In addition to 550 members in Lok Sabha, how many members represent to Anglo Indian community?
  • a)
    3 members
  • b)
    1 member
  • c)
    2 members
  • d)
    5 members
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Milap Chand answered  •  9 hours ago
Maximum strength of the House is 552 members - 530 members to represent the States, 20 members to represent the Union Territories, and 2 members to be nominated by the President from the Anglo-Indian Community.

Neelam Sunda asked   •  3 minutes ago

Passage: We have inherited the tradition of secrecy about the budget from Britain where also the system has been strongly attacked by eminent economists and political scientists including Peter Jay. Sir Richard Clarke, who was the originating genius of nearly every important development in the British budgeting techniques during the last two decades, has spoken out about the abuse of budget secrecy:―The problems of long-term tax policy should surely be debated openly with the facts on the table. In my opinion, all governments should have just the same duty to publish their expenditure policy.
Indeed, this obligation to public taxation policy is really essential for the control of public expenditure in order to get realistic taxation implications. Realising that democracy flourishes best on the principles of open government, more and more democracies are having an open public debate on budget proposals before introducing the appropriate Bill in the legislature. In the United States the budget is conveyed in a message by the President to the Congress, which comes well in advance of the date when the Bill is introduced in the Congress. In Finland the Parliament and the people are already discussing in June the tentative budget proposals which are to be introduced in the Finnish Parliament in September. Every budget contains a cartload of figures in black and white-but the dark figures represent the myriad lights and shades of India‘s life, the contrasting tones of poverty and wealth, and of bread so dear and flesh and blood so cheap, the deep tints of adventure and enterprise and man‘s ageless struggle for a brighter morning. The Union budget should not be an annual scourge but a part of presentation of annual accounts of a partnership between the Government and the people.
That partnership would work much better when the nonsensical secrecy is replaced by openness and public consultations, resulting in fair laws and the people‘s acceptance of their moral duty to pay.
Directions: Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
Q. MYRIAD
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Legal Principle: Negligence is the absence of care by one party which results in some damage to another. Damage is an essential ingredient to constitute a tort of negligence.
Fact Situation: Mistry left his ladder on the public road while unloading it from a truck when he went to open the shutters of his shop. Saini who was riding his motorcycle had to swerve hard to avoid hitting the ladder as he came with speed on the road. Saini fell down but was miraculously not injured.
Which of the following statements is the most appropriate in relation to the legal principle stated above?
Options:
  • a)
    Mistry is liable for the tort of negligence since Saini fell down due to the presence of the ladder.
  • b)
    Mistry is not liable for the tort of negligence since Saini was not injured though he fell down.
  • c)
    Mistry is not liable for the tort of negligence since Saini was speeding on the road.
  • d)
    Mistry is liable for the tort of negligence since he was careless in leaving the ladder on the road.
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Dalip Chand answered  •  9 hours ago
Negligent torts are not deliberate actions, but instead, present when an individual or entity fails to act as a  reasonable person to someone whom he or she owes a duty to. The negligent action found in this particular tort leads to a personal injury or monetary damages.  Thus the two major essentials of tort are (a) negligence and (b) damage or injury.  

Facts of the case presented before us mention that  Saini who was riding a motorcycle fell down due to  Mistry's negligence even though he did not get injured,  DAMAGE was caused to his motorcycle, clothes, time, etc. Thus we can easily conclude that "Mistry is liable for the tort of negligence since Saini fell down due to the presence of the ladder." is the most appropriate statement.   

Till date there have been how many amendments to the Indian Constitution?
  • a)
    100
  • b)
    104
  • c)
    193
  • d)
    95
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Gurdayal Singh answered  •  9 hours ago
As of January 2020, there have been 104 amendments of the Constitution of India since it was first enacted in 1950. There are three types of amendments to the Constitution of India of which second and third type of amendments are governed by Article 368.

Who among the following can create a new state in the Indian union?
  • a)
    President
  • b)
    Parliament
  • c)
    Union cabinet
  • d)
    Any two or more states
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Balu Ram answered  •  9 hours ago
The constitutional power to create new states and union territories in India is solely reserved to the Parliament of India.
Parliament can do so by announcing new states/union territories, separating territory from an existing state or merging two or more states/union territories or parts of them.

The legality of the removal of the Andhra Pradesh State Election Commissioner (SEC) is seriously in doubt. That it was the culmination of an open conflict between the Election Commissioner, N.
Ramesh Kumar, and Chief Minister ......(1)......makes it a glaring instance of misuse of power. The State government got the Governor to issue an ordinance to cut the SEC‘s tenure from five to three years, and amend the criterion for holding that office from being an officer of the rank of Principal Secretary and above to one who had served as a High Court judge. This automatically rendered Mr. Kumar‘s continuance invalid. Last month, just days before the local body polls were to be held, the SEC postponed the elections, citing the COVID-19 outbreak. The State government approached the Supreme Court, but the court declined to interfere. Having exhausted its legal remedy, the government should have waited for the ongoing fight against the disease to be over. The State government seems to have gone by legal opinion that cited Aparmita Prasad Singh vs. State of U.P. (2007) in which the Allahabad High Court ruled that cessation of tenure does not amount to removal, and upheld the State Election Commissioner‘s term being cut short. The Supreme Court, while dismissing an appeal against the order, kept open the legal questions arising from the case. Further, the Constitution, under Article .........(2)......., prohibits the variation of any condition of service to the detriment of any incumbent. Even if the State government argues that a change of tenure does not amount to varying the conditions of service, the new norm can only apply to the successor SEC, and not the one holding the office now.
Q. Who is present Chief Election Commissioner of India?
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Daya Chand Sharma answered  •  22 hours ago
Sunil Arora is the current 23rd Chief Election Commissioner and the two Election Commissioners are Rajiv Kumar and Sushil Chandra. 

The railway budget Was separated from the central budget in the year
  • a)
    1920
  • b)
    1924
  • c)
    1922
  • d)
    1923
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Satish Kumar answered  •  22 hours ago
The Railway Budget was separated from the general government finances in 1924. The measure was taken on the recommendations submitted by a panel led by British economist William Acworth in 1920-21. Notably, the Union Cabinet on Wednesday scrapped the practice of presenting a separate Railway Budget and merged it with the Union Budget.

Assertion: The plaintiff can sue all or any number of joint tort feasors
Reason: when several persons join in the commission of a tort is individually responsible as if each alone had committed it.
  • a)
    A is true R is false
  • b)
    A and R are true and R is not the correct explanation of A
  • c)
    A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
  • d)
    A is false R is true
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Jawahar Singh answered  •  22 hours ago
There are always several tortfeasors as well. In any joint tort, the party injured has his choice of whom to sue. Several persons jointly commit a tort, the plaintiff has his election to sue all or any number of the parties; because a tort is in its nature the separate act of each individual'.

Principle : Any police officer, not below the rank of a Sub-Inspector, may, if he is satisfied that an offence in respect of the infringement of copyright in any work has been, is being, or is likely to be, committed, seize without warrant, all copies of the work and all plates used for the purpose of making infringing copies of the work, wherever found and all copies and plates so seized shall, as soon as practicable, be produced before a Magistrate.
Facts : A Superintendent of Police (SP) conducted a raid on a shop and found pirated copies of books. The SP formed an opinion that infringement of copyright is taking place. He arrested the shop owner without warrant in the light of above mentioned propositions.
  • a)
    The arrest of the shop owner was within the power of the SP
  • b)
    The arrest of the shop owner was not within the power of the SP
  • c)
    The shop owner can never arrested
  • d)
    SP was not competent to know whether infringement of copyright has taken place
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Pale Ram answered  •  22 hours ago
The correct option is A.
As per section 64(1) of the Copyright Act, 1957, Any police officer, not below the rank of a Sub-Inspector when satisfied  that an offence in respect of the infringement of copyright in any work has been, is being, or is likely to be, committed, may seize without warrant, all copies of the work and all plates used for the purpose of making infringing copies of the work, wherever found and all copies and plates so seized shall, as soon as practicable, be produced before a Magistrate.
In the present case, the SP who is above the rank of Sub-Inspector conducted the raid on a shop when he formed an opinion or was satisfied that  an offence in respect of the infringement of copyright in any work has been, is being, or is likely to be, committed and hence rightly arrested the shop owner.
 

Status quo
  • a)
    legally valid
  • b)
    present condition
  • c)
    social position
  • d)
    side remarks
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Om Prakash answered  •  22 hours ago
The correct answer is option B.
Status quo or Statu quo is a Latin phrase meaning the existing state of affairs, particularly with regard to social or political issues.

The number of High Courts in India is
  • a)
    18
  • b)
    25
  • c)
    21
  • d)
    28
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Maya Devi answered  •  22 hours ago
There are 25 high courts in India. The number of total judges sanctioned in these high courts are 1079 of which 771 judges are permanent and remaining 308 sanctioned for additional judges. As of September 1, 2020, 398 of the seats (about 36%) are vacant.

Which among the following is the world’s largest e-commerce company?
  • a)
    Alibaba
  • b)
    Ebay
  • c)
    Amazon
  • d)
    Flipkart
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Ramphal Mehra answered  •  22 hours ago
Alibaba is often referred to as the 'Amazon of China' because of its growth trajectory being nearly identical to that of Amazon. While Amazon is the larger of the two companies by a significant margin, both companies have quite similar revenue streams.

Kavi Priya asked   •  7 hours ago

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. 
Democracy rests on a tension between two different principles. There are, on the one hand, the principles of equality before the law, or, more generally, of equality, and, on the other, what may be described as the leadership principle. The first give priority to rules and the second to persons. No matter how skillfully we contrive our schemes; there is a pint beyond which the one principle cannot be promoted without some sacrifice of the other.
Alexis de Tocqueville, the great nineteenth century write on democracy, maintained that the age of democracy, whose birth he was witnessing, would be the age of mediocrity: in saying this he was thinking primarily of a regime of equality governed by impersonal rules. Despite his strong attachment to democracy, he took great pains to point out what he believed to be its negative side: a dead level plane of achievement in practically every sphere of life. The age of democracy would, in his view, he an unheroic age; there would not be room in it for either heroes or hero-worshippers.
But modern democracies have not been able to do without heroes: this too was foreseen, with much misgiving, by Tocqueville. Tocqueville viewed this misgiving because he believed, rightly or wrongly, that unlike in aristocratic societies, there was no proper place in a democracy for heroes, and hence when they arose, they would sooner or later turn into despots. Whether they require heroes or not, democracies certainly require leaders, and, in the contemporary age, need to breed them in great profusion; the problem is to know what to do with them.
In a world preoccupied with scientific rationality, the advantages of a system based on an impersonal rule of law should be a recommendation with everybody. There is something orderly and predictable about such a system. When life is lived mainly in small, self-contained communities, men are able to take finer personal distinctions into account in dealing with their fellow men. They’re unable to do this in a large and amorphous society, and organized living would be impossible here without a system of impersonal rule. Above all, such a system guarantees a kind of equality to the extent that everybody, no matter in what station of life, is bound by the same explicit, often written rules, and nobody is above them.
But a system governed solely by impersonal rules can at best ensure order and stability; it cannot create any shining vision of a future in which mere formal equality will be replaced by real equality and fellowship. A world governed by impersonal rules cannot easily change itself, or when it does, the change is so gradual as to make the basic or fundamental change, a push is needed from within, a kind of individual initiative which will create new rules, new terms and conditions of file.
The issue of leadership thus acquired crucial significance in the context of change. If the modern age is preoccupied with scientific rationality, it is no less preoccupied with change. To accept what exists on its terms is traditional, not modern, and it may be all very well to appreciate tradition in music, dance and drama, but for society as a while, the choice has already been made in favour of modernization and development. Moreover, in some countries, the gap between ideal and reality has become so great that the argument of development and change is now irresistible.
In these countries no argument for development has greater appeal or urgency than the one which shows development to be the condition for the mitigation, if not the elimination, of inequality. There is something contradictory about the very presence of large inequalities in a society which professes to be democratic. It does not take people too long to realize that democracy by itself can guarantee only formally equality, beyond this; it can only whet people’s appetite for real or substantive equality. From this arises continued preoccupation with plans and schemes that will help to bridge the gap between the ideal of equality and the reality which is so contrary to it.
When pre-existing rules give no clear directions of change, leadership comes into its own. Every democracy invests its leadership with a measure of charisma, and expects from it a corresponding measure of energy and vitality. Now, the greater the urge for change in a society, the stronger the appeal of a dynamic leadership in it. A dynamic leadership seeks to free itself from the constraints of existing rules; in a sense that is the test of its dynamism. In this process, it may take a turn at which it ceases to regard itself as being bound by these rules, placing itself above them. There is always a tension between ‘charisma’ and ‘discipline’ and in the case of a democratic leadership, puts forward revolutionary claims, the tension tends to be resolved at the expense of discipline.
Characteristically, the legitimacy of such a leadership rests on its claim to be able to abolish or at least substantially reduce the existing inequalities in society. From the argument that format equality or equality before the law is but a limited good, it is often one short step to the argument that it is a hindrance or an obstacle to the establishment of real or substantive equality. The conflict between a ‘progressive’ executive and a ‘conservative’ judiciary is but one aspect of this larger problem. This conflict naturally acquires added piquancy when the executive is elected and the judiciary appointed.
Q.
What possible factor would a dynamic leader consider a ‘hindrance’ in achieving the development goals of a nation?
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Kannan Menon asked   •  8 hours ago

Read the passage given below and answer the questions based on it.
“Well, lately Mas’r has been saying that he was a fool to let me marry off the place; that he hates Mr. Shelby and all his tribe, because they are proud, and hold their heads up above him, and that I’ve got proud notions from you; and he says he won’t let me come here anymore, and that I shall take a wife and settle down on his place. At first he only scolded and grumbled these things; but yesterday he told me that I should take Mina for a wife, and settle down in a cabin with her, or he would sell me down river.”
“Why—but you were married to me, by the minister, as much as if you’d been a white man!” said Eliza, simply.
“Don’t you know a slave can’t be married? There is no law in this country for that; I can’t hold you for my wife, if he chooses to part us. That’s why I wish I’d never seen you,—why I wish I’d never been born; it would have been better for us both,—it would have been better for this poor child if he had never been born. All this may happen to him yet!”
“O, but master is so kind!”
“Yes, but who knows?—he may die—and then he may be sold to nobody knows who. What pleasure is it that he is handsome, and smart, and bright? I tell you, Eliza, that a sword will pierce through your soul for every good and pleasant thing your child is or has; it will make him worth too much for you to keep.”
The words smote heavily on Eliza’s heart; the vision of the trader came before her eyes, and, as if someone had struck her a deadly blow, she turned pale and gasped for breath. She looked nervously out on the verandah, where the boy, tired of the grave conversation, had retired, and where he was riding triumphantly up and down on Mr. Shelby’s walking-stick. She would have spoken to tell her husband her fears, but checked herself.
Q. Why does George say he wishes he had never seen Eliza?
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Kushagra Bhartita asked   •  17 hours ago

The World Trade Organisation (WTO) was created in the early 1990s as a component of the Uruguay Round negotiation. However, it could have been negotiated as part of the Tokyo Round of the 1970s, since negotiation was an attempt at a ‘constitutional reform’ of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Or it could have been put off to the future, as the US government wanted. What factors led to the creation of the WTO in the early 1990s? One factor was the pattern of multilateral bargaining that developed late in the Uruguay Round. Like all complex international agreements, the WTO was a product of a series of trade-offs between principal actors and groups. For the United States, which did not want a new organization, the disputed settlement part of the WTO package achieved its longstanding goal of a more effective and more legal dispute settlement system. For the Europeans, who by the 1990s had come to view GATT dispute settlement less in political terms add more as a regime of legal obligations, the WTO package was acceptable as a means to discipline the resort to unilateral measures by the United States. Countries like Canada and other middle and smaller trading partners were attracted by the expansion of a rule-based system and by the symbolic value of a trade organization, both of which inherently support the weak against the strong. The developing countries were attracted due to the provisions banning unilateral measures. Finally, and perhaps most important, many countries at the Uruguay Round came to put a higher priority on the export gains than on the import losses that the negotiation would produce, and they came to associate the WTO and a rule-based system with those gains. This reasoning – replicated in many countries – was contained in U. S. Ambassador Kantor’s defence of the WTO, and it announced to a recognition that international trade and its benefits cannot be enjoyed unless trading nations accept the discipline of a negotiated rule-based environment. A second factor in the creation of the WTO was pressure from lawyers and the legal process. The dispute settlement system of the WTO was seen as a victory of legalists but the matter went deeper than that. The GATT, and the WTO, are contract organizations based on rules, and it is inevitable that an organization creating a further rule will in turn be influenced by legal process. Robert Hudee has written of the ‘momentum of legal development’, but what is this precisely? Legal development can be defined as promotion of the technical legal values of consistency, clarity (or certainty) and effectiveness; these are values that those responsible for administering any legal system will seek to maximize. As it played out in the WTO, consistency meant integrating under one roof the whole lot of separate agreements signed under GATT auspices; clarity meant removing ambiguities about the powers of contracting parties to make certain decisions or to undertake waivers; and effectiveness meant eliminating exceptions arising out of grandfather-rights and resolving defects in dispute settlement procedures and institutional provisions. Concern for these values is inherent in any rule-based system of co-operation, since without these value rules would be meaningless in the first place, therefore, create their own incentive for fulfilment. The moment of legal development has occurred in other institutions besides the GATT, most notably in the European Union (EU). Over the past two decades the European Court of Justice (ECJ) has consistently rendered decisions that have expanded incrementally the EU’s internal market, in which the doctrine of ‘mutual recognition’ handed down in Cassis de Dijon case in 1979 was a key turning point. The court is now widely recognized as a major player in European integration, even though arguably such a strong role was not originally envisaged in the Treaty of Rome, which initiated the current European Union. One means the Court used to expand integration was the ‘teleological method of interpretation’, whereby the actions of member states were evaluated against ‘the accomplishment of the most elementary goals set forth in the Preamble to the (Rome) treaty. The teleological method represents an effort to keep current policies consistent with slated goals, and it is analogous to the effort in GATT to keep contracting party trade practices consistent with slated rules. In both cases legal concerns and procedures are an independent force for further co-operation.
In the large part the WTO was an exercise in consolidation. In the context of a trade negotiation that created a near-revolutionary expansion of international trade rules, the formation of the WTO was a deeply conservative act needed to ensure that the benefits of the new rules would not be lost. The WTO was all about institutional structure and dispute settlement: these are the concerns of conservatives and not revolutionaries, that is why lawyers and legalists took the lead on these issues. The WTO codified the GATT institutional practice that had developed by custom over three decades, and it incorporated a new dispute settlement system that was necessary to keep both old and new rules from becoming a sham. Both the international structure and the dispute settlement system were necessary to preserve and enhance the integrity of the multilateral trade regime that had been built incrementally from the 1940s to the 1990s.
Q. 
The most likely reason for the acceptance of the WTO package by nations was that:
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