ‘Project Dhoop’ to encourage schools to shift their morning assembly to around noon-time, mainly between 11 am to 1 pm, to ensure maximum absorption of Vitamin D in students through natural sunlight. The move comes in the backdrop of rising incidence of Vitamin D deficiency (VDD), particularly amongst the young people, in the country as the studies have found that over 90% of boys and girls in various Indian cities are deficient in Vitamin D despite most part of India receiving abundant sunshine all the year through. The ‘Project Dhoop’ has been launched by FSSAI in association with National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) and North MCD Schools at National Bal Bhavan.

DIRECTIONS for the question: Study the following information carefully and answer the question.
An exhibition is open for public since 9 a.m. till 3 p.m. and again since 4 p.m. till 10 p.m. In a day there are 12 batches of l hour each. The entry ticket bears a pass-code made up of seven words, which changes every hour following a particular rule. The pass-codes for 4 p.m, to lop.m, are same as those for respective hours during ga.m. till 3 p.m. i.e. the pass - code for 4 p.m. to 5 p.m. is same as of 9 a.m. to 10 a.m. and so on. Following is an illustration of the code and steps of rearrangement for subsequent clock hours and so on.
If the pass - code for third batch is 'any cold and at is hill station', which batch wilt have the pass - code stations is cold at and any hill ?
  • a)
    Fifth
  • b)
    Fourth
  • c)
    Second
  • d)
    First
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Aspire Academy answered  •  12 hours ago
The order of words changes from one batch to the next as follows: 1st word becomes 2nd, the 2nd becomes the last, the 3rd becomes the 1st * 4th remains the same, the 5th becomes the 6th * 6th becomes the 3rd and the last becomes the 5th
Dig -1; more -2; and -3; you -4; wilt-5; find -6; water -7
1st batch 9am to 10am 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (4pm to 5pm)
2nd batch 10am to 11am 3 1 6 4 7 5 2 (5pm to 6pm)
3rd batch 11am to 12am 6 3 5 4 2 7 1 (6pm to 7pm)
4th batch 12:00 to 1pm 5 6 7 4 1 2 3 (7pm to 8pm)
5th batch 1pm to 2pm 7 5 2 4 3 1 6 (8pm to gpm)
6th batch 2pm to 3pm 2 7 1 4 6 3 5 (9pm to 10pm)
If the pass - code for third batch is 'any cold and at is hill station', it represents '6 3 5 4 2 7 1. As per the above arrangement pattern the code 'stations is cold at and any hill' will be 1 2 3 4 5 6 7' which represents the code for first batch.

The information given below is regarding the number of students appeared in three different exams A, B and C in four different years 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018.
In 2015:
Students appeared in exam A was twice the students appeared in exam B. Total students appeared in three exams together was 1640. Students appeared in exam B was 40 more than students appeared in exam C.
In 2016:
Students appeared in exam B was 40% more than students appeared in exam A while students appeared in exam C was 20% more than students appeared in exam B. Total students appeared in all three exams together was 2448.
In 2017:
Ratio of students appeared in exam A to exam B was 7:9. Students appeared in exam C was 25% more than students appeared in exam B. Total students appeared in all three exams together was 2180.
In 2018:
Average of students appeared in exams A and B was 560. Students appeared in exam C was 600. Ratio of students appeared in exam A to exam C was 4 : 5.
Q. What is the difference between number of students appeared in exams B and C together in 2015 and number of students appeared in exams A and B together in 2017?
... more

Aspire Academy answered  •  12 hours ago
"In 2015
Let students appeared in exam B = a
Students appeared in exam A = 2a
Students appeared in exam C = a – 40
So a + 2a + a – 40 = 1640
4a = 1680
a = 420
Students appeared in exam B = 420
Students appeared in exam A = 840
Students appeared in exam C = 380
In 2017:
Let students appeared in exam A and exam B be 7c and 9c respectively.
Students appeared in exam C = 125% of 9c = 11.25c
So 7c + 9c + 11.25c = 2180
27.25c = 2180
c = 80
Students appeared in exam A = 560
Students appeared in exam B = 720
Students appeared in exam C = 900
Number of students appeared in exams B and C together in 2015 = 420 + 380 = 800
Number of students appeared in exams A and B together in 2017 = 560 + 720 = 1280
Difference = 1280 – 800 = 480
Hence, option B is correct."

Pakyong Airport is located at which city
  • a)
    Lakshadweep
  • b)
    Guwahati
  • c)
    Gangtok
  • d)
    Panchkula
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Aspire Academy answered  •  12 hours ago
Pakyong Airport is a greenfield airport near Gangtok, the state capital of Sikkim. The Pakyong Airport project is one of the tallest reinforced soil structures in the world.
Hence, option C is correct.

Which country is going to resume BRICS presidency in 2021?
  • a)
    Brazil
  • b)
    China
  • c)
    South Africa
  • d)
    India
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Notes Wala answered  •  12 hours ago
India will assume the BRICS Presidency in 2021. Shri Javadekar extended invitation to the nations to participate in the environment meetings. The meeting adopted BRICS Environment Ministers’ Statement.

Jayaprakash Narayan was given the title of ‘ ________’
  • a)
    Deenbandhu
  • b)
    Deshbandhu
  • c)
    Loknayak
  • d)
    Jana Nayak
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Notes Wala answered  •  12 hours ago
● Jayprakash Narayan was given the title of ‘Loknayak’. He is known as the “Hero of Quit India Movement”, and he is remembered for leading the mid-1970s opposition against Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, for whose overthrow he had called for a “total revolution”.
● His biography, Jayaprakash, was written by his friend and an eminent writer of Hindi literature, Rambriksh Benipuri. In 1999, he was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna. He was awarded the Magsaysay award for Public Service in 1965.

Niagara Fall is located between which two country?
  • a)
    USA and Mexico
  • b)
    Mexico and Canada
  • c)
    USA and Canada
  • d)
    Peru and Brazil
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

S.S Career Academy answered  •  12 hours ago
The Niagara River serves as an international border between the USA & Canada. There are two distinctive cities. Niagara Falls Ontario, Canada and Niagara Falls New York, United States of America.

Pangong lake located in which state/UTs?
  • a)
    Ladakh
  • b)
    Sikkim
  • c)
    Jammu & Kashmir
  • d)
    Arunachal Pradesh
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

S.S Career Academy answered  •  12 hours ago
Pangong Lake, one of the most famous lakes in Leh Ladakh, derives its name from the Tibetan word, “Pangong Tso”, which means “high grassland lake”.

The Great Indian Bustard is the state bird of which state?
  • a)
    Maharashtra
  • b)
    Gujrat
  • c)
    Goa
  • d)
    Rajasthan
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

S.S Career Academy answered  •  12 hours ago
  • State bird of Rajasthan is Great Indian Bustard.
  • State bird of Maharashtra is yellow footed green pigeon.
  • State bird of Goa is Yellow throated bulbul.
  • State bird of Gujrat is Greater ... more
  • Great Indian Bustard is a critically endangered species and GOI is running Project Great Indian Bustard for it’s protection and conservation.
  • Protected areas: Desert National Park Sanctuary — Rajasthan, Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary – Andhra Pradesh and Karera Wildlife Sanctuary– Madhya Pradesh.
Nawang Samtan asked   •  2 hours ago

Crime has existed in society since time immemorial and is considered to be inevitable. In order to keep
crime and criminals at bay, the law has been created to ensure public order and to keep the society fairly
organized. Law enforcement is a type of mechanism wherein the professionals work together in order to
enforce law and order through various techniques such as deterrence, rehabilitation and punishing
individuals who disobey the law of the land. Police Officers can be categorized as one of the most
important aspects of the law enforcement mechanism. The police are authorized and emancipated by the
state to enforce and implement law and order in the societal structure. However, in recent years a lot of
police personnel have been misusing their powers and are violating the laws which are supposed to be
enforced. Police misconduct can be defined as inappropriate conduct exhibited by a police officer or
unlawful actions taken by them in connection with their official duties.
Executive Approach:
On 15 November 1977, The Government of India appointed a National Police Commission.The
commission was appointed in order to evaluate the role and performance of the police both as a law
enforcement agency and also as an institution to protect and preserve the Fundamental Rights and
Human Rights of the citizens enshrined in the Constitution. The National Police Commission had various
terms of reference which required the Commission to redefine the role, powers and responsibilities in
order to keep a track of the maintenance of public order along with prevention and control of crime. The
Commission was also required to recommend various measures and institutional changes in order to
prevent the misuse of powers by the police or by the political executives so that a process of impartial
inquiry of the complaints made by the public can be enforced which are made against the police officers
about the misuse of their powers.
Judicial Perspective:
When the recommendations given by the National Police Commission have not implemented due to
various different factors a petition under Article 32 of the Constitution of India was filed by Prakash Singh,
a Padmashree awardee, who was a renowned police officer known for his impeccable contribution to the
society and Indian Police Service along with two other petitioners praying for the issue of directions to the
Government of India to frame and establish a new Police Act based on the recommendations given by the

Commission in order to ensure the effective functioning of the people.
Police Complaints Authority: Composition, Power and Functions:
● At the District Level, there shall be a Police Complaint authority to look into the matter of complaints
against the police officer of and up to the Rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police.
● The State Level- Police Complaints Authority would take cognizance of only those cases which involve
allegations of serious misconduct by Police Officers or Workforce.
● Apart from the incidents mentioned above the District Level Police Complaints Authority will take notice
of and inquire into accusations and allegations of extortion, land/house grabbing, or any other incident or
case involving gross misuse of authority. The recommendations made by these authorities shall have a
binding effect on any action that is departmental or criminal against an irresponsible and delinquent police
officer.
The Political and Administrative Manipulation of the Police was published in 1979 by the Bureau of Police
Research and Development. The important reasoning behind this was:
... more

Porkavee Lakshmi asked   •  3 hours ago

PASSAGE
I am losing my interest in human beings; in the significance of their lives and their actions. Someone has said it is better to study one man than ten books. I want neither books nor men; they make me suffer. Can one of them talk to me like the night – the Summer night? Like the stars or the caressing wind?
The night came slowly, softly, as I lay out there under the maple tree. It came creeping, creeping stealthily out of the valley, thinking I did not notice. And the outlines of trees and foliage nearby blended in one black mass and the night came stealing out from them, too, and from the east and west, until the only light was in the sky, filtering through the maple leaves and a star looking down through every cranny.
The night is solemn and it means mystery.
Human shapes flitted by like intangible things. Some stole up like little mice to peep at me. I did not mind. My whole being was abandoned to the soothing and penetrating charm of the night. The katydids began their slumber song: they are at it yet. How wise they are. They do not chatter like people. They tell me only: “sleep, sleep, sleep.” The wind rippled the maple leaves like little warm love thrills. Why do fools cumber the Earth! It was a man‘s voice that broke the necromancer‘s spell. A man came today with his “Bible Class.” He is detestable with his red cheeks and bold eyes and coarse manner and speech. What does he know of Christ? Shall I ask a young fool who was born yesterday and will die tomorrow to tell me things of Christ? I would rather ask the stars: they have seen him. 
Q. The author has compared the night with:
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Neha Singhal asked   •  6 hours ago

The welcome ruling by a five-member Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court that the office of the Chief Justice of India is a …….(1)…..under the RTI Act, as much as the apex court itself, now enables the disclosure of information such as the judges’ personal assets. The judgment’s majority opinion, written by Justice SanjivKhanna, emphasised the need for transparency and accountability and that “disclosure is a facet of public interest”. In concurring opinions, Justice D.Y. Chandrachud asserted that judicial independence was not secured by secrecy while Justice N.V. Ramana argued for the need of a proper calibration of transparency in light of the importance of judicial independence. The Bench unanimously argued that the right to know under the RTI Act was not absolute and this had to be balanced with the right of privacy of judges. But the key takeaway from the judgment is that disclosure of details of serving judges’ personal assets was not a violation of their right to privacy. The main opinion also argued that information related to issues such as judicial appointments will also be subject to the test of public interest and procedures mandated in the RTI Act that specify that views of third parties (in this case, judges) must be sought. While laying out the importance of the assessment of public interest in any RTI query besides bringing the office of the CJI under the purview of the Act, the decision has gone on to uphold the Delhi High Court verdict in 2010.
Q. Which of the following should replace…..(1)…… according to recent judgement of Supreme Court?
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Sanjana Guldagad asked   •  6 hours ago

PASSAGE
It was the strangest murder trial I ever attended, where the old woman was found battered to death. He was a heavy stout man with bulging bloodshot eyes. All his muscles seemed to be in his thighs. The clock had just struck two in the morning. Mrs Salmon in 15 Northwood Street had been unable to sleep: she heard a door click shut and thought it was her own gate. So she went to the window and saw Adams (that was his name) on the steps of Mrs Parker's house. He had just come out and he was wearing gloves. He had a hammer in his hand and she saw him drop it into the laurel bushes by the front gate. But before he moved away, he had looked up at her window. The fatal instinct that tells a man when he is watched exposed him in the light of a streetlamp to her gaze-his eyes suffused with horrifying and brutal fear, like an animal's when you raise a whip.
Mrs Salmon was called in the Court.
`And do you see the man here in court?'
[She looked straight at the big man in the dock, who stared hard at her with his Pekingese eyes without emotion.]
`Yes,' she said, `there he is.'
`You are quite certain?'
She said simply, `I couldn't be mistaken, sir.'
`Thank you, Mrs Salmon.'
[Counsel for the defence rose to cross-examine.]
`Now, Mrs Salmon, you must remember that a man's life may depend on your evidence.'
`I do remember it, sir.' `Is your eyesight good?'
`I have never had to wear spectacles, sir.'
`You are a woman of fifty-five?'
`Fifty-six, sir.'
`And the man you saw was on the other side of the road?'
`Yes, sir.'
`And it was two o'clock in the morning. You must have remarkable eyes, Mrs Salmon?'
`No, sir. There was moonlight, and when the man looked up, he had the lamplight on his face.'
`And you have no doubt whatever that the man you saw is the prisoner?'
`None whatever, sir. It isn't a face one forgets.'
Then he said, `Do you mind, Mrs Salmon, examining again the people in court?
No, not the prisoner. Stand up, please, Mr Adams!
And there at the back of the court with thick stout body and muscular legs and a pair of bulging eyes, was the exact image of the man in the dock.
`Now think very carefully, Mrs Salmon. Can you still swear that the man you saw drop the hammer in Mrs Parker's garden was the prisoner and not this man, who is his twin brother?' Of course she couldn't. 
Q. “…his eyes suffused with horrifying and brutal fear, like an animal's when you raise a whip.” can be called as:
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Neelam Pandey asked   •  8 hours ago

The COVID-19 pandemic has taken the entire world hostage in less than four months, and the global economy has been hit the hardest with governments across the globe implementing stringent policies including lockdown to control the coronavirus outbreak. The pandemic today presents unprecedented challenges and impediments to businesses in conducting their normal operations. The lockdown across the world has caused delays in the performance of contracts and transactions. Now, the question that arises is whether the current situation can enable parties to a contract to alter their obligations with non-compliance of terms neither being regarded as a "default committed by any party" nor a "breach of contract"? There are certain well-accepted practices for dealing with such extraordinary situations in commercial transactions by the inclusion of force majeure & material adverse effect (MAE) clauses. Determination of the types of circumstances so covered by the force majeure clause contained in a contract is essential. Provisions of force majeure often cover natural disasters like hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes as "acts of God." Other covered events may include war, terrorism, civil disorder, fire, disease medical epidemics or by reasons of applicable laws or regulations. Broadly, the Courts have interpreted the term "Force Majeure" as an event that can neither be anticipated nor controlled by either of the contracting parties.  A force majeure clause applies in the context of ongoing contractual arrangements, whereas, an MAE or material adverse change (MAC) clause applies to the allocation of risk in transactions before their closure or completion. Pandemic and related consequences such as government action is a type of event covered by a force majeure clause, however, its impact on the affected party's ability to perform its contractual obligations may vary depending upon contractual terms. It is common for force majeure clauses to specify the impact that the event or circumstances in question must have, in order for the clause to be triggered. References may be made, for example, to the event or circumstances having "prevented", "hindered" or "delayed" performance. These terms require different levels of impact on performance before a party can claim recourse to these clauses. In other words, the force majeure and MAC clauses act as an exception to what would otherwise be treated as a breach of contract. Certain contracts may state that, if a force majeure clause is applied, the contract may automatically be terminated. On the other hand, some contracts may even state that the duty to fulfil the contractual obligation may be suspended for a certain period of time and if the force majeure event is not curbed or treated even after such time, then eventually the contract may be terminated. Though there cannot be a one-size-fits-all solution to this question, and it depends upon how the force majeure clause is worded in a specific contract; and in the absence of the same, applicable laws related to the same will be required to be taken into consideration.
Q. Based on the Author's argument in passage above, which of the following is correct?
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Manoj Papu asked   •  10 hours ago

Read the given passage carefully and attempt the questions that follow.
The work which Gandhiji had taken up was not only regarding the achievement of political freedom but also the establishment of a new social order based on truth and non-violence, unity and peace, equality and universal brotherhood and maximum freedom for all. This unfinished part of his experiment was perhaps even more difficult to achieve than the achievement of political freedom. In the political struggle, the fight was against a foreign power and all one could do was either join it or wish it success and give it his/her moral support. In establishing a social order on this pattern, there was a strong possibility of a conflict arising between diverse groups and classes of our own people. Experience shows that man values his possessions even more than his life because in the former he sees the means for perpetuation and survival of his descendants even after his body is reduced to ashes. A new order cannot be established without radically changing the mind and attitude of men towards property and, at some stage or the other, the 'haves' have to yield place to the 'have-nots'. We have seen, in our time, attempts to achieve a kind of egalitarian society and the picture of it after it was achieved. But this was done, by and large, through the use of physical force.
In the ultimate analysis it is difficult, if not impossible, to say that the instinct to possess has been rooted out or that it will not reappear in an even worse form under a different guise. It may even be that, like a gas kept confined within containers under great pressure, or water held back by a big dam, once the barrier breaks, the reaction will one day sweep back with a violence equal in extent and intensity to what was used to establish and maintain the outward egalitarian form. This enforced egalitarianism contains, in its bosom, the seed of its own destruction.
The root cause of class conflict is possessiveness or the acquisitive instinct. So long as the ideal that is to be achieved is one of securing the maximum material satisfaction, possessiveness is neither suppressed nor eliminated but grows on what it feeds. Nor does it cease to be possessiveness, whether it is confined to only a few or is shared by many.
If egalitarianism is to endure, it has to be based not on the possession of the maximum material goods by a few or by all but on voluntary, enlightened renunciation of those goods which cannot be shared by others or can be enjoyed only at the expense of others. This calls for substitution of material values by purely spiritual ones. The paradise of material satisfaction, which is sometimes equated with progress these days, neither spells peace nor progress. Mahatma Gandhi has shown us how the acquisitive instinct inherent in man can be transmuted by the adoption of the ideal of trusteeship by those who 'have' for the benefit of all those who 'have not' so that, instead of leading to exploitation and conflict, it would become a means and incentive for the amelioration and progress of society respectively.
Q.
According to the passage, true egalitarianism will last only if
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Picky Jhawar asked   •  11 hours ago

In a very short time after I went to live at Baltimore, my old master’s youngest son Richard died; and in about three years and six months after his death, my old master, Captain Anthony, died, leaving only his son, Andrew, and daughter, Lucretia, to share his estate. He died while on a visit to see his daughter at Hillsborough. Cut off thus unexpectedly, he left no will as to the disposal of his property. It was therefore necessary to have a valuation of the property, that it might be equally divided between Mrs. Lucretia and Master Andrew. I was immediately sent for, to be valued with the other property. Here again my feelings rose up in detestation of slavery. I had now a new conception of my degraded condition. Prior to this, I had become, if not insensible to my lot, at least partly so. I left Baltimore with a young heart overborne with sadness, and a soul full of apprehension. I took passage with Captain Rowe, in the schooner Wild Cat, and, after a sail of about twenty-four hours, I found myself near the place of my birth. I had now been absent from it almost, if not quite, five years. I, however, remembered the place very well. I was only about five years old when I left it, to go and live with my old master on Colonel Lloyd’s plantation; so that I was now between ten and eleven years old.
We were all ranked together at the valuation. Men and women, old and young, married and single, were ranked with horses, sheep, and swine. There were horses and men, cattle and women, pigs and children, all holding the same rank in the scale of being, and were all subjected to the same narrow examination. Silvery-headed age and sprightly youth, maids and matrons, had to undergo the same indelicate inspection. At this moment, I saw more clearly than ever the brutalizing effects of slavery upon both slave and slaveholder.
After the valuation, then came the division. I have no language to express the high excitement and deep anxiety which were felt among us poor slaves during this time. Our fate for life was now to be decided. We had no more voice in that decision than the brutes among whom we were ranked. A single word from the white men was enough—against all our wishes, prayers, and entreaties—to sunder forever the dearest friends, dearest kindred, and strongest ties known to human beings. In addition to the pain of separation, there was the horrid dread of falling into the hands of Master Andrew. He was known to us all as being a most cruel wretch,—a common drunkard, who had, by his reckless mismanagement and profligate dissipation, already wasted a large portion of his father's property. We all felt that we might as well be sold at once to the Georgia traders, as to pass into his hands; for we knew that that would be our inevitable condition,—a condition held by us all in utmost horror and dread.
(Extract from "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave" by Young Federick Douglass)
Q. How does Douglass and the other slaves view Master Andrew
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