The makers of our Constitution designed the institutions of our republic with great care and attention to detail. The deliberations of the Constituent Assembly bear witness to the extraordinary quality of thought which went into the making of these institutions. They were designed to endure and it was expected that as the republic grew, a body of good practices, conventions and intangible legacies would nourish and sustain them and make them stronger.
Instead, we have seen every party in power since Indira Gandhi try to weaken and diminish these institutions. The Parliament, the Supreme Court, the Chief Election Commissioner, the Comptroller & Auditor General, the Union Public Service Commission are among the long list of institutions wherein constant attempts have been made to subdue them, erode their autonomy and authority (sometimes in the guise of reform) and have them subordinated to the will of the political executive, particularly the Prime Minister’s Office. Yet, their structural strength has enabled them to resist these attacks and substantially retain their character although each of them is probably weaker than before.
The one institution that has received the maximum battering from every quarter is that of the Indian Administrative Service (IAS). In the sixty four years of its existence (it came into existence in 1951 by an Act of Parliament under Article 312 of the Constitution), there have been more than fifty Commissions, Committees, Task Forces etc that have questioned and investigated different aspects of its architecture, tinkered with the recruitment system, and re-engineered it to change the socio-cultural and age profile of the entrants, introduced an OBC quota in addition to the original one for SC and ST, and suggested several other ‘reforms’ which have substantially changed its character.
Some changes have been necessitated by major sociological and political developments, for instance, the acceptance of the recommendations of the Mandal Commission. Some others have been motivated by the desire to make the IAS politically and culturally more acceptable. Yet despite these changes in the original architecture — or maybe because of them — the institution  remains central to the working of the Government and, in the minds of the public, still exercises disproportionate power in the scheme of things.
Q. According to the author, the institutions of our republic with passage of time have
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Sangeeta Khatwani answered  •  3 hours ago
This can be inferred from second paragraph

view all 2 answers

Read the information given below and answer the questions based on it.
KawasManekshawNanavati (1925–2003), was a Commander with the Indian Navy and had settled down in Bombay with Sylvia, his wife and their two sons and a daughter. In the same city the deceased Ahuja was doing business in automobiles and in the year 1956, Agniks, who were common friends of Nanavatis and Ahujas, introduced Ahuja and his sister to Nanavatis. Ahuja was unmarried and was about 34 years of age at the time.
Nanavati, as a Naval Officer, was frequently going away from Bombay in his ship, leaving his wife and children in Bombay. Gradually a friendship developed between Ahuja and Sylvia, which culminated in illicit intimacy between them. . Immediately after returning to Bombay, Nanavati noticed that his wife was behaving strangely and was not responsive or affectionate to him. When questioned, she used to evade the issue. After lunch, when he questioned her about her fidelity, she shook her head to indicate that she was unfaithful to him and confessed to Nanavati of her illicit intimacy with Ahuja.
Thereafter, he drove his wife, two of his children and a neighbor’s child in his car to a cinema, dropped them there and promised to come and pick them up at 6 P.M. when the show ended. He then drove his car to his ship, as he wanted to get medicine for his sick dog, he represented to the authorities in the ship, that he wanted to draw a revolver and six rounds from the stores of the ship as he was going to drive alone to Ahmednagar by night, though the real purpose was to shoot himself.
Nanavati went to the Naval base, collected his pistol on a false pretext from the stores along with six bullets, completed his official duties and proceeded to PremAhuja's office. On not finding him there, he went to Ahuja's flat and found him there. There was a verbal confrontation between the two men; according to Nanavati's account related in court, he had asked Ahuja whether the latter intended to marry Sylvia and accept their children. After Prem replied in the negative, and said “Am I to marry every woman I sleep with?” This enraged Nanavati.
A struggle ensued between the two and during that struggle two shots went off accidentally and hit Ahuja resulting in his death. After the shooting the accused went back to his car and drove it to the police station where he surrendered himself.
Nanavati is accused of causing murder of PremAhuja under Section 300 of Indian Penal Code. Section 300 of IPC states if the act by which the death is caused is done with the intention of causing death of the deceased.
Q. If in the above situation, Nanavati had not carried a gun with him to PremAhuja’s house and had then got into a heated argument with PremAhuja. The heated argument resulted in exchange of blows between the two and PremAhuja was severely injured which led to internal bleeding and eventually resulted in his death.
Should Nanavati in this case be accused of Murder under Section 300 of Indian Penal Code?
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Satpal Singh answered  •  4 hours ago
As per the facts laid out in this question, a heated argument takes place between the two leading to exchange of actual blows between the two. There is no deliberate effort or pre planning on the part of Nanavati to cause the death of Prem Ahuja, hence there is no intention to cause death. Hence, Nanavati should not be accused of Murder of PremAhuja

KawasManekshawNanavati (1925–2003), was a Commander with the Indian Navy and had settled down in Bombay with Sylvia, his wife and their two sons and a daughter. In the same city the deceased Ahuja was doing business in automobiles and in the year 1956, Agniks, who were common friends of Nanavatis and Ahujas, introduced Ahuja and his sister to Nanavatis. Ahuja was unmarried and was about 34 years of age at the time.
Nanavati, as a Naval Officer, was frequently going away from Bombay in his ship, leaving his wife and children in Bombay. Gradually a friendship developed between Ahuja and Sylvia, which culminated in illicit intimacy between them. . Immediately after returning to Bombay, Nanavati noticed that his wife was behaving strangely and was not responsive or affectionate to him. When questioned, she used to evade the issue. After lunch, when he questioned her about her fidelity, she shook her head to indicate that she was unfaithful to him and confessed to Nanavati of her illicit intimacy with Ahuja.
Thereafter, he drove his wife, two of his children and a neighbor’s child in his car to a cinema, dropped them there and promised to come and pick them up at 6 P.M. when the show ended. He then drove his car to his ship, as he wanted to get medicine for his sick dog, he represented to the authorities in the ship, that he wanted to draw a revolver and six rounds from the stores of the ship as he was going to drive alone to Ahmednagar by night, though the real purpose was to shoot himself.
Nanavati went to the Naval base, collected his pistol on a false pretext from the stores along with six bullets, completed his official duties and proceeded to PremAhuja's office. On not finding him there, he went to Ahuja's flat and found him there. There was a verbal confrontation between the two men; according to Nanavati's account related in court, he had asked Ahuja whether the latter intended to marry Sylvia and accept their children. After Prem replied in the negative, and said “Am I to marry every woman I sleep with?” This enraged Nanavati.
A struggle ensued between the two and during that struggle two shots went off accidentally and hit Ahuja resulting in his death. After the shooting the accused went back to his car and drove it to the police station where he surrendered himself.
Nanavati is accused of causing murder of PremAhuja under Section 300 of Indian Penal Code. Section 300 of IPC states if the act by which the death is caused is done with the intention of causing death of the deceased.
Q. Which of the following, would strengthen the case of Nanavati’s conviction under Section - 300?
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Bhim Singh answered  •  4 hours ago
The fact that Nanavati had obtained the gun on false grounds and took that gun along with him to Prem Ahuja’s house was from where his pre planning and delibararte motive to murder Prem was seen.

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
The attempt to conceive imaginatively a better ordering of human society than the destructive and cruel chaos in which mankind has hitherto existed is by no means modern: it is at least as old as Plato, whose ``Republic' set the model for the Utopias of subsequent philosophers. Whoever contemplates the world in the light of an ideal—whether what he seeks be intellect, or art, or love, or simple happiness, or all together—must feel a great sorrow in the evils that men needlessly allow to continue, and—if he be a man of force and vital energy—an urgent desire to lead men to the realization of the good which inspires his creative vision. It is this desire which has been the primary force moving the pioneers of Socialism and Anarchism, as it moved the inventors of ideal commonwealths in the past. In this there is nothing new. What is new in Socialism and Anarchism, is that close relation of the ideal to the present sufferings of men, which has enabled powerful political movements to grow out of the hopes of solitary thinkers. It is this that makes Socialism and Anarchism important and it is this that makes them dangerous to those who batten, consciously or unconsciously upon the evils of our present order of society.
The great majority of men and women, in ordinary times, pass through life without ever contemplating or criticising, as a whole, either their own conditions or those of the world at large. They find themselves born into a certain place in society, and they accept what each day brings forth, without any effort of thought beyond what the immediate present requires. Almost as instinctively as the beasts of the field, they seek the satisfaction of the needs of the moment, without much forethought, and without considering that by sufficient effort the whole conditions of their lives could be changed. A certain percentage, guided by personal ambition, make the effort of thought and will which is necessary to place themselves among the more fortunate members of the community; but very few among these are seriously concerned to secure for all the advantages which they seek for themselves. It is only a few rare and exceptional men who have that kind of love toward mankind at large that makes them unable to endure patiently the general mass of evil and suffering, regardless of any relation it may have to their own lives.
These few, driven by sympathetic pain, will seek, first in thought and then in action, for some way of escape, some new system of society by which life may become richer, more full of joy and less full of preventable evils than it is at present. But in the past such men have, as a rule, failed to interest the very victims of the injustices which they wished to remedy. The more unfortunate sections of the population have been ignorant, apathetic from excess of toil and weariness, timorous through the imminent danger of immediate punishment by the holders of power, and morally unreliable owing to the loss of self-respect resulting from their degradation. To create among such classes any conscious, deliberate effort after general amelioration might have seemed a hopeless task, and indeed in the past it has generally proved so. But the modern world, by the increase of education and the rise in the standard of comfort among wage-earners, has produced new conditions, more favorable than ever before to the demand for radical reconstruction. It is above all the Socialists, and in a lesser degree the Anarchists, who have become the exponents of this demand.
What is perhaps most remarkable in regard to both Socialism and Anarchism is the association of a widespread popular movement with ideals for a better world. The ideals have been elaborated, in the first instance, by solitary writers of books, and yet powerful sections of the wage-earning classes have accepted them as their guide in the practical affairs of the world. In regard to Socialism this is evident; but in regard to Anarchism it is only true with some qualification.
Q. According to the information provided in the passage, men can be classified :
I. as timid followers
II. as altruistic iconoclasts
III. as self-interested savants
IV. as self-seekers
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Hoshiar Singh answered  •  4 hours ago
In the second paragraph of the passage, the author portrays men in different lights. Let’s analyze all the choices given to us: as timid followers: people happy to follow the current system of functioning as altruistic iconoclasts: men who are willing to go against conventional systems for the good of others. as self-interested savants: this is not implied in the passage as nowhere does he refer to selfish individual as savants (Someone who has been admitted to membership in a scholarly field). as self-seekers: as selfish individuals only seeking their own gain Thus, option 4 is the correct choice.

Read the passage and answer the following question.
The Statesman House contained a whole society frozen in a time warp. I had just started working there when I met the bard of the peons, Nanhe Singh.
"What's your name?" he whispered, beckoning me like a bookseller on College Street as I passed him in the corridor. "I shall make a poem from it. I have written poems about hundreds of people at the Statesman." Then he rattled them off one after the next. Over cups of half-pant tea, he would recite poems on Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, the Mughal emperor Akbar, or Indrani in the classified department. Nanhe wrote epic verse about Ram and Krishna, and he penned rib-tickling satires of local political leaders.
One morning, Mike called Imran and I to his office. Topiwala's son had gone missing. The boy was three and had wandered out of his mother's sight sometime that morning. Topiwala—the Hat Man, so called because he wore a golf cap at all times—was a lift-man, one of the legions of men from the downstairs world who were to remain unseen and unheard. Topiwala had come to Mike knowing he would be the most likely man upstairs to help. Mike turned to us.
In the afternoon, Imran and I took a trip across the Ganga to the city of Howrah, a cemetery of factories whose chimneys stood like tombstones. Topiwala stayed in a couple of rooms around a courtyard in a tenement. Less than a mile away was Howrah Station, where you could take a train to any destination from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. If the boy had been kidnapped, he could be anywhere in the country.
Imran and I trawled the lanes and main roads. We spoke to the neighbours, the landlord, the local political dadas, the boys at the para club. We chatted with the paan and cigarette sellers. The boy had last been seen at around 11 am. There were a couple of Bihari women in the para who begged professionally at Howrah Station every morning. Imran bantered so well in Bhojpuri that the beggar women offered to buy us tea. But they had seen nothing. No one had any leads.
But we made our presence felt: we were from the biggest English paper in Calcutta, and we were watching. Topiwala was not a man to be pushed around.
Over the next couple of days, we kept making calls to the local police station so that they would actually look for the boy. Two days later, the police found Topiwala's son not far from where he had disappeared. That was the only time in my life I have been bear-hugged by a battalion of lift-men.
To this day, Topiwala maintains that we found his son. Imran and I had done no such thing, really.
Q. What does the word 'trawled' as used in the passage mean?
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Karan Singh answered  •  4 hours ago
The correct answer is option 1. In context with the paragraph, the sentence is implying that the author and Imran searched for the boy and contextually, trawl means to search thoroughly. Given this meaning, options 2, 3 and 4 cannot be correct.

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.
Greta Thunberg, the teen activist from {X} who has urged immediate action to address a global climate crisis, was named Time magazine's person of the year for 2019. Thunberg, a 16 year old, was lauded by Time for starting an environmental campaign in August 2018 which became a global movement, initially from skipping school to camping out in front of the country parliament to demand action.
"In the 16 months, she addressed heads of state at the UN, met with the pope, sparred with the president of the United States and inspired 4 million people to join the global climate strike on September 20, 2019, which was the largest climate demonstration in human history," the magazine said.
"Margaret Atwood compared her to Joan of Arc. After noticing a hundredfold increase in its usage, lexicographers at Collins Dictionary named Thunberg's pioneering idea, climate strike, the word of the year," Time said.
Thunberg, who turned 17 in January, 2020 continues to beat the drum, saying in {Y} that the voices of climate strikers are being heard but politicians are still not taking action.
The activist addressed the latest round of the UN climate meeting in December 2019 held in {Y}, bluntly criticising world leaders for "negotiating loopholes" and using PR to make it appear they are achieving bold climate targets.
But the reluctant celebrity, who has been chased by cameras and attracted large crowds at the {Y} conference, has urged the press to hear from other activists and indigenous youth instead.
The former vice-president Al Gore, a longtime environmentalist, said the magazine made a "brilliant choice", which made Thunberg the youngest person to have ever received the accolade.
"Greta embodies the moral authority of the youth activist movement demanding that we act immediately to solve the climate crisis. She is an inspiration to me and to people across the world," Gore said.
Other nominees for person of the year included Donald Trump and the House speaker, Nancy Pelosi, the top Democrat in Congress.
Q. Activist Greta Thunberg has been awarded with which organisation's Ambassador of Conscience Award 2019?
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Gulzar Singh answered  •  4 hours ago
Climate change activist Greta Thunberg and the Fridays for Future movement of school children have been honoured with Amnesty International's Ambassador of Conscience Award for 2019. Amnesty International is a non-governmental organisation with its headquarters in the United Kingdom focused on human rights. The organisation claims it has more than eight million members and supporters around the world.

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.
Rajya Sabha on December 12, 2019 passed a Constitution amendment bill to extend reservation to SCs and STs in Lok Sabha and state assemblies by another {X} years. Lok Sabha had passed the bill on December 10. All 163 members present voted to pass the amendment, after a heated exchange between the ruling party and the Opposition.
The Bill extended the reservation for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and State assemblies, which was due to end on January 26, 2020, for a period of {X} years, the seventh such extension given since the Constitution was enacted in 1950.
With approval of both the Houses, the bill would now be sent to states for ratification by 50 per cent of the assemblies before it comes into force.
Recently, the government had urged the Supreme Court to reconsider its stand that socially, educationally and economically advanced cream of Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes (SC/ST) communities should be excluded from the benefits of reservation in government services.
Lauding the efforts made for the welfare of deprived classes, Ravi Shankar Prasad (Law and Justice minister of India) took the name of BSP chief Mayawati and said she is working towards the welfare of these communities in her own way. He also remembered tribal freedom fighter and folk hero Birsa Munda.
There are 84 members from the Scheduled Caste and 47 from the Scheduled Tribe communities in Parliament. In state assemblies across India, there are 614 SC members and 554 ST members.
However, the Bill also ended the provision for nomination of {Y} to the Lok Sabha and Assemblies "seventy years from the commencement of this Constitution", that is January 2020.
While all members supported the Bill, they also asked the government to reconsider scrapping of the nomination of {Y} to legislatures. Derek O'Brien of the TMC cited the contribution of the {Y} community, saying that he was speaking as a member of the community for the first time in 15 years.
Q. In the above passage, with reference to the reservation, what time period has been redacted with {X}?
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Satish Kumar answered  •  4 hours ago
Lok Sabha unanimously passed a Constitution amendment bill to extend reservation to SCs and STs in Lok Sabha and state assemblies by another 10 years. The opposition slammed the government for not giving the benefit to the Anglo-Indian community.

Read the passage below and answer the question.
While reservation is an effective tool for social mobility, we cannot remain oblivious to the fact that it has strengthened and institutionalised a caste-based identity. Dr. Ambedkar had himself said that reservation cannot be for an unlimited time, but due to vested interests, no authority or organisation has been willing to judge the efficacy of reservation in terms of enabling its intended benefits and examining its percolation to the marginalised sections. The "monopolisation" of reservation has to be looked into. A reserved candidate can avail of concessions such as age relaxation, an increased number of attempts and even financial rebates. But when it comes to competing in an examination, he must be subject to only one cut-off level. By diluting cut-off marks, we are not only inducing complacency but also indirectly making India weak. To imply that people from the reserved category face discrimination is a bit far-fetched. There are many in the unreserved category who continue to face exploitation.
Q. The author's claim that by providing relaxation to the reserved category in competitive examinations we are heading towards mediocracy and making India weak plays which of the following roles in the argument that the Indian reservation system must be abolished?
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Rajender Singh answered  •  4 hours ago
The correct option is 2. This is one of the premises in the passage, based on which the author draws the conclusion that reservation system must be done away with. Since this is a premise and not the conclusion of the author's argument, none of the other options can be the correct answer.

What is legal essay?its features.?

Rajak Solanki answered  •  5 hours ago
Legal writing involves the analysis of fact patterns and presentation of arguments in documents such as legal memoranda and briefs. One form of legal writing involves drafting a balanced analysis of a legal problem or issue.A well-constructed essay uses two elements to support its thesis statement: reasoning, which presents ideas in a logical structure, and evidence, information suggesting or demo... more

Anjali Sinha asked   •  1 hour ago

Many members of the Rajya Sabha have consented to contribute from their Members of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (MPLADS) funds to the common central pool to fight COVID-19.
Rajya Sabha Chairman Venkaiah Naidu had asked the MPs to contribute at least ₹ 1 crore each from their MPLAD funds. The suspension of the Members of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (MPLADS) for two years to boost the funding available for the COVID-19 fight is a step in the right direction. It may appear at first blush that the decision may undermine the decentralised manner of funding local area development. However, past experience has been that some members do not utilise their full entitlement and that there is a gap between recommendation made by members and implementation by the administration under this scheme. The immediate benefit now is the freeing up of about ₹ 7,900 crore over a two-year period so that it can be spent on boosting the health infrastructure needed to combat the pandemic. This is the second announcement regarding MPLADS that the Centre has made after the disease outbreak. Last month, it allowed utilisation of MPLADS funds to the extent of at least ₹ 5lakh by each MP to purchase medical equipment for government hospitals in their constituencies. Many members made immediate use of the one-time dispensation to recommend the procurement of N95 masks, personal protective equipment, and ventilators.
Now that the entire scheme has been suspended, the government should ensure that recommendations already made are acted upon immediately. While the transfer of these sums to the Consolidated Fund of India would help judicious deployment anywhere in the country, based on an assessment of the varying needs in different regions, it would redound to the government‘s credit if the genuine efforts made by members to help their constituents are not frustrated. It should also see to it that allocations are non-discriminatory.
Q. Where can elected Members of RajyaSabha recommend developmental works under MPLAD scheme?
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Dhola Devi asked   •  1 hour ago

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''
Every Country has its own laws which are made to regulate the conduct of the people who live in such countries. Like in India, the laws which govern Indian citizens are Indian laws and thus the laws of other countries like that of England or China will not be binding on Indians and such laws can only be referred to when there is a question of law on which the Indian law is silent.
A foreign tort can be defined as 'A tort which is committed abroad by a person and therefore the cause of action for such tort arises in abroad'.
Whenever any tort is committed against a property which is situated in a foreign country, the tort is called tort of reality. In this the affected property is an immovable property.
Under the English law of torts, no action can arise in a case where any tort relating to immovable property is committed and thus in such cases, the suit filed by the plaintiff is rejected by the courts.
In foreign torts, whenever there is an unlawful act committed against a person or against his movable property, such tort is known as personal tort. Unlike tort of reality, the person who suffers a loss has the right to file the suit against the tortfeasor and such person's suit is not rejected by the Courts. Thus for movable property and the body, personal torts are applied and remedy is available to the injured person.
Personal torts are separate from the tort of reality because in the tort of reality, there is no right to file a claim against the wrongdoer while under personal tort a person can file a suit for the injury or loss caused by a tortfeasor. But all the suits under Personal torts cannot be accepted by the Courts and therefore only on the fulfilment of certain conditions, a suit for a personal tort which has been committed in abroad can be accepted by the court. The first condition which has to be fulfilled in a case of personal tort to be successful is that the tortious act which is committed by the defendant against the body or the property of the plaintiff is actionable in the country in which this act has been committed. The second condition which must be fulfilled for a successful claim in cases of personal tort is if the country, in which the plaintiff wants to enforce his rights, does not provide such right or it does not consider that act to be unlawful, then in such a case if the Court allows the claim of the plaintiff it will amount to enforcing the laws of other nation and that situation cannot be allowed. One more important rule under such suits is that when the cause of action is not of a local nature then the suit is allowed by the Courts.
Q. Sultan, resident of U.A.E, had trespassed into Saba's house which is situated in India and assaulted her. Sahiba filed a suit against him in the court. He was held by the court of law. Decide.
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Ram Chander asked   •  1 hour ago

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.
Here we come to the heart of the matter: I've never left Istanbul – never left the houses, streets and neighbourhoods of my childhood. Although I've lived in other districts from time to time, fifty years on I find myself back in the Pamuk Apartments, where my first photographs were taken and where my mother first held me in her arms to show me the world. I know this persistence owes something to my imaginary friend, and to the solace I took from the bond between us. But we live in an age defined by mass migration and creative immigrants, and so I am sometimes hard-pressed to explain why I've stayed not only in the same place, but the same building. My mother's sorrowful voice comes back to me, 'Why don't you go outside for a while, why don't you try a change of scene, do some travelling …?'
Conrad, Nabokov, Naipaul – these are writers known for having managed to migrate between languages, cultures, countries, continents, even civilisations. Their imaginations were fed by exile, a nourishment drawn not through roots but through rootlessness; mine, however, requires that I stay in the same city, on the same street, in the same house, gazing at the same view. Istanbul's fate is my fate: I am attached to this city because it has made me who I am.
Flaubert, who visited Istanbul a hundred and two years before my birth, was struck by the variety of life in its teeming streets; in one of his letters he predicted that in a century's time it would be the capital of the world. The reverse came true: after the Ottoman Empire collapsed, the world almost forgot that Istanbul existed. The city into which I was born was poorer, shabbier, and more isolated than it had ever been its two-thousand-year history. For me it has always been a city of ruins and of end-of-empire melancholy. I've spent my life either battling with this melancholy, or (like all Istanbullus) making it my own.
At least once in a lifetime, self-reflection leads us to examine the circumstances of our birth. Why were we born in this particular corner of the world, on this particular date? These families into which we were born, these countries and cities to which the lottery of life has assigned us – they expect love from us, and in the end, we do love them, from the bottom of our hearts – but did we perhaps deserve better? I sometimes think myself unlucky to have been born in an ageing and impoverished city buried under the ashes of a ruined empire. But a voice inside me always insists this was really a piece of luck.
Q. What can we infer from the passage about the author's regard for Istanbul?
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Shashi Bala asked   •  3 hours ago

Choose the word or group of words which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold 
​Passage: By February of last year, Victoria Reiter, 63, figured she had only a few months to live. A writer and translator living in Manhattan, she was suffering from chronic myeloid leukemia, an especially deadly form of blood cancer. The only treatment available was interferon, an immune system booster that wasn‘t really working and that made her violently ill. Reiter had spent most of 1999 in bed, too sick to read, to walk, to do much of anything-although she had managed to put together lists dividing her possessions between her two daughters. Then she went on an experimental drug called Gleevec, and within weeks everything changed. ―All my energy started coming back, ‖she says. ―Suddenly I could read. I could take a walk.-By August, tests showed her bone marrow was clear of leukemia cells; in December, she took up the Argentine tango. She still has the lists of what her daughters will get, but, she exults, ―They‘re not going to get it yet! -For Bob Ferber, a Los Angeles prosecutor specializing in animal-abuse cases, the Gleevec experience was very much the same. Less than two years ago, he was lying in a hospital room considering suicide to escape the pain radiating from his bones. ―From crawling across the floor on my knees to go to the bathroom, I‘m now back at work, -says Ferber, 48. ―I go to the gym. I‘m volunteering for an animal-rescue group. It‘s the dream of any cancer patient in the world to be able to take a pill that works like this. It‘s truly a miracle.-That‘s a tempting way to look at it, anyhow. Gleevec is so effective that the US Food and Drug Administration approved it in record time two weeks ago-even as researchers announced that it also works against a rare form of stomach cancer. The drug doesn‘t help everyone, and it can have side-effects, including nausea, muscle cramps and skin rash. Moreover, nobody is claiming that it actually cures cancer. Patients may have to continue taking the drug, probably for the rest of their lives, and unless Gleevec likely their cancer will come back. Despite all these caveats, Gleevec is still a breakthrough-not only for what it does but, more important, for the revolutionary strategy it represents. A full 50 years have passed since the leaders of developed countries declared war on cancer and called for a national commitment comparable to the effort to land on the moon or split the atom. But over decades, researchers have come up with one potential miracle cure after another-only to suffer one disappointment after another. Aside from surgery, which almost invariably leaves behind some malignant cells, the standard treatment for most cancers continues to be radiation and chemotherapy-relatively crude disease-fighting weapons that have limited effectiveness and leave patients weak and nauseated. Along the way, though, scientists have amassed wealth of information about how cancer works at the molecular level, from its first awakening in the aberrant DNA of a single cell‘s nucleus to it rapacious, all-out assault on the body. Armed with that information, they have been developing a broad array of weapons to attack the disease every step along the way. Many of these therapies are just beginning to reach clinical trials and won‘t be available to save lives for years to come. If you have cancer today, these treatments are likely to come too late to help you. But, says Dr Larry Norton, a medical director at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City: ―I think there is no question that the war on cancer is winnable.-That sentiment was pounded home last week at the animal meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology in San Francisco, where a record 26,000 cancer specialists from around the world briefed each other on the good news starting to pour out of their laboratories. Unlike chemo and radiation, which use carpet-bombing tactics that destroy cancer cells and troop of snipers, firing on cancer cells alone and targeting their weakest links.
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Raj Bala asked   •  3 hours ago

Read the following passage and answer the question.
The army is likely to sign a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for the procurement of over 7.5 lakh AK-203 assault rifles. "About 1 lakh rifles will come directly from Russia and the remaining will be manufactured by the JV in India. The MoU should be signed in a month," a defence official said.
The rifles will be manufactured by the {X} in Uttar Pradesh. The facility is being set up between the {Y} from the Indian side, and Rosoboron Exports and Kalashnikov on the Russian side. The {Y} owns 50.5% equity and Russian side holds the remaining 49.5%. The JV was formed following the Inter-governmental Agreement between India and Russia in February 2019.
To have oversight over the process and ensure timely deliveries, the Army has appointed Major General Sanjeev Senger as the Chief Executive Officer of {X}. Officials said the JV has obtained all the requisite licences for production and export. The Ministry of Defence has already floated a Request For Proposal (RFP) to the JV for the supply of 6.71 lakh rifles.
Reviewing the operationalisation of the project few months back, Defence Minister had stressed on the need for 100% indigenisation of the rifle as per the project understanding, and focusing on the export of the rifles from {X} to other friendly countries.
In addition to the AK-203, the Army recently began inducting the first batch of 10,000 SIG-716 assault rifles. Troops engaged in counter insurgency operations in the Army's Northern Command have started receiving these rifles, sources said. The rifles are being procured under a contract signed in February 2019 with Sig Sauer of the U.S. for 72,400 SIG-716 assault rifles worth over 700 crore.
"The initial idea was to equip the entire Army with the SIG-716", one officer said. He added that given the huge cost, it was decided that the rifles would be provided to frontline troops, while the remaining forces can be equipped with AK-203 rifles. "It was decided based on the requirement," he stated.
The Army has been looking to replace the indigenous INSAS rifles in use with a modern rifle. The MoD had approved the procurement in January 2018 through the Fast Track Procurement route. Of the 72,400 rifles, 66,400 are for the Army, 2,000 for the Navy and 4,000 for the Air Force. The entire quantity is expected to be delivered within 12 months from the date of signing the contract.
Q. In the above passage, what has been redacted with {X}?
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Kaushalya asked   •  3 hours ago

Passage: There is no field of human endeavor that has been so misunderstood as health. While health which connotes well-being and the absence of illness has a low profile, it is illness representing the failure of health which virtually monopolizes attention because of the fear of pain, disability and death. Even Sushruta has warned that this provides the medical practitioner power over the patient which could be misused. Till recently, patients had implicit faith in their physician whom they loved and respected, not only for his knowledge but also in the total belief that practitioners of this noble profession, guided by ethics, always placed the patient‘s interest above all other considerations. This rich interpersonal relationship between the physician, patient and family has, barring a few exceptions, prevailed till the recent past, for caring was considered as important as curing. Our indigenous systems of medicine like Ayurveda and yoga have been more concerned with the promotion of the health of both the body and mind and with maintaining a harmonious relationship not just with fellow beings but with nature itself, of which man is an integral part. Healthy practices like cleanliness, proper diet, exercise and meditation are part of our culture which sustains people even in the prevailing conditions of poverty in rural India and in the unhygienic urban slums. These systems consider disease as an aberration resulting from disturbance of the equilibrium of health, which must be corrected by gentle restoration of this balance through proper diet, medicines and the establishment of mental peace. They also teach the graceful acceptance of old age with its infirmities resulting from the normal degenerative process as well as of death which is inevitable. This is in marked contrast to the western concept of life as a constant struggle against disease, ageing and death which must be fought and conquered with the knowledge and technology derived from their science: a science which, with its narrow directive and quantifying approach, has provided us the understanding of the microbial causes of communicable diseases and provided highly effective technology for their prevention, treatment and control. This can rightly be claimed as the greatest contribution of western medicine and justifiably termed as high ‘technology. And yet the contribution of this science in the field of non-communicable diseases is remarkably poor despite the far greater inputs in research and treatment for the problems of ageing like cancer, heart diseases, paralytic strokes and arthritis which are the major problems of affluent societies today. 
Q. Why, according to the author, have people in India survived in spite of poverty? 
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Janani Mehta asked   •  4 hours ago

Passage for Question 
In recent weeks the writers William Dalrymple and Patrick French, among others, have come before a fusillade of criticism in India, much of it questioning not their facts, not their interpretations, but their foreignness.
“Who gets to write about India?” The Wall Street Journal asked on Wednesday in its own report on this Indian literary feuding. It is a complicated question, not least because to decide who gets to write about India, you would need to decide who gets to decide who gets to write about India. Rather than conjecturing some Committee for the Deciding of the Deciding of Who Gets to Write About India, it might be easier to let writers write what they please and readers read what they wish.
The accusations pouring forth from a section of the Indian commentariat are varied. Some criticism is of a genuine literary nature, fair game, customary, expected. But lately a good amount of the reproaching has been about identity.
In the case of Mr. Dalrymple, a Briton who lives in New Delhi, it is—in the critics’ view—that his writing is an act of re-colonization. In the case of Mr. French, it is that he belongs to a group of foreign writers who use business-class lounges and see some merit in capitalism and therefore do not know the real India, which only the commentarial member in question does.
What is most interesting about these appraisals is that their essential nature makes reading the book superfluous, as one of my Indian reviewers openly admitted. (His review was not about the book but about his refusal to read the book). The book is not necessary in these cases, for the argument is about who can write about India, not what has been written.
For critics of this persuasion, India surely seems a lonely land. A country with a millennial history of Hindus, Christians, Jews, Muslims and Buddhists living peaceably together; a country of hundreds of dialects in which so many. Indians are linguistic foreigners to each other, and happily, tolerantly so; a country that welcomes foreign seekers (of yoga poses, of spiritual wisdom, of ancestral roots) with open arms; a country where, outside the elite world of South Delhi and South Bombay, I have not heard an Indian ask whether outsiders have a right to write, think or exist on their soil.
But it is not just this deep-in-the-bones pluralism that challenges the who-gets-to-write-about-India contingent. It is also that at the very heart of India’s multifarious changes today is this glimmering idea: that Indians must be rewarded for what they do, not who they are.
Identities you never chose—caste, gender, birth order—are becoming less important determinants of fate. Your deeds—how hard you work, what risks you take—are becoming more important. It is this idea, which I have found pulsating throughout the Indian layers, that leaves a certain portion of the intelligentsia out of sync with the surrounding country. As Mr. French has observed, there is a tendency in some of these writers to value social mobility only for themselves. When the new economy lifts up the huddled masses, then it becomes tawdry capitalism and rapacious imperialism and soulless globalization.
Fortunately for those without Indian passports, the nativists’ vision of India is under demographic siege. The young and the relentless are India’s future. They could not think more differently from these literatis. They savour the freedom they are gaining to seek their own level in the society and to find their voice; and they tend to be delighted at the thought that some foreigners do the same in India and love their country as much as they do.
According to the passage, the question ‘who gets to write about India’ is complicated because:
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Bateri Devi asked   •  4 hours ago

“The State” includes the Government and Parliament of India and the Government and the Legislature of each of the States and all local or other authorities within the territory of India or under the control of the Government of India.
There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens of India in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State.
No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth, residence or any of them, be ineligible for, or discriminated against in respect of, any employment or office under the State.
The said Article is clearly in two parts – while it commands the State not to deny to any person ‘equality before law’, it also commands the State not to deny the ‘equal protection of the laws’. Equality before law prohibits discrimination. It is a negative concept. The concept of ‘equal protection of the laws’ requires the State to give special treatment to persons in different situations in order to establish equality amongst all. It is positive in character. Therefore, the necessary corollary to this would be that equals would be treated equally, whilst un-equals would have to be treated unequally.
Nothing shall prevent Parliament from making any law prescribing, in regard to a class or classes of employment or appointment to an office under the Government of, or any local or other authority within, a State or Union territory, any requirement as to residence within that State or Union territory prior to and not post such employment or appointment.
In respect of reservations, the state shall only have the power to make any provision for the reservation of appointments or posts in favor of any backward class of people which, in the opinion of the State, is not adequately represented in the services under the State.
Rahul, a person having the citizenship of Britain, came to India to apply for the post of senior magistrate which was a post under the state. He appeared for the required exam, cleared it with a good score but was denied interview on the ground that he was a descendant of the King of Britain who had ordered the looting of India in the 18th century and also, was not a citizen of India.
Q. Consider that for the posts of senior magistrate under the state, the government, after subjective satisfaction of under-representation, makes a provision in the relevant law reserving positions for members of XYZ community. Would such a provision be valid?
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Ayush Sihare asked   •  5 hours ago

Direction: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Whichever superlative description you apply to the Himalayas, the 3,000 kilometers-long mountain range with peaks more than 8,000 meters high, won’t be enough to capture its grandeur. Spectacular... awesome ... majestic ... breathtaking ... stunning ... magnificent .... None of these adjectives does justice to these mountains known as ‘the roof of the world’. Little wonder that local people revere them as sacred, the home of the gods, the abode of the Supreme Soul, and that travelers come from all over the world.
Some of Asia’s greatest rivers spring to life in the Himalayas – the Ganges, Yangtze and Brahmaputra among them. The peaks, foothills and plains are host to species such as the elusive snow leopard, the Bengal tiger, red panda, black bear, bearded vulture ... and perhaps even a yeti or two. And now we at World Wildlife Fund (WWF) can add to that list. Our recent report reveals that no fewer than 244 plants, 16 amphibians, 16 reptiles, 14 fish, two birds, two mammals and at least 60 invertebrates have been discovered by scientists in the Himalayas over the past 10 years. The Himalayan range is home to some 12,000 species of plants, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and freshwater fish. The number of new species discovered – and investigated and verified by WWF – in the eastern Himalayas between 1998 and 2008 equates to 35 finds every year. ‘They remind us that despite our advances in knowledge, we can still be surprised,’ says our conservation adviser, Mark Wright. ‘If ever you needed a reminder of what we’re striving to protect, discoveries like these have the power to do just that.’
Among the latest discoveries are a bright green frog which uses its long, red, webbed feet to glide through the air; three species of scorpion, one of which is the first scorpion to be found in Nepal; and there’s the miniature muntjac or leaf deer. At just over half a meter tall, this is the world’s smallest deer species. Equally extraordinary is the Namcha Barwa  Canyon. ‘Most people are blissfully unaware of this gorge,’ says Mark. ‘Yet it’s 250 kilometers long and, in places, twice as deep as the Grand Canyon. When a couple of Chinese scientists ventured into it recently, they discovered a new ultramarine blue plant that not only flowers throughout the year but also changes colour according to the air temperature. Other plant discoveries include a pure white orchid and a 15-metre-high palm tree.’
Our study focused on the eastern Himalayas – an area that amazingly spans five countries and a wide range of temperatures. Nature doesn’t respect boundaries and working together on environmental issues is therefore vital. The Himalayas are likely to be hard hit by the effects of climate change. Many regions have their own microclimates and already we’re seeing significant changes. Some species of wildlife and vegetation are moving up hillsides, and seasonal rainfall has become less predictable, which can sometimes result in extreme conditions, ranging from drought to flooding, and uncertainty for farmers. Many communities in the Himalayas still live in isolation, and they remain deeply dependent on the resources nature provides.
Other issues which need discussion and agreement between the governments of the countries affected are cross-border trade in wildlife, timber felling and the harvesting of medicinal plants. Critically, we want to ensure that 50,000 square kilometers of forests, grasslands and wetlands are protected and well connected. This will help to save globally threatened species, such as the Asian elephant and the rhino, whose populations we constantly monitor. And we’ll continue to help local communities to live in harmony with their natural surroundings. With that secured, it’s surely only a matter of time before the Himalayas will reveal yet more secrets.
Q. What is the specialty of the ultramarine blue plant?
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Karthika asked   •  5 hours ago

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
Last week, a series of investigative reports revealed that the far-right government of Narendra Modi had opened windows for the purchase of electoral bonds to fund political parties on six occasions, two more than the permitted number. This happened in two consecutive years. The government also relaxed rules and permitted the cashing of many of these bonds after the time limit Both left parties and the Election Commission of India (ECI) have expressed the concern that the electoral bonds will allow foreign companies and international finance to pour unlimited funds into
Indian political parties through shell companies. The reports were based on documents obtained by RTI activist Commodore Lokesh Batra (Retd.). Earlier, any donation in excess of Rs. 20,000 (USD 279.75) was to be listed out in a Contribution Report, which every political party is obliged to prepare by the end of each financial year. Now, this
has been amended to exempt donations received through electoral bonds. Similarly, while introducing the scheme, another law was amended that obliged companies to declare their political contributions. The companies earlier also had to disclose which party they were contributing to. Now, they just have to disclose the amount and not the name of the party. Most importantly, earlier laws ensured that a company could not donate over 7.5% of its average profit over three years to political parties. This was to ensure that money would not be routed through shell companies to political parties. Even this cap has been removed. India’s election commission has warned that this could lead to a huge inflow of black money into the electoral process. The new scheme can also help foreign corporations, who have no legitimate business in India, to route money through shell companies. The left in India has been consistently resisting this scheme. The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI-M) fighting a case in the Supreme Court against the opaque funding mechanism. The party is now examining the possibility of filing an additional affidavit seeking an immediate stay on the use of the bonds till the final verdict is out. This is a battle for the very soul of democracy in India.
Q. In the union budget which year, Electoral Bonds were introduced in the country?
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Rishu Jangra asked   •  6 hours ago

PRINCIPLES: 1. A master shall be liable for the fraudulent acts of his servants committed in the course of employment.
2. Whether an act is committed in the course of employment has to be judged in the context of the case.
3. Both master and third parties must exercise reasonable care in this regard.
FACTS: Rama Bhai was an uneducated widow and she opened an S.B. account with Syndicate Bank with the help of her nephew by name Keshav who was at that time working as a clerk in the Bank. Keshav used to deposit the money of Rama Bhai from time to time and get the entries done in the passbook. After a year or so, Keshav was dismissed from the service by the Bank. Being unaware of this fact, Rama Bhai continued to hand over her savings to him and Keshav misappropriated them. Rama Bhai realised this only when Keshav disappeared from the scene one day, and she sought compensation from the Bank.
(a) Syndicate Bank shall be liable to compensate Rama Bhai.
(b) Syndicate Bank shall not be liable to compensate Rama Bhai.
(C) Rama Bhai cannot blame others for her negligence.
(i) Keshav was not an employee of the Bank when the fraud was committed.
(ii) The Bank was not aware of the special arrangement between Rama Bhai and Keshav
(iii) It is the Bank’s duty to take care of vulnerable customers.
(iv) Rama Bhai should have checked about Keshav in her own interest.
Your decision with the reason:
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Naresh Kumar asked   •  6 hours ago

Read the following passage and answer the question.
Rule of natural justice are placed so highthat it has been declared time and again by courts that “no human law are of any validity, if contrary to this”, and court of law could discard an act of parliament if it is contrary to natural justice. Generally no provision is found in any statute for observance of principle of natural justice by adjudicating authorities.
Question then arises, whether the adjudicating authorities are bound to follow these principles. Law is well settled on this point, courts have observed that even though there is no positive words in a statuteor rules requiring that the parties shall be heard, yet the principles of natural justice will supply the omission of legislature. In other words if a statute or rule authorising interference with property, civil or fundamental rights was silent on question of hearing and notice, the courts will apply the rules as it is “of universal application and founded on plainest principle of natural justice”. Non-observance of principle will invalidate the exercise of power by any authority. Principle of natural justice are binding on all courts, judicial bodies and quasi judicial bodies. Question is -are they applicable to an administrative action? Earlier court took the view that it is inapplicable but as per lord denning “that heresy has been scotched”. Thus a statutory body irrespective of its nature or function has to act fairly and not in an arbitrary manner.
Principles of natural justice differs from situation to situation but certain basic premises remain the same. For instance, accused should know the nature of accusation made, he should be given an opportunity to state his case and tribunal should act in good faith. Whenever, a complaint is made to court regarding non observance of principles of natural justice, court has to see whether the observance of that rule was necessary for a just and fair decision as per the facts of the case. If it was necessary then court will declare the decision ultra vires the power of authority.
Traditionally, there are 2 principles of natural justice.
(i) No man shall be judge in his own cause, or no man can act as both at the one and the same time- a party or a suitor and also a judge, or a deciding authority must be impartial and without bias.
(ii) Hear the other side, or both the side must be heard, or no man should be condemned unheard, or that there must be fairness on the part of deciding authority.
Rule against bias simply means that, justice should not only be done, but manifestly and undoubtedly be seen to be done. Anything which tends or may be regarded as tending to cause such person to decide a case otherwise than on evidence must be held to be biased. Judge is supposed to be indifferent to the parties in a controversy. He must be in position to decide the matter objectively. He cannot allow his personal prejudice to go into decision making. Object is not merely that scales be held even; it is also that they may not appear to be inclined. This rule also applies to administrative authorities required to act judicially.
Right to be heard simply means that, a party is not to suffer in person or in purse without an opportunity of being heard. In short, before an order is passed against any person, reasonable opportunity of being heard must be given to him. This maxim includes 2 elements- notice and hearing. Any action taken without notice is against principle of natural justice and is void ab initio. Notice must be clear, specific and unambiguous and charges should not be vague and uncertain. Moreover, notice must give reasonable opportunity to comply with requirement mentioned therein. Hearing simply means that no adverse action can be taken against any person without giving him an opportunity of being heard. It also means that, adjudicating authority must disclose all evidence and material placed before it in the course of hearing proceeding and must afford an opportunity to the person against whom the evidences are to be used to rebut it. Another rule of hearing is “he who hears should decide” or “one who decides must hear”.
Q. Suppose, SC declares the law mentioned in the above question [Government passed a law named UAPA, under which government had power to name any person as terrorist and throw him in jail. Power to declare terrorist has been given to cabinet secretary of India. The act was introduced to remove the threat of secessionist forces who wanted to disintegrate the unity and integrity of India. Situation of Country was so bad that, even the ardent opposition of the government supported such an act. Under the law, person can after three months apply to a body presided by the cabinet secretary as sole member] to be valid and after 3 months Balram who was declared a terrorist, applies for a review to cabinet secretary, who hears the entire case and a reasonable opportunity as per the principle of natural justice was given to Balram for presenting his case. Decision was scheduled on 15th of Feb but on 10th of Feb, a new person took oath as cabinet secretary and old one retired. The new cabinet secretary, gave the decision as per the records of case presented by Balram and notes made by previous cabinet secretary. Balram was declared a terrorist under the law and was sent in preventive custody for rest of his life by new cabinet secretary. Decide, whether principles of natural justice were followed in Balram’s case.
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Geeta Devi asked   •  7 hours ago

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.
With an aim to boost the ailing realty sector, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs on January 14, 2020 launched an online platform to facilitate home-buyers. The platform will list projects that have received _____(i)____. It will create a safe and transparent home-buying experience that it will create positive sentiment for the real estate industry, boosting confidence and faith among home-buyers, enhancement of liquidity flow in the industry and contributing to growth of the economy.
Urban Affairs Secretary launched realtors' body NAREDCO's e-commerce platform which will list completed residential units and said the portal has the potential to become Amazon of Indian real estate.
"The portal is designed for the all industry stakeholders with a powerful back-end platform which manages and displays the most accurate inventory data in the market, and allows buyers to book their flats directly online", said Niranjan Hiranandani.
The portal ___(ii)___ should be credible and transparent, he said, adding that there should also be a system for consumers' grievances. The portal, will help buyers in accessing best priced inventory by builders for a limited time to take full advantage of best pricing. Buyers will be able to view complete listing info including floor plans, room dimensions, video tours of units and external views looking out from windows/balconies.
This website is not for NAREDCO, but for consumers and home-buyers who can take an informed decision. Officials said that the move will create positive sentiment for the real estate industry, boosting confidence and faith among home-buyers, enhancement of liquidity flow in the industry and contributing to the growth of the economy.
NAREDCO formed under the aegis of Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, would list only completed RERA-registered housing projects on the platform. Buyers will start making purchases from March 1 till March 31, 2020.
Q. Who launched the e-commerce housing platform in January, 2020?
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Shakuntala Devi asked   •  7 hours ago

The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.
Criminal trespass basically refers to an unlawful entry by a person into a private property of another person. Any person who enters the property of another, without the owner's permission, is said to have committed the offence of criminal trespass. All around the globe, trespass against the property has been recognised as a civil wrong. However, a lot of countries, including India, have made it a criminal offence too. In India, criminal trespass is ordinarily a civil wrong and usually compensation damages are granted. However, trespass with a criminal intention is treated as a criminal offence and is punishable under the IPC. The reason for making it a criminal offence is to keep the trespasser away and so that the owners enjoy their property without any interruptions.
Traditionally, the most specific requirement of trespass, whether civil or criminal, is 'intent'. Just the unlawful presence of a person on someone else's property is not enough. It has to be shown that the person knew that he wasn't allowed to be on the property and that he still chose to stay on other's land, with ill intent. Knowledge may be inferred when there's a fencing done, or when there is a 'no trespass' sign on the property. A person can be held liable for trespass in public places too, if he or she enters after the closing time or if he or she fails to leave even when asked to. It needs to be demonstrated that the unlawful entry was with an intention to commit an offence, or to intimidate or to annoy the person who owns the property. The intent to intimidate, insult or annoy is a must for trespass of a criminal nature.
There isn't a clear difference between civil and criminal trespass but Civil trespass does not require ill intent and just the unlawful presence of a person on someone else's property is enough to hold them liable. However, when the act of trespass is accompanied by the intent to commit an offence or to intimidate, insult or annoy any person in possession of property, it is said to be criminal trespass and it is punishable under the IPC.
Section 441 of the IPC defines 'criminal trespass', while Section 447 provides the punishment for it. They read as under:
Criminal trespass: Whoever enters into or upon property in the possession of another with intent to commit an offence or to intimidate, insult or annoy any person in possession of such property, or having lawfully entered into or upon such property, unlawfully remains there with intent thereby to intimidate, insult or annoy any such person, or with intent to commit an offence, is said to commit criminal trespass.
Q. Mr. Mohan Lal was invited as a guest to the house of Mr. Saveem. They had a good dinner and after that, they started talking about politics. Things went from one to another and the debate on politics got intense. It got so intense that they were arguing on the top of their voice. Mr. Saveem got angry and asked Mr. Mohan Lal to leave, but Mohan Lal was adamant and he did not leave, just to annoy Mr. Saveem. Now Mr. Saveem wants to take a legal action. Decide.
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Niharika Varshney asked   •  7 hours ago

Principle 1: Every person has a right to defend his own body, and the body of any other person, against any offence affecting the human body. Nothing is an offence which is done in the exercise of the right of private defence.
Principle 2: The right of private defence of the body extends to the voluntary causing of death or of any other harm to the assailant, if the offence reasonably causes the apprehension that death, or grievous hurt will otherwise be the consequence of such assault. Also, if the assault is with the intention of committing rape, gratifying unnatural lust, kidnapping or abducting, or wrongfully confining a person under circumstances which may reasonably cause him to apprehend that he will be unable to have recourse to the public authorities for his release, he will have the right of private defence of the body extending to causing of death.
Principle 3: Nothing is an offence which is done by a person who, at the time of doing it, by reason of unsoundness of mind, is incapable of knowing the nature of the act.
Facts: Prateek, who is Prakha’s younger brother, under the influence of madness, attempts to kill Sachan, who is Prakha’s boyfriend. Prakha, not knowing how to react, and seeing Sachan helpless and on the verge of being murdered, hits on Prateek’s head with an antique metal vase. Prateek dies on the spot. Can Prakha claim the right of private defence of body?
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Shyam Lal asked   •  9 hours ago

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the question.
India is one of the few countries with elaborate provisions for the environment in the legal framework. The courts in India largely relied on Article 21 for applying the law to the decision making process on various perspectives and provisional duties related to the environment. Protection of the environment can give rise to many challenges in a developing country. Hence, administrative and legal strategies are extremely important to ensure environmental harmony. T Damodar Rao v Special Officer, Municipal Corporation of Hyderabadwas a landmark case for High Courts in India to take up responsibility in specific and concrete decision making. Despite severe penalties, environmental laws in certain places seem erratic in their implementation and ineffective at many levels of administrative mechanisms.
The courts have also laid down that protection and improvement of the environment is mandated for all institutions across the country and is a right as well. India being a developing nation with interests in growth and burgeoning developmental ideologies, the mandates of Courts are envisioned in a development-oriented manner, where the concept of Sustainable Development arises. A relatively new concept for India to focus on in terms of resource utilisation is reducing our collective carbon footprint and pollution levels. Sustainable development law is found at the intersection of three primary fields of law: international economic law, international environmental law and international social law. It refers to an emerging substantive body of legal instruments, norms and treaties, supported by distinctive procedural elements. This is incorporated on the justification that future generations may benefit from policies and laws that advocate environmental protection as well as developmental goals. This has recently been recognised by the Supreme Court in the M.C. Mehta (Taj Trapezium Matter) v. Union of India case.
A notable action that could be taken is making the system more accommodating and approachable- Making it easier to read and understand the law provisions and statutes regarding Environmental Law for the general population and better mechanisms for efficiency as well as transparency within (courts) and outside (public spaces) the systems of administrative, legislature and judiciary can go a long way. Law is generally regarded as a Utopian system of action. Making it a more approachable and public-friendly system would allow it to work on an easier transition for the public. Systems such as Public Interest Litigations are focused on allowing people to issue and procure information from within the legal system on the matter of interest at hand. The Law is trying to focus on easier access for appeals and better capabilities of integrating the public interest within judgements and cases.
Q. Lets us government bans single use plastic completely. Based on the principles and information set out in the given passage:
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Harnam Singh asked   •  9 hours ago

Read the passage below and answer the question.
"Fake News" is a real phenomenon. There are sleazy predators who cook up completely apocryphal news stories and try to get them circulated on social media and on the internet. But it's a terrible pollution of the language for the president to call any article that criticizes him "fake news." If you compare the credibility of the president's statement with those of the mainstream media, there's just no comparison. The president's been called out on lie after lie after lie. And as someone who's often written for the so-called "mainstream media," for all their flaws, they got fact-checkers. They won't let me just write anything that comes into my head, I've got to prove it. So that's the kind of standard that has established the credibility of many of the news media.
And the basis of democracy is that everyone can be criticized, particularly the leaders. We don't have a monarch, a Supreme Leader, or a dictator for life. We've got a person who is temporarily in charge of the government and when he makes an error, it is mandatory for the free press to call it out. To try to delegitimize the press whenever it criticizes the president, it's really the reflex of an autocrat, of a tin-pot dictator in some banana republic and not worthy of a democracy like the United States where the president serves in our pleasure and can be criticized just like anyone else.
Q. What role does the author's claim that the even president can be criticised play in the argument in the passage?
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Rajendra Advocate asked   •  10 hours ago

Passage: In the second week of August 1998, just a few days after the incidents of bombing the US embassies in Nairobi and Dar-es-Salaam, a highpowered, brain-storming session was held near Washington D.C., to discuss various aspects of terrorism. The meeting was attended by ten of America‘s leading experts in various fields such as germ and chemical warfare, public health, disease control and also by the doctors and the law- enforcing officers. Being asked to describe the horror of possible bio-attack, one of the experts narrated the following gloomy scenario. A culprit in a crowded business centre or in a busy shopping mall of a town empties a test tube containing some fluid, which in turn creates an unseen cloud of germ of a dreaded disease like anthrax capable of inflicting a horrible death within5 days on any one who inhales it. At first500,or so victims feel that they have mild influenza which may recede after a day or two. Then the symptoms return again and their lungs start filling with fluid. They rush to local hospitals for treatment, but the panic-stricken people may find that the medicare services run quickly out of drugs due to excessive demand. But no one would be able to realize that a terrorist attack has occurred. One cannot deny the possibility that the germ involved would be of contagious variety capable of causing an epidemic. The meeting concluded that such attacks, apart from causing immediate human tragedy, would have dire long-term effects on the political and social fabric of a country by way of ending people‘s trust on the competence of the government. The experts also said that the bombs used in Kenya and Tanzania were of the old-fashion variety and involved quantities of high explosives, but new terrorism will prove to be more deadly and probably more elusive than hijacking an aeroplane or a gelignite of previous decades. According to Bruce Hoffman, an American specialist on political violence, old terrorism generally had a specific manifesto-to overthrow a colonial power or the capitalist system and so on. These terrorists were not shy about planting a bomb or hijacking an aircraft and they set some limit to their brutality. Killing so many innocent people might turn their natural supporters off. Political terrorists want a lot of people watching but not a lot of people dead. ―Old terrorism sought to change the world while the new sort is often practised by those who believe that the world has gone beyond redemption, he added. Hoffman says, ―New terrorism has no long- term agenda but is ruthless in its shortterm intentions. It is often just a cacophonous cry of protest or an outburst of religious intolerance or a protest against the West in general and the US in particular. Its perpetrators may be religious fanatics or diehard opponent of a government and see no reason to show restraint. They are simply intent on inflicting the maximum amount of pain on the victim.
Directions: Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
Q. Elusive
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Murti Devi asked   •  10 hours ago

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.
According to neo-Malthusians, population problem (as it presently exists in underdeveloped countries) is an inevitable result of the reproductive behaviour of man. The theory of Demographic Transition, however, rejects this view and asserts that the population explosion implying a sudden spurt in the rate of population growth is a transitory phenomenon that occurs in the second stage of demographic transition due to a rapid fall in the mortality rate without a corresponding fall in the birth rate. According to the Theory of Demographic Transition, every country passes through three stages of demographic transition. These stages are empirically verifiable.
In the first stage, both birth and death rates are high. Hence the population remains more or less stable. Even if there is some increase in the population because birth rate is somewhat higher than death rate, it does not pose any serious problem. Generally in backward economies where agriculture is the main occupation of the people, per capita incomes are low. This inevitably results in a low level of standard of living. Mass of the population in these countries is deprived of even the basic necessities of life.
The second stage of demographic transition is characterised by rapid growth of population. With the beginning of the process of development, the living standards of the people improve, the education expands medical and health facilities increase and governments make special efforts to check small pox, malaria, cholera, plague etc. These developments generally bring down the death rate. But as long as society remains primarily agrarian and the education remains confined to a narrow section of the society, attitude of the people towards the size of family does not change radically and the birth rate remains high. In this situation population increases at an alarming rate. In the second stage of demographic transition, the birth rate generally stays around 35 to 40 per thousand, whereas the death rate comes down to roughly 15 per thousand. Consequently population increases at an annual rate of about 2 per cent or more. In a country where economy has not grown adequately for a long time and a sizable section of the population has remained below the poverty line, this is really a grave situation. Economists call it population explosion.
In the third stage of demographic transition the birth rate declines significantly and thus the rate of population growth remains low. A country can hope to overcome the problem of population explosion if the process of industrialisation accompanied by urbanisation is fast and education becomes widespread. Only in this situation birth rate shows a tendency to fall.
Q. According to the author, why do people in nations that have backward economies live without having their basic needs met?
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