Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.
The internet has become an integral part of today’s generation of people; from communicating through instant messages and emails to banking, travelling, studying and shopping, internet has touched every aspect of life. With the growing use of the internet by people, protecting important information has become a necessity. A computer that is not having appropriate security controls can be infected with malicious logic and thus any type of information can be accessed in moments. Number of infected Web Pages and malicious websites can be seen every day that infects the computer and allow hackers to gain illegal access to other computer systems.
Hacking of important data, network outages, computer viruses and other cyber related threats affect our lives that range from minor inconvenience to serious incidents. Cyber threats can be caused due to negligence and vulnerabilities, or unintentional accidents. The main objectives of such type of system attackers or hackers are to steal confidential information, to make illegal monetary transactions, to destroy or to change data and the like. System attackers can be terrorists, crackers or recreational hackers. They have a variety of tools that can harm or infect the computer; usually they use malicious logic or virus to gain unauthorized access to a computer. Opening email attachments that carry the virus, clicking malicious links or websites or unintentionally downloading a dangerous program are common ways through which a computer can be infected and data can be stolen.
As the number of data networks, digital applications, as well as internet and mobile users are growing, so do the chances of cyber exploitation and cyber crimes. Even a small mistake in securing data or bad social networking can prove to be extremely dangerous. If accounts are not properly secured, it makes easier for hackers or unauthorized users to spread viruses or social engineered attacks that are designed to steal data and even money. Such types of issues highlight the need for cyber security as an essential approach in protecting and preventing data from being used inappropriately.
In simple language, Cyber Security or Information technology security means protecting data, networks, programs and other information from unauthorized or unintended access, destruction or change. It encompasses all the mechanisms and processes that protect digital equipment, information and records from illegal or unintended access, manipulation or destruction.
In today’s dynamic environment, cyber security has become vital for individuals and families, as well as organizations (such as military, government, business houses, educational and financial institutions, corporations and others) that collect and store a wide range of confidential data on computers and transmit that to other computers across different networks. For families, protection of children and family members from cyber crime has become substantially important. For an individual, protecting information that could impact social life as well as personal finance is essential. The internet has provided a wide array of learning opportunities, but there are risks too. Photos, videos and other personal information shared by an individual on social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter can be inappropriately used by others may lead to serious and even life-threatening incidents. Social networking sites have become the most popular medium for sharing information and connecting with other people. But these sites have created varied opportunities for cybercrimes, compromised personal identities and information leakage. Therefore, it is important for individuals to understand how to protect against cyber threats, and must also comprehend the difference between virtual and real world. One should learn how to protect computers and personal information from being hacked and should engage in appropriate online behaviour in order to eliminate changes of cyber threats and thereby creating a safer online environment.
Question: According to the author, what does cyber security mean?