''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''
Sec. 126 of the Indian Contract Act 1872, which deals with the contract of guarantee, has defined it as a contract to perform the promise, or discharge the liability of a third person in case of his defaults. Contracts of guarantees may be classified into two types: specific guarantee and continuing guarantee. When a guarantee is given in respect of a single debt or specific transaction and is to come to an end when the guaranteed debt is paid or the promise is duly performed, it is called a specific or simple guarantee. However, a guarantee which extends to a series of transactions is called a continuing guarantee. The surety's liability, in this case, would continue till all the transactions are completed or till the guarantor revokes the guarantee as to the future transactions.
A continuing guarantee is defined under Section 129 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872. A continuing guarantee is a type of guarantee which applies to a series of transactions. It applies to all the transactions entered into by the principal debtor until it is revoked by the surety. Therefore, bankers always prefer to have a continuing guarantee so that the guarantor's liability is not limited to the original advances and would also extend to all subsequent debts.
The most important feature of a continuing guarantee is that it applies to a series of separable, distinct transactions. Therefore, when a guarantee is given for an entire consideration, it cannot be termed as a continuing guarantee.
So far as a guarantee given for an existing debt is concerned, it cannot be revoked, as once an offer is accepted it becomes final. However, a continuing guarantee can be revoked for future transactions. In that case, the surety shall be liable for those transactions which have already taken place.
After making a payment and discharging the liability of the principal debtor, the surety gets various rights. These rights can be studied under three heads:
Rights against the principal debtors: In every contract of guarantee, there is an implied promise by the principal debtor to indemnify the surety, and the surety is entitled to recover from the principal debtor whatever sum he has rightfully paid under the guarantee. This is because the surety has suffered a loss due to the non-fulfilment of promise by the principal debtor and therefore the surety has a right to be compensated by the debtor
On the default of payment by the principal debtor, when the surety pays off the debt of the principal debtor he becomes entitled to claim all the securities which were given by the principal debtor to the creditor. The surety has the right to all securities whether received before or after the creation of the guarantee and it is also immaterial whether the surety has knowledge of those securities or not.
Q. Chirag guarantees to Diya to the extent of Rs. 10,000 in August that Elle shall pay for all the goods bought by him during the next three months. Chirag gives a notice of revocation. Diya sells goods worth Rs. 6,000 to Elle in January. Decide.
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Gulab Singh answered  •  3 hours ago
The correct option is A.
It is clear from the following lines ‘The surety's liability, in this case, would continue till all the transactions are completed or till the guarantor revokes the guarantee as to the future transactions.

Principle: Unlawful interference with a person’s use or enjoyment of his premises is a civil wrong and forbidden by law
Facts: Ramarao neighbour was running a small printing establishment in his house. Though it was noisy at times, the neighborhood found it tolerable. One day, Ramarao’s aged father came to his house to convalesce after a major operation. He found the noise intolerable. Ramarao took up the matter with his neighbour and the latter refused to oblige him. as a result, Ramarao father died on account of the irritation. Ramarao filed a suit to close the press.
  • a)
    Ramarao would winbacause his neighbour interfered in his right, to relax in his own house
  • b)
    Ramarao would win because his neighbour did not oblige him even after knowing the serious condition of Ramarao father
  • c)
    Ramarao would lose because his neighbour need not take into the peculiar problems of every neighborhood around
  • d)
    None of them
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Krishan Kumar answered  •  3 hours ago
The correct option is B.
Private nuisance refers to the unlawful interference with the right to use or enjoyment of property by the owner which causes some damage to the owner of the land. The essential ingredients of private nuisance are: 
(1) unreasonable or unlawful interference
(2) interference should be with respect to right to use or enjoyment of property
(3) damage.
Interference can be of two types: injury to property and personal physical discomfort. The current instance is an example of personal physical discomfort. It has been established in a number of cases that noise pollution from any machine situated in the neighbouring premises amounts to personal discomfort to amount to private nuisance (Ram Raj Singh v Babulal).
 

Principle
A. The act of using threats to force another person to enter into a contract is called coercion.
B. The act of using influence on another and taking undue advantage of that person is called undue influence.
C. In order to prove coercion, the existence of the use of threat, in any form and manner, is necessary. If coercion is proved, the person who has been so threatened can refuse to abide by the contract.
D. In order to prove undue-influence, there has to be a pre-existing relationship between the parties to a contract. The relationship has to be of such a nature that one is in a position to influence the other. If it is proven that there has been undue influence, the party who has been so influenced need not enforce the contract or perform his obligations under the contract.
Facts: Aadil and Baalu are best friends. Aadil is the son of multi millionaire business person, Chulbul who owns Maakhan Pharmaceuticals. Baalu is the son of a bank employee, Dhanraj. One day, Aadil is abducted from his office by Baalu. Chulbul receives a phone call from Dhanraj telling him that if he does not make Baalu the CEO of Maakhan Pharmaceuticals, Aadil will be killed. Chulbul reluctantly agrees to make the Baalu the CEO. Subsequently Chulbul and Baalu sign an employment contract. However as soon as Aadil is released and safely returns home, Chulbul tells Baalu that he shall not enforce the employment contract. Baalu and Dhanraj are not sure as to what is to be done next.
Q. 
Baalu will succeed in getting the employment contract enforced if he can show that
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Ram Krishan answered  •  3 hours ago
Rule A provides that the person who is threatened can refuse to enforce the contract only on the ground that Dhanraj has used coercion against him. Innocence of Baalu is not a ground to enforce it.

PRINCIPLES: (1) Consumable goods which are not fit for consumption are not marketable.
(2) A consumer shall not suffer on account of unmarketable goods.
(3) A seller is liable for knowingly selling unmarketable goods.
(4) A manufacturer shall be liable for the quality of his products.
FACTS: Ram bought a Coca Cola bottle from Shama’s shop. Back at home, the server opened the bottle and poured the drink into the glasses of Ram and his friend Tom. As Tom started drinking, he felt irritation in his throat. Immediately, Ram and Tom took the sample to test and found nitric acid in the content. Ram filed a suit against Shama, Coca Cola company and the bottler, Kishan and Co.
SUGGESTED DECISIONS:
(a)  Ram cannot get compensation
(b) Tom can get compensation
(c)  Both Ram and Tom can get compensation
SUGGESTED REASONS:
(i) Shama did not know the contents of sealed bottle.
(ii) Ram did not actually suffer though he bought the bottle.
(iii) Tom did not buy the bottle.
(iv) Coca Cola company is responsible since it supplied the concentrate.
(v) Kishen & Co, is responsible since it added water, sugar, etc., and sealed the bottle.
(vi) Shama is responsible for selling the defective product.
Your decision with the reason:
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Rohtash answered  •  3 hours ago
Here, Ram and Tom are affected by a breach of duty on part of the bottler and manufacturer. Option A is incorrect because it does not matter who drank the contents of the bottle. Both are the neighbours in this case. And there was negligence and hence liability.

PRINCIPLES: 1. An employer shall be liable for the wrongs committed by his employees in the course of employment.
2. Third parties must exercise reasonable care to find out whether a person is actually acting in the course of employment.
FACTS: Nandan was appointed by Syndicate Bank to collect small savings from its customers spread over in different places on daily basis. Nagamma, a housemaid, was one of such ‘customers making use of Nandan’s service.
Syndicate Bank after a couple of years terminated Nandan’s service. Nagamma, unaware of this fact, was handing over her savings to Nandan who misappropriated them. Nagamma realised this nearly after three months, when she went to the Bank to withdraw money. She filed a complaint against the Bank.
POSSIBLE DECISION:
(a) Syndicate Bank shall be liable to compensate Nagamma.
(b) Syndicate Bank shall not be liable to compensate Nagamma.
(c) Nagamma has to blame herself for her negligence.
POSSIBLE REASONS:
(i) Nandan was not acting in the course of employment after the termination of his service.
(ii) A person cannot blame others for his own negligence.
(iii) Nagamma was entitled to be informed by the Bank about Nandan.
(iv) The Bank is entitled to expect its customers to know actual position.
Your decision with the reason:
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Rohit Mohan answered  •  6 hours ago
Ans should be B as per principle 2: 
Third parties must exercise reasonable care to find out whether a person is actually acting in the course of employment."
Here third party is Nagma, who should have verified whether 
whether a person is actually acting in the course of employment.

view all 2 answers

Chetna Singh asked   •  3 hours ago

Read the given passage carefully and attempt the questions that follow.
The work which Gandhiji had taken up was not only regarding the achievement of political freedom but also the establishment of a new social order based on truth and non-violence, unity and peace, equality and universal brotherhood and maximum freedom for all. This unfinished part of his experiment was perhaps even more difficult to achieve than the achievement of political freedom. In the political struggle, the fight was against a foreign power and all one could do was either join it or wish it success and give it his/her moral support. In establishing a social order on this pattern, there was a strong possibility of a conflict arising between diverse groups and classes of our own people. Experience shows that man values his possessions even more than his life because in the former he sees the means for perpetuation and survival of his descendants even after his body is reduced to ashes. A new order cannot be established without radically changing the mind and attitude of men towards property and, at some stage or the other, the 'haves' have to yield place to the 'have-nots'. We have seen, in our time, attempts to achieve a kind of egalitarian society and the picture of it after it was achieved. But this was done, by and large, through the use of physical force.
In the ultimate analysis it is difficult, if not impossible, to say that the instinct to possess has been rooted out or that it will not reappear in an even worse form under a different guise. It may even be that, like a gas kept confined within containers under great pressure, or water held back by a big dam, once the barrier breaks, the reaction will one day sweep back with a violence equal in extent and intensity to what was used to establish and maintain the outward egalitarian form. This enforced egalitarianism contains, in its bosom, the seed of its own destruction.
The root cause of class conflict is possessiveness or the acquisitive instinct. So long as the ideal that is to be achieved is one of securing the maximum material satisfaction, possessiveness is neither suppressed nor eliminated but grows on what it feeds. Nor does it cease to be possessiveness, whether it is confined to only a few or is shared by many.
If egalitarianism is to endure, it has to be based not on the possession of the maximum material goods by a few or by all but on voluntary, enlightened renunciation of those goods which cannot be shared by others or can be enjoyed only at the expense of others. This calls for substitution of material values by purely spiritual ones. The paradise of material satisfaction, which is sometimes equated with progress these days, neither spells peace nor progress. Mahatma Gandhi has shown us how the acquisitive instinct inherent in man can be transmuted by the adoption of the ideal of trusteeship by those who 'have' for the benefit of all those who 'have not' so that, instead of leading to exploitation and conflict, it would become a means and incentive for the amelioration and progress of society respectively.
Q.
According to the passage, why does man value his possessions more than his life?
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Nirmala Devi asked   •  3 hours ago

Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.
Almost all of us have this belief that the knowledge about technology, management and smartness are the more important ingredients of a successful entrepreneurship. But, Alibaba Group's executive chairman, Jack Ma did not have any of it when he started his business in 1995.
Starting out his career as a teacher is what made him into the world's renowned businessman he is today, believes Ma. "The only thing that made me into a successful businessman is my teaching background," Ma said on Thursday, speaking at the World Economic Forum in Tianjin, China.
Before starting Alibaba, Ma faced the rejections from 30 jobs and decided to start an Internet-based company. At the Forum, Ma said, that he did not know about technology and had no idea about how a business can be run, but he was confident about one quality of him as an English teacher, which was the ability to identify and cultivate talent.
At the Forum in China, when Ma was asked about his early retirement, he clearly said, "I do not want to die in office. I can die at the seaside, I would feel very happy. I prefer dying on the beach."
Speaking about his background as an English teacher, he added, "I used to be a teacher. That was not the trend in entrepreneurship. But with time, I had a very good team, but no good luck stay with you all the time. We need to extend the luck if you want to do so; you need to offer more opportunities to others, which mean you gave yourself more chances."
Confessing about his other desires and interests of life, he said, "You're born to see life and try different things as life is not just about work. A lot of things I got interested in the past 20 years, I feel pity that I did not have the time and capability of doing so. But today I have time and capability of developing these new things."
Ma refutes the logic of working until you're 80 and 90. "I don't think it's necessary to work till 80 or 90. Look at the other countries, entrepreneurs and business owners have white hair but do you know, it's a kind of step back, in today's times. I have more time to do for my interest areas," said Ma.
"I really want to show this to businesses in China and Asia. Never saying giving up and keep working and fighting for the age of 90 and much more," he said.
Q. What does Ma imply when he says "I do not want to die in office"?
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Dimple Kanojiya asked   •  4 hours ago

Since World War II, the nation-state has been regarded with approval by every political system and every ideology. In the name of modernization in the West, of socialism in the Eastern bloc, and of development in the Third World, it was expected to guarantee the happiness of individuals as citizens and of peoples of societies. However, the state today appears to have broken down in many parts of the world. It has failed to guarantee either security or social justice, and has been unable to prevent either international wars or civil wars. Disturbed by the claims of communities within it, the nation-state tries to repress their demands and to proclaim itself as the only guarantor of security of all. In the name of national unity, territorial integrity, equality of all its citizens and non-partisan secularism, the state can use its powerful resources to reject the demands of the communities; it may even go so far as genocide to ensure that order prevails.
As one observes the awakening of communities in different parts of the world, one cannot ignore the context in which identity issues arise. It is no longer a context of, sealed frontiers and isolated regions, but is one of integrated global systems. In a reaction to this trend towards globalization, individuals and communities everywhere are voicing their desire to exist, to use their power of creation and to play an active part in national and international life.
There are two ways in which the current upsurge in demands for the recognition of identities can be looked at. On the positive side, the efforts by certain populate groups to assert their identity can be regarded as “liberation movements”, challenging oppression and injustice. What these groups are doing – proclaiming that they are different, rediscovering the roots of their culture or strengthening group solidarity – may accordingly be seen as legitimate attempts to escape from their state of subjugation and enjoy a certain measure of dignity. On the downside, however, militant action for recognition tends to make such groups more deeply entrenched in their attitude and to make their cultural compartments even more watertight. The assertion of identity then starts turning into self-absorption, isolation, and is liable to slide into intolerance of others and towards ideas of ethnic cleansing’” xenophobia and violence.
Whereas continuous variations among peoples prevent drawing of clear dividing lines between the groups, those militating for recognition of their group’s identity arbitrarily choose a limited number of criteria such as religion, language, skin colour; and place or origin so that their members recognize themselves primarily in terms of the labels attached to the group whose existence is being asserted. This distinction between the group in question and other groups is established by simplifying the feature selected. Simplification also works by transforming groups into essences, abstractions endowed with the capacity to remain unchanged though time. In some cases, people actually act as though the group has remained unchanged and talk, for example, about the history of nations and communities as if these entities survived for centuries without changing, with the same ways of acting and thinking, the same desires, anxieties and aspirations.
Paradoxically, precisely because identity represents a simplifying fiction, creating uniform groups out of disparate people, that identity performs a cognitive function. It enables us to put names to ourselves and others, form some idea of who we are and who others are, and ascertain the place we occupy along with the others in the world and society. The current upsurge to assert the identity of groups can thus be partly explained by the cognitive function performed by identity. However, that said, people would not go along as they do, often in large numbers, with the propositions put to them, in spite of the sacrifices they entail, if there was not a very strong feeling of need for identity, a need to take stock of things and know who we are, where we come from and where we are, where we come from and where we are going.
Identity is thus a necessity in a constantly changing world, but it can also be a potent source of violence and disruption. How can these two contradictory aspects of identity be reconciled? First, we must bear the arbitrary nature of identity categories in mind, not with a view to eliminating all forms of identification – which would be unrealistic since identity is a cognitive necessity – but simply to remind ourselves that each of us has several identities at the same time. Second, since tears of nostalgia are being shed over the past, we recognize that culture is constantly being recreated by cobbling together fresh and original elements and counter-cultures. There are in our country, a large number of syncretic cults wherein modern elements are blended with traditional values or people of different communities venerate saints or divinities of particular faiths. Such cults and movements are characterized by a continual inflow and outflow of members which prevent them from taking on a self-perpetuating existence of their own and hold out hope for the future, indeed perhaps for the only possible future. Finally, the nation-state must respond to the identity urges of its constituent communities and to their legitimate quest for security and social justice. It must do so by inventing what the French philosopher and sociologist, Raymond Aron, called peace through law. That would guarantee justice both to the state as a whole and its parts, and respect he claims of both reason and emotions. The problem is one of reconciling nationalist demands with the exercise of democracy.
Q. 
Demands for recognition of identities can be viewed
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Crinoline and croquet are out. As yet, no political activists have thrown themselves in front of the royal horse on Derby Day. Even so, some historians can spot the parallels. It is a time of rapid technological change. It is a period when the dominance of the world's superpower is coming under threat. It is an epoch when prosperity masks underlying economic strain. And, crucially, it is a time when policy-makers are confident that all is for the best in the best of all possible worlds. Welcome to the Edwardian Summer of the second age of globalisation.
Spare a moment to take stock of what's been happening in the past few months. Let's start with the oil price, which has rocketed to more than $65 a barrel, more than double its level 18 months ago. The accepted wisdom is that we shouldn't worry our little heads about that, because the incentives are there for business to build new production and refining capacity, which will effortlessly bring demand and supply back into balance and bring crude prices back to $25 a barrel. As Tommy Cooper used to say, 'just like that'
Then there is the result of the French referendum on the European Constitution, seen as thick-headed luddites railing vainly against the modern world. What the French needed to realise, the argument went, was that there was no alternative to the reforms that would make the country more flexible, more competitive, more dynamic. Just the sort of reforms that allowed Gate Gourmet to sack hundreds of its staff at Heathrow after the sort of ultimatum that used to be handed out by Victorian mill owners. An alternative way of looking at the French non is that our neighbours translate "flexibility" as "you're fired".
Finally, take a squint at the United States. Just like Britain a century ago, a period of unquestioned superiority is drawing to a close. China is still a long way from matching America's wealth, but it is growing at a stupendous rate and economic strength brings geopolitical clout. Already, there is evidence of a new scramble for Africa as Washington and Beijing compete for oil stocks. Moreover, beneath the surface of the US economy, all is not well. Growth looks healthy enough, but the competition from China and elsewhere has meant the world's biggest economy now imports far more than it exports. The US is living beyond its means, but in this time of studied complacency a current account deficit worth 6 percent of gross domestic product is seen as a sign of strength, not weakness.
In this new Edwardian summer, comfort is taken from the fact that dearer oil has not had the savage inflationary consequences of 1973-74, when a fourfold increase in the cost of crude brought an abrupt end to a postwar boom that had gone on uninterrupted for a quarter of a century. True, the cost of living has been affected by higher transport costs, but we are talking of inflation at 2.3 per cent and not 27 per cent. Yet the idea that higher oil prices are of little consequence is fanciful. If people are paying more to fill up their cars it leaves them with less to spend on everything else, but there is a reluctance to consume less. In the 1970s unions were strong and able to negotiate large, compensatory pay deals that served to intensify inflationary pressure. In 2005, that avenue is pretty much closed off, but the abolition of all the controls on credit that existed in the 1970s means that households are invited to borrow more rather than consume less. The knock-on effects of higher oil prices are thus felt in different ways - through high levels of indebtedness, in inflated asset prices, and in balance of payments deficits.
There are those who point out, rightly, that modern industrial capitalism has proved mightily resilient these past 250 years, and that a sign of the enduring strength of the system has been the way it apparently shrugged off everything - a stock market crash, 9/11, rising oil prices - that have been thrown at it in the half decade since the millennium. Even so, there are at least three reasons for concern. First, we have been here before. In terms of political economy, the first era of globalisation mirrored our own. There was a belief in unfettered capital flows, in free trade, and in the power of the market. It was a time of massive income inequality and unprecedented migration. Eventually, though, there was a backlash, manifested in a struggle between free traders and protectionists, and in rising labour militancy.
Second, the world is traditionally at its most fragile at times when the global balance of power is in flux. By the end of the nineteenth century, Britain's role as the hegemonic power was being challenged by the rise of the United States, Germany, and Japan while the Ottoman and Hapsburg empires were clearly in rapid decline, looking ahead from 2005, it is clear that over the next two or three decades, both China and India - which together account for half the world's population - will flex their muscles.
Finally, there is the question of what rising oil prices tell us. The emergence of China and India means global demand for crude is likely to remain high at a time when experts say production is about to top out. If supply constraints start to bite, any declines in the price are likely to be short-term cyclical affairs punctuating a long upward trend.
Q. What, according to the author, has resulted in a widespread belief in the resilience of modern capitalism?
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Pushpa Devi answered  •  16 hours ago
The last four paragraphs are summarized in option 3. Though all options are almost the same, each one is incomplete in one way or the other when compared to option 3. For example, if option 1 talks about shocks, it misses out on terrorism, etc. Option 3 is more inclusive and complete.

Passage: India’s Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019 (‘Bill’) starts encouragingly, seeking to protect “the privacy of individuals relating to their personal data”. But by the end, it is clear it is not designed to deliver on the promise. For, even as it rightly requires handlers of data to abide by globally accepted rules — about getting an individual’s consent first — it disappointingly gives wide powers to the Government to dilute any of these provisions for its agencies.   Recently, messaging platform WhatsApp said that some Indian journalists and rights activists were among those spied on using technology made by an Israeli company, which by its own admission only works for government agencies across the world.   Importantly, one of the first to raise a red flag about the Bill’s problematic clauses was Justice B.N. Srikrishna, whose committee’s report forms the basis of the Bill. He has used words such as “Orwellian” and “Big Brother” in reaction to the removal of safeguards against actions of Government agencies. In its report last July, the committee noted that the dangers to privacy originate from state and non-state actors. It, therefore, called for exemptions to be “watertight”, “narrow”, and available for use in “limited circumstances”. It had also recommended that the Government bring in a law for the oversight of intelligence-gathering activities, the means by which non-consensual processing of data takes place. A related concern about the Bill is regarding the constitution of the Data Protection Authority of India (‘DPA’), which is to monitor and enforce the provisions of the Act. It will be headed by a chairperson and have not more than six whole-time members, all of whom are to be selected by a panel filled with Government nominees. This completely disregards the fact that Government agencies are also regulated under the Bill; they are major collectors and processors of data themselves. The sweeping powers the Bill gives to the Government render meaningless the gains from the landmark K.S. Puttaswamy vs. Union of India case, which culminated in the recognition that privacy is intrinsic to life and liberty, and therefore a basic right. That idea of privacy is certainly not reflected in the Bill in its current form.   
Q. The author is concerned about the constitution of the DPA under the Bill because:
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Santosh answered  •  16 hours ago
The author believes that if the members of DPA are elected by Government nominees, the DPA will be ineffective in regulating Government agencies. This is because the author’s concern regarding the constitution of the DPA under the Bill relates to the fact that the members of the DPA are to be elected by a panel comprising mainly Government nominees and the author doubts the ability of a body constituted of Government appointees to, in turn, regulate the actions of the Government agencies.  

Read the following passage and answer the question.
The last few months of the year are always filled with fun stuff at school — Dussehra break, Deepavali holidays, sports day, annual day and then the long Christmas break. There's practice, Sport's Day heats, and Project Day submissions and regular studies kind of take a back seat.
It's the best! But, like in any fairy tale, just when everything seems perfect and made of candy, a big bad wolf or an evil witch lurking in the shadows jumps out, grabs you and cooks you in an oven. Okay, I know I'm mixing fairy tales up — think of it as a remix okay?
In my fairy tale life of hardly any studies and homework, the big bad wolf-witch (hybrid villains, people) looks like the ASSET exam. ASSET stands for Assessment of Scholastic Skills through Educational Testing, and this national test is meant to see what concepts students understand and don't understand with detailed feedback on what we can improve in. WHY?
I mean, I already know that I get confused between 12:00a.m. and 12:00p.m. and never remember which is which.
And that irregular verbs are just something my brain can't process. And that I'm not sure where people dance Bhangra — is it Gujarat or Assam? Neither? SEE!
More exams!
Why do I need another exam to tell me what I suck at? School has enough of those exams already. At least school exams are a little straightforward. These ASSET tests try to confuse you and trip you up at every turn. All the questions are sneaky and all the answers sound the same. It's awful.
And then, when they give you the results, they don't stop with just a grade or score, but they write pages and pages of feedback of what you 'might' want to work on. And guess what happens when parents read that kind of feedback? They go into hyperdrive. Suddenly, everything is about how to make me improve my 'spatial awareness' and 'logical reasoning' and 'improve my structural foundation'. Structural foundation? I'm a child, not a church. Aargh.
My ASSET scores have been pretty unspectacular these last few years and you'd think I'd be worried. But no. Do you want to know why? The scores don't matter. They can't keep me back a year or kick me out of school if I don't do well in them. The scores have no bearing on my great future as a PubG superstar, a spider expert, or a writer of amazing graphic novels. I protest that I have to take them only to have them make me feel bad and not smart.
Q. According to the passage, which of the following seems to be true about the author?
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Saroj Devi answered  •  yesterday
The correct answer is option 2. From what the author has written, we can understand that the author is more creative and fun-loving than good at studies. He states, "In my fairy tale life of hardly any studies and homework, the big bad wolf-witch (hybrid villains, people) looks like the ASSET exam ... " and "The scores have no bearing on my great future as a PubG superstar, a spider expert, or a writer of amazing graphic novels."

Read the following passage and answer the question as directed.
The Rajya Sabha passed the ___{X}__ by voice vote that seeks to provide a mechanism for social, economic and educational empowerment of transgender persons in India.
The Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment moved the Bill for consideration and passage in Rajya Sabha that was passed by Lok Sabha. The Bill got a nod in the Upper House defeating a motion to refer it to an RS Select Committee.
The Bill prohibits the discrimination against a transgender person, including denial of service or unfair treatment in relation to education, employment, healthcare, access to, or enjoyment of goods, facilities, opportunities available to the public, right to movement, right to reside, rent, or otherwise occupy property, opportunity to hold public or private office, and access to a government or private establishment. The Bill also seeks to provide rights of health facilities to transgender persons including separate HIV surveillance centres, and sex reassignment surgeries. The Bill also has a provision of certificate of identity for a transgender person by making application to the District Magistrate for a certificate of identity, indicating the gender as 'transgender'.
"A revised certificate may be obtained only if the individual undergoes surgery to change their gender either as a male or a female," the Bill states. ______{Y}_____ will be set up, chaired by Union Minister for Social Justice, apart from redressing grievances of transgender person, will advise central government as well as monitor impact of policies with respect to transgender persons. Human rights organisations have alleged that the Bill does not adequately protect the rights of transgender people, and fails to comply with India's constitutional and international human rights obligations. "Critically, the Bill appears to continue to mandate sex reassignment surgery for transgender people. This requirement would contravene the Supreme Court's judgment in ___{Z}___ which guarantees the right to self-identification without the need for medical intervention. Further, the Bill does not make provision for affirmative action in employment or education despite the Supreme Court's mandate in NALSA v. UOI," said Frederick Rawski, Asia Pacific Director, International Commission of Jurists (ICJ), a nongovernmental organisation (NGO) defending human rights. The Bill states that any offences against transgender persons will attract imprisonment between six months and two years, in addition to a fine.
Q. In the above passage, what have been redacted with '{Y}'?
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Usha Devi answered  •  yesterday
National Council for Transgender persons (NCT) will advise the central government as well as monitor the impact of policies, legislation and projects with respect to transgender persons. It will also redress the grievances of transgender persons.
The NCT consists of:
(i) Union Minister for Social Justice (Chairperson);
(ii) Minister of State for Social Justice (Vice-Chairperson);
(iii) Secretary of the Ministry of Social Justice;
(iv) One representative from ministries including Health, Home Affairs, and Human Resources Development.
Other members include representatives of the NITI Aayog, and the National Human Rights Commission. State governments will also be represented. The Council will also consist of five members from the transgender community and five experts from nongovernmental organisations.

The need for Women’s empowerment was felt in India long back. Mahtama Gandhi had announced at the Second Round Table Conference that his aim was to establish a political society in India in which there would be no distinction between people of high and low classes and in which women would enjoy the same rights as men and the teeming millions of Indians would be ensured dignity and justice-social, economic and political.
The country’s concern in safeguarding the rights and privileges of women found its best expression in the Constitution of India, covering Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy. The Constitution (73 and 74 Amendment) Acts, 1992 provides that not less than one third (including the number of seats reserved for women belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes) of the total number of seats to be filled by direct election in every Panchayat and Municipality shall be reserved for women. To make this de-jure equality into a de-facto one, many policies and programmes were put into action from time to time, besides enacting/enforcing special legislations, in favour of women. There is hardly any programme to address the cultural and traditional discrimination against women that leads to her abject conditions.
Apart from the constitutional provisions, a large number of laws have been enacted to protect the Human Rights for Women. The important policies which have vital implications for the women are National Policy for Empowerment of Women 2001 and others relating to population, health, nutrition, education, agriculture, industry, forest, water, housing, credit, science and technology, media, etc.
Since Women’s empowerment is a global issue, UNO has also expressed concern in the matter. The Charter of the United Nations declares equal dignity and worth of human person-all types of human rights, civil, political, economic, social and cultural. In 1993, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action proclaimed the rights of women and girl child as “Inalienable, integral and indivisible part – Priority objective of the international community”
Q. Consider the following statements regarding the above passage.
1. United Nations declare all types of human rights to both men and women in respect of social, cultural, religious, political and economic matters.
2. Gandhian view was that there has not to be any distinction between high and low classes and women must get preferential treatment. Choose the correct option:
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Joginder Kaur answered  •  yesterday
Passage mentions that the charter of the United Nations declares equal dignity and worth of human person-all types of human rights, civil, political, economic, social and cultural and does not include religious rights. Hence statement 1 is incorrect. Gandhi had an aim to establish a political society in India in which there would be no distinction between people to high and low classes and in which women would enjoy the same rights as men. Hence statement 2 is incorrect.

''The question is based on the reasoning and arguments, or facts and principles set out in the passage. Some of these principles may not be true in the real or legal sense, yet you must conclusively assume that they are true for the purpose. Please answer the question on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. Do not rely on any principle of law other than the ones supplied to you, and do not assume any facts other than those supplied to you when answering the question. Please choose the option that most accurately and comprehensively answers the question.''
In a grim reminder that children continue to face the brunt of sexual depravity, more than 96% of the rape trials, registered under the Protection of Children Against Sexual Offences (Pocso) Act, are pending.
Pocso Act, provides for special courts for trial of cases of crimes against children to protect minors and prevent them from being victimised again by courts which have to deal with long pendency of other cases. A Pocso Act court has provision for in-camera trial in a child-friendly environment without revealing the identity of the children.
The law ministry has now drawn up a comprehensive plan to fast-track disposal of pending rape and Pocso Act cases within a year. The government is also likely to propose a similar fast-track courts (FTCs) scheme under the 15th Finance Commission (2020-2025).
The combined data for rape and Pocso Act cases are of June 2019, both supplied by the HCs, having a time lag of a little over a year. However, the current status of the number of Pocso Act and other rape cases is unlikely to be too different from the available data set. The law ministry has set a target of one year to complete trial of these pending cases by setting up 1,023 FTCs across the country.
The government has asked each HC and state government to convey their desire to on-board the scheme by December 31. Many states are already running FTCs for trial of Pocso Act cases. Pocso Act also mandates that investigation in the cases is to be completed in two months (from the date of registration of FIR) and trial in six months.
However, despite a strong law and policy framework, a large number of rape and Pocso Act cases are pending in various courts in the country, It, however, did not mention how long these cases have been pending. The ministry, which has received data on all pending rape and Pocso Act cases from HCs, said that there were 389 districts where the number of pending cases under Pocso Act exceeded 100. The government has issued directives to set up fast- track court in each of these districts, which is also in compliance of a similar directive from the SC.
The department of justice in the law ministry will monitor these trials on a quarterly basis and each of these FTCs will be connected to the National Judicial Data Grid (NJDG), which updates status of all cases on a daily basis, including their disposal and will analysis the provisions of the Act which are violated such as no child to be detained in the police station in the night for any reason and Police officer must not be in uniform while recording the statement of the child and that the statement of the child is to be recorded as spoken by the child. The NJDG will analyse the data and draw a comparative analysis of performance of FTCs to identify good practices and performance.
Q. What is the intention behind reporting of FTC case statuses to the NJDC?
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Kiran answered  •  yesterday
The NJDC will analyse the data and draw a comparative analysis of performance of FTCs to identify good practices and performance. This is the whole intention behind monitoring the progress and keeping the cases on track.

The need for Women’s empowerment was felt in India long back. Mahtama Gandhi had announced at the Second Round Table Conference that his aim was to establish a political society in India in which there would be no distinction between people of high and low classes and in which women would enjoy the same rights as men and the teeming millions of Indians would be ensured dignity and justice-social, economic and political.
The country’s concern in safeguarding the rights and privileges of women found its best expression in the Constitution of India, covering Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy. The Constitution (73 and 74 Amendment) Acts, 1992 provides that not less than one third (including the number of seats reserved for women belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes) of the total number of seats to be filled by direct election in every Panchayat and Municipality shall be reserved for women. To make this de-jure equality into a de-facto one, many policies and programmes were put into action from time to time, besides enacting/enforcing special legislations, in favour of women. There is hardly any programme to address the cultural and traditional discrimination against women that leads to her abject conditions.
Apart from the constitutional provisions, a large number of laws have been enacted to protect the Human Rights for Women. The important policies which have vital implications for the women are National Policy for Empowerment of Women 2001 and others relating to population, health, nutrition, education, agriculture, industry, forest, water, housing, credit, science and technology, media, etc.
Since Women’s empowerment is a global issue, UNO has also expressed concern in the matter. The Charter of the United Nations declares equal dignity and worth of human person-all types of human rights, civil, political, economic, social and cultural. In 1993, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action proclaimed the rights of women and girl child as “Inalienable, integral and indivisible part – Priority objective of the international community”
Q. What is the correct inference drawn out from the passage?
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Krishna answered  •  yesterday
Passage discussed about the various provisions included in constitution of India and in the UN charter related to women empowerment. Hence option (B) is more appropriate.

India has come a long way since the Bengal Famine of 1943. The food situation in India, once characterised by "chronic" shortages and the spectre of famines, has changed dramatically over the years. From being the biggest recipient of PL -480 and during the 1950s and 1960s, India today is relatively self-sufficient in foodgrain at the given level of incomes and prices; in fact, it has marginal surpluses. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) has been signed, with India as one of the signatories, under which all countries will have to gradually open up their agricultural sectors.
It is, therefore, neither feasible nor desirable to keep India's foodgrain sector insulated from world markets. In fact, this is an appropriate opportunity for India to "integrate" its agriculture with global agriculture, and make use of private trade (both domestic and foreign) as an important instrument for efficiently allocating her resources as well as providing food security to her people at the lowest economic cost. The time to change gears in food policy has come.
Food security, in a broader context, means that people have physical and economic access to food. Since foodgrains have the largest share in the food basket of the poor in a developing country like India, it is the availability of foodgrains that lies at the heart of food security. The first step in this direction, therefore, is to make foodgrains physically available to the people. This can be done by augmenting production, or through imports and transportation of grain to people wherever they are.
There are several ways of achieving these targets. One may rely on private entrepreneurship by letting the individual farmers produce, traders trade/import and make it available to consumers far and wide; or the government may directly intervene in the production and /or the trade process. In the former case, the government follows policies that provide appropriate market signals while in the latter, it acts as producer, importer and trader itself. Indian policy makers have followed a mix of both these options. For production, they have "relied" on the farmers while the government has retained control over imports. For distribution, it created public agencies to do the job along with private trade, thus creating dual market structure.
Providing economic access to food is the second part of the concept of food security. This can be best "obtained" by adopting a cost-effective technology in production so that the real price of foodgrains come down and more people have access to it. In case it still fails to reach the larger sections of the population, the government can directly subsidise food for the poor, "launch" a drive to augment their incomes, or try a combination of the two strategies.India has followed both these policies.

Q.
Which of the following can be inferred about the general view of the author in the context of the passage?
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Rajni Sharma answered  •  yesterday
The author has described about the policies to guard the economy. So as compared to option A, option C is more relevant and accurate.

LEGAL PRINCIPAL: Even if the sovereign functions of the State are discharged negligently the state is not vicariously liable in tort.
FACTUAL SITUATION: A was a trader in gold. There he was arrested by police and was detained in the police lock up after search. The gold with him along with sundry other things were seized. Later he was discharged. His possessions seized by the police were returned, except the gold. He moved against the State in tort. In the words of Supreme Court, “There can be no escape from the conclusion that the Police Officers were negligent in dealing with the property after it was seized” One of the Constables was a Muslim. He fled with gold to Pakistan.
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Bimla Devi answered  •  yesterday
Sovereign functions are those functions of the State which are inalienable in nature and cannot be performed by anyone else except the State itself. It includes defence and law and order. The State is not answerable for these functions before any court of law due to matters of public policy. In India, sovereign immunity is guaranteed by virtue of Article 300 of the Constitution of India, 1950. In the case of Kasturilal Ralia Ram Jain v State of UP involving the same set of facts, the Court held that the power to arrest a person and search and seizure are granted to the police via a statute, so they qualify as sovereign powers. Hence even if it is proved that the police officers were negligent during the course of employment, the State could not be made answerable for these acts. 

Joint heirs to a property are called
  • a)
    Co-heirs
  • b)
    Co-parceners
  • c)
    Successors
  • d)
    Joint owners
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Lilu Ram answered  •  yesterday
Joint heirs to a property are called as Coparceners. They share equal rights and liabilities over the property.

Rekha Shinde asked   •  9 hours ago

Direction: Read the passage given below. Choose the best options for the Question.

IOT has had an impact across all fields, be it industries, government, small or large businesses and even for Personal Consumption. What is IOT (Internet of things) you might ask. It’s been a growing topic of conversation for some time now. Put in the simplest term it means anything that has an on and off button and is connected to the internet for receiving, analyzing, storing or sending data. This could mean anything, from the watch that you wear to airplanes that can be controlled from a remote location. According to the analyst firm Gartner, by the year 2020 we’ll have over 26 billion connected devices. That could mean people to people, people connected to things and things connected to things.The new rule of the future is going to be “Anything that can be connected will be connected”. Take for example that when you set an alarm to wake up and that alarm goes off it not only wakes you up but also brews your coffee, sets the right temperature of water for your bath, puts on the television to bring you the latest updates from around the globe and all this before you even put a foot out of your bed. This is all done by simply getting the network of interconnected things/devices that have embedded sensors, network connectivity, software and necessary electronics that collect and exchange data.     To show how far we have come with technology and connectivity, we have smart watches such as Fitbit, Garmin to name a few that have changed the way we look at time. We have one device that not only tells us the time but also tracks the number of steps, calories and our heart rate. This watch is actually connected to our phone so with just one turn of the wrist one can tell who is calling or what messages have been received without having to dig through pockets or handbags.
IOT is making its presence felt in health care as well. Doctors can now remotely monitor and communicate with their patients and health care providers can benefit from this. Whether data comes from foetal monitors, electrocardiograms, temperature monitors or blood glucose levels, tracking this information is vital for some patients. Many of this requires follow up interaction with healthcare professionals. With smarter devices that deliver more valuable data it can reduce the need for direct patient- physician interaction.
Take for instance in the sporting field, minute chips are being attached to balls and bats which will transmit information of how  fast the ball is travelling and a batsman’s moves, the time, the angles, the pressure on the bat at different positions, data of the muscle stretch if he’s hit a six so on and so forth.
Formula one cars are also being fitted with these sensors which relays information on the minute moves being made by the driver. Chips are also being put into wearable devices of sportsmen to detect  suboptimal action of any body parts to show signs of stress or strain which will help in the early detection of injuries and take preventive measures.
IOT has had an impact across all fields, be it industries, government, small or large business and even for personal consumption. IBM, Google, Intel, Microsoft and Cisco are some of the top players in the IOT spectrum.
With billions of devices connected security becomes a big issue. How can people make sure that their data is safe and secure? This is one of the major concerns in the IOT that becomes a hot topic. Another issue is with all these billions of devices sharing data companies will be faced with the problem of how to store, track, analyse and make vast sense of the information being generated. Companies are monitoring the network segment to identify anomalous traffic and to take action if necessary.
Now that we have a fair understanding of IOT let’s see what impact it’s had on the education sector. The only constant in our lives is change and learning. From the get go we learn, be it to the walk, talk or run.
We adapt to the changing times and constantly learn from it. Education or learning as we know it in the broader sense is the most important of all and the one that decides which way we handle those changes to impact us and the world.
Today’s world is fast paced and to keep up with this we need an infusion of speed with learning. From the classroom assignments, lectures, blackboards and chalk we have come a long way to what is now known as e-learning (electronic learning) or m-learning (mobile learning). With the GenNext it is imperative to provide the right kind of education.
The rise of technology and IOT allows schools to improve the safety of their campuses, keep track of resources and enhance access to information. It ensures data quality being the top priority but also facilitates development of content allowing teachers to use this technology to create smart lesson plans and ensuring the reach of this content to any corner of the world.

Select a title that is most suitable for the passage
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Neha Bahelia asked   •  9 hours ago

Passage: The happy man is the man who lives objectively, who has free affections and wide interests, who secures his happiness through these interests and affections and through the fact that they in turn make him an object of interest and affection to many others. To be the recipient of affection is a potent cause of happiness, but the man who demands affection is not the man upon whom it is bestowed. The man who receives affection is, speaking broadly, the man who gives it.
But it is useless to attempt to give it as a calculation, in the way in which one might lend money at interest, for a calculated affection is not genuine and is not felt to be so by the recipient. What then can a man do who is unhappy because he is encased in self? So long as he continues to think about the causes of his unhappiness, he continues to be self-centered and therefore does not get outside it. It must be by genuine interest, not by simulated interests adopted merely as a medicine. Although this difficulty is real, there is nevertheless much that he can do if he has rightly diagnosed his trouble. If for example, his trouble is due to a sense of sin, conscious or unconscious, he can first persuade his conscious mind that he has no reason to feel sinful, and then proceed, to plant this rational conviction in his unconscious mind, concerning himself meanwhile with some more or less neutral activity. If he succeeds in dispelling the sense of sin, it is possible that genuine objective interests will arise spontaneously. If his trouble is self-pity, he can deal with it in the same manner after first persuading himself that there is nothing extraordinarily unfortunate in his circumstances. If fear is his trouble, let him practice exercises designed to give courage. Courage has been recognized from time immemorial as an important virtue, and a great part of the training of boys and young men has been devoted to producing a type of character capable of fearlessness in battle. But moral courage and intellectual courage have been much less studied. They also, however, have their technique. Admit to yourself every day at least one painful truth, you will find it quite useful. Teach yourself to feel that life would still be worth living even if you were not, as of course, you are, immeasurably superior to all your friends in virtue and in intelligence. Exercises of this sort prolonged through several years will at last enable doing, free you from the empire of fear over a very large field.
Q. Which of the following words is OPPOSITE in meaning of the word ‘dispelling’ as used in the passage?
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Neelam Sunda asked   •  15 hours ago

Passage: We have inherited the tradition of secrecy about the budget from Britain where also the system has been strongly attacked by eminent economists and political scientists including Peter Jay. Sir Richard Clarke, who was the originating genius of nearly every important development in the British budgeting techniques during the last two decades, has spoken out about the abuse of budget secrecy:―The problems of long-term tax policy should surely be debated openly with the facts on the table. In my opinion, all governments should have just the same duty to publish their expenditure policy.
Indeed, this obligation to public taxation policy is really essential for the control of public expenditure in order to get realistic taxation implications. Realising that democracy flourishes best on the principles of open government, more and more democracies are having an open public debate on budget proposals before introducing the appropriate Bill in the legislature. In the United States the budget is conveyed in a message by the President to the Congress, which comes well in advance of the date when the Bill is introduced in the Congress. In Finland the Parliament and the people are already discussing in June the tentative budget proposals which are to be introduced in the Finnish Parliament in September. Every budget contains a cartload of figures in black and white-but the dark figures represent the myriad lights and shades of India‘s life, the contrasting tones of poverty and wealth, and of bread so dear and flesh and blood so cheap, the deep tints of adventure and enterprise and man‘s ageless struggle for a brighter morning. The Union budget should not be an annual scourge but a part of presentation of annual accounts of a partnership between the Government and the people.
That partnership would work much better when the nonsensical secrecy is replaced by openness and public consultations, resulting in fair laws and the people‘s acceptance of their moral duty to pay.
Directions: Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
Q. MYRIAD
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Amit Kumar asked   •  18 hours ago

Directions : In view of the passage given below: Choose the best option for question.
When talks come to how India has done for itself in 50 years of independence, the world has nothing but praise for our success in remaining a democracy. On other front, the applause is less loud. In absolute terms, India has not done too badly, Of course, life expectancy has increased. So has literacy. Industry, which was barely a fledging, has grown tremendously, As far as agriculture is concerned, India has been transformed from a country perpetually on the edge of starvation into a success story held up for others to emulate. But these are competitive times when change is rapid, and to walk slowly when rest of the world is running is almost as bad standing still on walking backwards.
Compare with large chunks of what was then the developing world South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, China and what was till lately a separate Hong Kong- India has fared abysmally, It began with a far better infrastructure than most of these countries had. It suffered hardly or not at all during the Second World War It ha advantages like a English speaking elite, quality scientific manpower (including a Novel laureate and others who could be ranked according to their global competitiveness, it is tiny Singapore that figures at the top. Hong Kong is an export powerhouse. So is Taiwan. If a symbol were needed of, how far we have fallen back, note that while Korean Ceils are sold in India, no one is South Korea is rushing to by an Indian car. The reasons list themselves, Top most in economic isolationism.
The government discouraged imports and encouraged self-sufficiency. Whatever the aim was, the result was the creation of totally inefficient industry that failed to keep pace with global trends and, therefore, became absolutely uncompetitive. Only when the trade gates were opened a little did this become apparent. The years since then have been spent in merely trying to catch up. That the government actually sheltered it’s the years since then have been spent in merely trying to catch up. That the government actually sheltered its industrialists from foreign competition is a little strange. For in all other respects, it operated under the conviction that businessman were little more than crooks how were to be prevented from entering the most important area of the economy, how were to be hamstrung in as many ways as possible, how were to be tolerated in the same way as an in excisable wart. The high expropriator rates taxation, the licensing laws, the reservation of whole swathes of industry for the public sector, and the granting of monopolies to the public sector firms were the principle manifestations of this attitude. The government forget that before wealth could be distributed, it had to be created.
The government forgot that it itself could not create, but only squander wealth, Some of the manifestations of the old attitude have changed, Tax rates have fallen, Licensing has been al but abolished. And the gates of global trade have been open wide. But most of these changes were first by circumstances partly by the funds of support the public sector, leave alone expand it. Weather the attitude of the government itself, of that of more than handful of ministers, has changed, is open of question. In many other ways, however, the government has not changed one with. Business till has to negotiable a welter of negotiations. Transparency is still a longer way off. And there is no exit policy. In defending the existing policy, politicians betray and inability to see beyond their noses. A no-exit policy for labour is equivalent to a no-entry policy for new business. If one industry is not allowed to retrench labour, other industries will think a hundred times before employing new labour. In other ways, the government hurts industries.
Public sector monopolies like the department of telecommunications and Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd. make it possible for Indian business to operator only at cost several times that off their counterparts abroad. The infrastructure is in a shambles partly because it is unable to formulate a sufficiently remunerative policy for private business, and partly because it does not have the stomach to change market rates for services. After a burst of activity in the early nineties, the government is dragging its feet. At the rate it is going, it will be another fifty years before the government realizes that a pro-business policy is the best pro-people policy. By then of course, the world would have moved even further ahead.
Q. The write ends the passage on a note of…..
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Pushpesh Kanaujia asked   •  18 hours ago

Read the given passage carefully and attempt the questions that follow.
The work which Gandhiji had taken up was not only regarding the achievement of political freedom but also the establishment of a new social order based on truth and non-violence, unity and peace, equality and universal brotherhood and maximum freedom for all. This unfinished part of his experiment was perhaps even more difficult to achieve than the achievement of political freedom. In the political struggle, the fight was against a foreign power and all one could do was either join it or wish it success and give it his/her moral support. In establishing a social order on this pattern, there was a strong possibility of a conflict arising between diverse groups and classes of our own people. Experience shows that man values his possessions even more than his life because in the former he sees the means for perpetuation and survival of his descendants even after his body is reduced to ashes. A new order cannot be established without radically changing the mind and attitude of men towards property and, at some stage or the other, the 'haves' have to yield place to the 'have-nots'. We have seen, in our time, attempts to achieve a kind of egalitarian society and the picture of it after it was achieved. But this was done, by and large, through the use of physical force.
In the ultimate analysis it is difficult, if not impossible, to say that the instinct to possess has been rooted out or that it will not reappear in an even worse form under a different guise. It may even be that, like a gas kept confined within containers under great pressure, or water held back by a big dam, once the barrier breaks, the reaction will one day sweep back with a violence equal in extent and intensity to what was used to establish and maintain the outward egalitarian form. This enforced egalitarianism contains, in its bosom, the seed of its own destruction.
The root cause of class conflict is possessiveness or the acquisitive instinct. So long as the ideal that is to be achieved is one of securing the maximum material satisfaction, possessiveness is neither suppressed nor eliminated but grows on what it feeds. Nor does it cease to be possessiveness, whether it is confined to only a few or is shared by many.
If egalitarianism is to endure, it has to be based not on the possession of the maximum material goods by a few or by all but on voluntary, enlightened renunciation of those goods which cannot be shared by others or can be enjoyed only at the expense of others. This calls for substitution of material values by purely spiritual ones. The paradise of material satisfaction, which is sometimes equated with progress these days, neither spells peace nor progress. Mahatma Gandhi has shown us how the acquisitive instinct inherent in man can be transmuted by the adoption of the ideal of trusteeship by those who 'have' for the benefit of all those who 'have not' so that, instead of leading to exploitation and conflict, it would become a means and incentive for the amelioration and progress of society respectively.
Q.
According to the passage, egalitarianism will not survive if
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Rudresh Singh asked   •  yesterday

Passage: The happy man is the man who lives objectively, who has free affections and wide interests, who secures his happiness through these interests and affections and through the fact that they in turn make him an object of interest and affection to many others. To be the recipient of affection is a potent cause of happiness, but the man who demands affection is not the man upon whom it is bestowed. The man who receives affection is, speaking broadly, the man who gives it.
But it is useless to attempt to give it as a calculation, in the way in which one might lend money at interest, for a calculated affection is not genuine and is not felt to be so by the recipient. What then can a man do who is unhappy because he is encased in self? So long as he continues to think about the causes of his unhappiness, he continues to be self-centered and therefore does not get outside it. It must be by genuine interest, not by simulated interests adopted merely as a medicine. Although this difficulty is real, there is nevertheless much that he can do if he has rightly diagnosed his trouble. If for example, his trouble is due to a sense of sin, conscious or unconscious, he can first persuade his conscious mind that he has no reason to feel sinful, and then proceed, to plant this rational conviction in his unconscious mind, concerning himself meanwhile with some more or less neutral activity. If he succeeds in dispelling the sense of sin, it is possible that genuine objective interests will arise spontaneously. If his trouble is self-pity, he can deal with it in the same manner after first persuading himself that there is nothing extraordinarily unfortunate in his circumstances. If fear is his trouble, let him practice exercises designed to give courage. Courage has been recognized from time immemorial as an important virtue, and a great part of the training of boys and young men has been devoted to producing a type of character capable of fearlessness in battle. But moral courage and intellectual courage have been much less studied. They also, however, have their technique. Admit to yourself every day at least one painful truth, you will find it quite useful. Teach yourself to feel that life would still be worth living even if you were not, as of course you are, immeasurably superior to all your friends in virtue and in intelligence. Exercises of this sort prolonged through several years will at last enable doing, free you from the empire of fear over a very large field.
Q. Who according to the passage is the happy man?
... more

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