All India GMAT Group

The three-digit integer kss is the sum of the two-digit integers ks and rs, where k, r, and s are the digits of the integers. Which of the following must be true?

I. k = 2
II. r = 9
III. s = 5
  • a)
    I only
  • b)
    II only
  • c)
    III only
  • d)
    I and II
  • e)
    II and III
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Palak Saha answered  •  4 hours ago


Given Information:
The three-digit integer kss is the sum of the two-digit integers ks and rs, where k, r, and s are the digits of the integers.

Analysis:
To determine which statements must be true, let's break down the problem:
- The three-digit integer kss is formed by k, s, and s.
- The two-digit integers ks and rs are formed by k and s,
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Years ago, some in the government's intelligence community feared the work of telecommunications researchers at then-emerging private security firms. The government experts concluded that these private firms posed the biggest risk to successful government espionage. As the private security firms began publicly releasing and advertising encryption algorithms and other security products, these government experts saw support for their conclusion when an encryption algorithm that government experts could not break began appearing in countless emails.
Q. Which of the following, if true, most weakens the conclusion of the government experts referred to above?
... more

Palak Saha answered  •  4 hours ago


Analysis:

Weakness in the Conclusion:

- The conclusion of the government experts was that private security firms posed the biggest risk to successful government espionage.
- The reasoning behind this conclusion was that the private firms were releasing and advertising encryption algorithms that the government experts could not break.

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Jyoti Nair asked a question

Each of the 10 persons namely A, Q, R, Z, M, N, P, B, K and L are wearing a shirt. The colour of each shirt is one out of blue, green and red. There are ten chairs placed in a row. The chairs are consecutively numbered 1, 2, 3, 4...9 and 10 from left to right in that order. These ten persons have to sit on the chairs such that there is only one person in each chair. The number of persons wearing a green and a blue shirt is 2 and 3 respectively.
Additional Information:
1. No two persons wearing blue shirts sit on consecutively numbered chairs.
2. Among the persons wearing red shirts, exactly three persons always are sitting together while the remaining two never.
3. A person wearing a blue shirt and a person wearing a green shirt never is sitting on consecutively numbered chairs.
4. A person wearing a green shirt cannot sit on chairs numbered 2 or 9.
5. Persons wearing red shirts are not sitting at extreme ends.
The following table provides information about the six different seating arrangements namely I, II, III, IV, V and VI of the ten persons done by Mr. Crazy. He observed that out of all the seating arrangements done by him, there is one arrangement that is not consistent with the information stated under "Additional Information".
Q. Which of the arrangements done by Mr. Crazy is not consistent with the information stated under "Additional Information"?
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A minor league baseball franchise experienced a drop in attendance this week after they suffered three losses by margins of ten runs or more last week.  Many spectators of those games wrote letters to the editors of the local sporting news, complaining of the poor play of the team in those three losses. Nevertheless, the front office of this baseball franchise maintains that the team's poor play in those three losses has nothing to do with this week's decline in attendance.
Q. Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the position held by the front office of the baseball franchise?
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Mihir Nambiar answered  •  12 hours ago
Supporting the front office's position

Explanation:

- Option C states that other minor league teams in the region reported a similar drop in attendance this week.

- This information suggests that the decline in attendance is not unique to this particular franchise and may be influenced by external factors affecting all teams in the area.
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Reporting a 90 percent drop in net income during the second quarter, dragged down by restructuring charges and weak sales, the earnings guidance for the year was withdrawn by Best Buy Co.
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Mihir Nambiar answered  •  13 hours ago
Explanation:

Context:
- Best Buy Co. reported a 90 percent drop in net income during the second quarter.
- This drop was primarily due to restructuring charges and weak sales.
- As a result, the company withdrew its earnings guidance for the year.

Correct Answer Justification:
- Option D is the correct answer because it correctly conve
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What is the units digit for (173)4 – 19733^2, where 3^2 means 3 to the power of 2?
  • a)
    0
  • b)
    2
  • c)
    4
  • d)
    6
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Sandeep Mehra answered  •  19 hours ago

Given Problem:
The problem requires finding the units digit for the expression (173)⁴ - 19733², where 3² means 3 to the power of 2.

Steps to Solve:
1. Determine the units digit of (173)⁴:
- The units digit of 3 raised to any power repeats in a cycle of 4: 3¹ = 3, 3² = 9, 3³ = 7, 3⁴ = 1, and then the cycle repeats.
- Since 173 ends in 3, we look at
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Five years ago, the town of Bayside, in the Katonic River Valley, had catastrophic flooding one spring, and consequently, most insurers now refuse to write flood insurance for houses in Bayside. The town of Dryadia, in the Phemptic River Valley, is much like Bayside in its proximity to a similar river at an almost identical point in the river valley. We can conclude that the only reason the same insurers do not write flood insurance for houses in Dryadia either is its similarity to Bayside in terms of where it is situated in the river valley.
Q. Which of the following, if true, would most seriously undermine the argument?
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Advait Roy answered  •  22 hours ago
Undermining the Argument:

Option D:
- This option states that the town of Dryadia experiences some flooding most springs.
- This information indicates that Dryadia faces a higher risk of flooding compared to Bayside.
- If Dryadia experiences flooding more frequently than Bayside, it suggests that insurers refusing to write flood insurance for houses in Dryad
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Years ago, some in the government's intelligence community feared the work of telecommunications researchers at then-emerging private security firms. The government experts concluded that these private firms posed the biggest risk to successful government espionage. As the private security firms began publicly releasing and advertising encryption algorithms and other security products, these government experts saw support for their conclusion when an encryption algorithm that government experts could not break began appearing in countless emails.
Q. Which of the following, if true, most weakens the conclusion of the government experts referred to above?
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Advait Roy answered  •  22 hours ago


Explanation:

Background:
Years ago, government intelligence experts believed that private security firms posed the biggest risk to successful government espionage. The release of unbreakable encryption algorithms by these firms seemed to confirm their fears.

Weakening the Conclusion:

Option C:
- An open-source encry
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Virtually all health experts agree that second-hand smoke poses a serious health risk. After the publication of yet another research paper explicating the link between exposure to second-hand smoke and a shorter life span, some members of the State House of Representatives proposed a ban on smoking in most public places in an attempt to promote quality of life and length of lifespan.
Q. Which of the following, if true, provides the most support for the actions of the State Representatives?
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Advait Roy answered  •  22 hours ago

Explanation:

Relevant Data:
- The State House of Representatives proposed a ban on smoking in most public places to promote quality of life and length of lifespan.
- Second-hand smoke is known to pose a serious health risk.

Supporting Evidence:
- Option D provides the most support for the actions of the State Representatives as it pre
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Wine Company Representative: The corks of red wine bottles pose a threat to the environment because they are treated with chemicals that are especially toxic in landfills. However, the new cork that our company developed, which will be adopted by the entire red wine industry, represents a solution. Since the new cork is natural and not treated with chemicals, when the industry completes its transition to the new cork, there will no longer be any threat to landfills from red wine corks.
Q. Which of the following, if true, most weakens the argument above?
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Advait Roy answered  •  22 hours ago

Weakness in the Argument:

After the industry's transition to new corks, a large number of wine bottles with old corks will continue to be consumed.
- This weakens the argument because even though the industry may transition to using the new, environmentally friendly corks, there will still be a significant number of wine bottles with the old, toxic corks in circ
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In the twentieth century, the visual arts have embarked on major experimentation, from cubism to expressionism.  While tastes always vary, there are certainly some people who find beautiful objects of each of the art movements of the first half of the twentieth century.  In the latter half of the twentieth century, though, most works are so abstract or shocking that neither the critic nor the general public uses the word "beautiful" to describe them: indeed, sometimes late twentieth-century artists have, as one of their expressed goals, the creation of a work that no one could find beautiful.  Whatever these artists are creating may be intellectually engaging at some level, but it is no longer art.
Q. Which of the following is an assumption that supports drawing the conclusion above from the reasons given for that conclusion?
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Advait Roy answered  •  23 hours ago

Assumption Explanation:

Beauty is a defining quality of art:
- The assumption that beauty is a defining quality of art supports the conclusion that late twentieth-century works that are not considered beautiful are not art.
- If beauty is considered a defining quality of art, then works that do not possess this quality may not be classified as art.
- T
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When, on a particular shopping trip, a consumer purchases an item which he previously had no intention of purchasing, this sale is called an “impulse purchase.” The objects of impulse purchases are occasionally essential items (i.e. items that satisfy basic subsistence needs), but much more frequently are luxury or non-essential items. Researchers have determined that, at the end of a shopping trip, a consumer is much more excited if she has bought a luxury item on an impulse purchase, than if she had made no impulse purchases.

Q. If the information above is true, and if the researchers’ investigation was properly conducted, then which of the following must also be true?
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Moumita Sen answered  •  yesterday


Explanation:

Determining whether the consumer had planned to buy the luxury item:
- The researchers' conclusion is based on the premise that consumers are more excited when they make impulse purchases of luxury items.
- To properly assess this, the researchers must have had a reliable way to determine whether the consumer had initially planned to buy
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ABC and BDC are two triangles as shown in the given figure. If BDC is an isosceles triangle in which BD = DC. Find the value of ∠BDC.
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Anvesha Pandey answered  •  yesterday
Given:-ABC and BDC are two triangles
Now BDC is isoceles triangle
BD=DC

To find:- Angle BDC =?
Solution:- Since BD=DC
Using Isoceles triangle property,
Angle DBC = Angle DCB = Angle 'x'
[We are naming it as X for our. convenience]

Now, In triangle ABC, ... more

Susan invited 13 of her friends for her birthday party and created return gift hampers comprising one each of $3, $4, and $5 gift certificates. One of her friends did not turn up and Susan decided to rework her gift hampers such that each of the 12 friends who turned up got $13 worth gift certificates. How many gift hampers did not contain $5 gift certificates in the new configuration?
  • a)
    5
  • b)
    2
  • c)
    9
  • d)
    3
  • e)
    7
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Nandita Chauhan answered  •  yesterday

Given information:
- 13 friends were invited to Susan's birthday party.
- Each return gift hamper originally contained $3, $4, and $5 gift certificates.
- One friend did not turn up, so Susan reworked the gift hampers for the 12 friends who attended.
- Each of the 12 friends who turned up received $13 worth of gift certificates in the new configuration.

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Every time a business grants financial credit to an individual, the business assumes risk. In order to evaluate the risk, a business must have correct information about that individual’s financial history. It is true that credit bureaus, which compile such information from computerized records, have been accused of invading the consumer’s right to privacy. If, however, only limited restrictions are placed on the availability of such information to businesses, those businesses will be able to reduce their overall exposure to risk by giving credit only to people with good credit ratings while at the same time extending larger amounts of credit to more people. This way credit bureaus can, in fact, prevent the foolhardy consumer from becoming seriously overextended.
In the passage above, the author assumes which of the following?
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Pioneer Academy answered  •  yesterday
Conclusion: This way [by placing only limited restrictions on the availability of information about an individual’s financial history to businesses] credit bureaus can prevent the foolhardy consumer from becoming seriously overextended.
Premise: Every time a business grants financial credit to an individual, the business assumes risk. In order to evaluate the risk, a business must have correct information about that individual's financial history. It is true that credit bureaus, which compile such information from computerized records, have been accused of invading the consumer's right to privacy. If, only limited restrictions are placed on the availability of such information to businesses, those businesses will be able to reduce their overall exposure to risk by giving credit only to people with good credit ratings while at the same time extending larger amounts of credit to more people.
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A contractor employed some workers to finish construction of a road in a certain scheduled time. Sometime later, when a part of work had been completed, he realised that the work would get delayed by three-fourth of the sched... more

Prateek Gupta answered  •  2 days ago

Solution:

Given:
- Initially, the work was scheduled to be completed in a certain time.
- Later, the work was delayed by three-fourth of the scheduled time.
- The contractor doubled the number of workers to finish the road on the scheduled time.

Let's assume:
- Let the total work to be completed be represented by 1.
- Let x
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Mrs. Brown is dividing 50 students into 3 groups for a class project. How many children are in the largest group?
(1) The total number of children in the two smaller groups is equal to the number of children in the largest group.
(2) The smallest group contains 6 children.
  • a)
    Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient
  • b)
    Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient
  • c)
    Both statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient
  • d)
    EACH statement ALONE is sufficient
  • e)
    Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Prateek Gupta answered  •  2 days ago

Statement Analysis:

Statement 1: The total number of children in the two smaller groups is equal to the number of children in the largest group.

This statement alone is sufficient to determine the number of children in the largest group. If the two smaller groups have a total of 25 students, then the largest group would also have 25 students.

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If the area of a certain circle is x then the circumfernce is equal to?

Prateek Gupta answered  •  2 days ago





Calculation of Circumference of a Circle


Area of the Circle:



  • Let's assume the area of the circle is represented by x.

  • The formula to calculate the area of a circle is A = πr^2, where A is the area and r is the radius of the circle.

  • So, x = πr^2



Finding the Circumference:



  • The formula to calculate the circumference of a circle is C = 2πr, where C is the circumference and r is the radius of the circle.

  • We know that the area of the circle is x, so we can rearrange the formula for the area to find the radius: r = √(x/π).

  • Substitute the radius into the formula for the circumference: C = 2π(√(x/π))

  • Simplify the equation to get the circumference in terms of x: C = 2√(πx)



Conclusion:



  • Therefore, if the area of a certain circle is x, then the circumference is equal to 2√(πx).




The author Herman Melville and the poet Walt Whitman are icons of American literature,greatly beloved by generations past and present.
  • a)
    The author Herman Melville and the poet Walt Whitman are icons
  • b)
    Herman Melville the author and Walt Whitman the poet are icons
  • c)
    The author named Herman Melville and the poet named Walt Whitman are great icons
  • d)
    The author, Herman Melville, and the poet, Walt Whitman, are icons
  • e)
    Herman Melville, the author, and Walt Whitman, the poet, had been icons
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Prateek Gupta answered  •  2 days ago

Explanation:

Identifying the Correct Option:
The correct option is 'a) The author Herman Melville and the poet Walt Whitman are icons' because it maintains parallel structure by using the same format for both individuals (author and poet) and clearly states their significance in American literature.

Breaking Down the Options:
Let's analyze
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Jean-Jacques Rousseau contended that man is good only when in "the state of nature" but is corrupted by society, that compels man to compare himself to others.
  • a)
    man is good only when in "the state of nature" but is corrupted by society, that
  • b)
    only man is good when in "the state of nature" but is corrupted by society, that
  • c)
    man is good when in "the state of nature" but is corrupted only by society, that
  • d)
    only man is good when in "the state of nature" but is corrupted by society, which
  • e)
    man is good only when in "the state of nature" but is corrupted by society, which
Correct answer is option 'E'. Can you explain this answer?

Prateek Gupta answered  •  2 days ago
A state of nature, free from the corrupting influences of society. He believed that society and civilization imposed artificial constraints on individuals, leading to their moral corruption and alienation from their true nature. Rousseau argued that in a state of nature, individuals were guided by their natural instincts and were inherently good and compassionate towards one another. It was only t... more

3. Below are given the yields per acre of wheat for six plots entering a crop competition, there of the plots being sown with wheat of variety A and three with B. Variety. Yields in Fields per acre 1. 2. 3 A. 30. 32. 22 B. 20... more

Kavya Chakraborty answered  •  3 days ago





Analysis of Variance Table


Between Varieties


  • Variety A Mean Yield: 28 (30+32+22)/3

  • Variety B Mean Yield: 18 (20+18+16)/3

  • Overall Mean: 23

  • Sum of Squares Between: 180 ((30-23)^2 + (32-23)^2 + (22-23)^2) + ((20-23)^2 + (18-23)^2 + (16-23)^2)

  • Degrees of Freedom: 1

  • Mean Square Between: 180



Within Plots


  • Sum of Squares Within: 70 ((30-28)^2 + (32-28)^2 + (22-28)^2) + ((20-18)^2 + (18-18)^2 + (16-18)^2)

  • Degrees of Freedom: 4

  • Mean Square Within: 17.5



Total Variability


  • Total Sum of Squares: 250

  • Total Degrees of Freedom: 5



F-Value Calculation


F = Mean Square Between / Mean Square Within
F = 180 / 17.5
F = 10.29

Conclusion


The calculated F-value of 10.29 is greater than the table value of 7.71 at 5% level of significance. Therefore, the difference between the yields of the two varieties A and B is statistically significant.


GMAT vs CAT: Which is easy?

Mihir Ghoshal answered  •  4 days ago



GMAT vs CAT: Which is easy?



GMAT
- The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is a standardized test used for admission to business schools.
- The GMAT consists of four sections: Analytical Writing Assessment, Integrated Reasoning, Quantitative, and Verbal.
- The GMAT is known for its challenging quantitative and verbal sec
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What is the cost to fence a rectangular plot at the rate of $20/meter?
(1) If length of the plot is increased by 10 meters, the area of the plot increases by 100 sq. m.
(2) If length of the plot is increased by 10% and width of the plot is decreased by 10%, the perimeter decreases by 5%.
  • a)
    Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient.
  • b)
    Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient. 
  • c)
    BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. 
  • d)
    EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. 
  • e)
    Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Niti Choudhury answered  •  4 days ago
Analysis


Statement 1:

Increased Area with Increased Length

- Let the original length be L and width be W.
- The original area = L * W.
- The new length = L + 10 and new area = (L + 10) * W.
- Given that the new area is 100 sq. m more than the original area.

Statement 2:

Changes in Dimensions affecting Perimeter

- Let the original length be L and width be W.
- The new length = 1.1L and the new width = 0.9W.
- The new perimeter = 2(1.1L + 0.9W) = 2.2L + 1.8W.
- The original perimeter = 2L + 2W.
- Given that the new perimeter is 5% less than the original perimeter.

Solution


Using Both Statements Together

- From statement 1, we have the relationship between the original and new areas.
- From statement 2, we have the relationship between the original and new perimeters.
- We can now set up equations involving length, width, area, and perimeter to solve for the dimensions of the original rectangle.
- Once we have the original dimensions, we can calculate the cost to fence the plot at $20/meter.

Conclusion

- Both statements together provide enough information to determine the original dimensions of the plot and calculate the cost to fence it.
- Therefore, the correct answer is option C: BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

The scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environment, ecology, which is a very dynamic subject, an interdisciplinary field that encompasses biology and Earth sciences, are said to have its foundation in the studies made by Aristotle and Hippocrates.
... more

Siddharth Pillai answered  •  4 days ago

Explanation:

Subject-Verb Agreement:
In this sentence, the subject "ecology" is singular, so the verb should also be singular. Therefore, the correct form of the verb is "is" instead of "are."

Parallel Structure:
The sentence describes ecology as both a dynamic subject and an interdisciplinary field. To maintain parallel structure, both de
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The number of votes not cast for the PNC Party increased by 25% in the National General Election over those not cast for it in the previous Assembly Polls, and the PNC Party lost by a majority twice as large as that by which ... more

Nilotpal Sen answered  •  5 days ago

Given Data:

- Total number of votes in both the National General Election and the previous Assembly Polls = 2,60,000
- Increase in the number of votes not cast for the PNC Party in the National General Election = 25%
- The PNC Party lost by a majority twice as large as that by which it had won the Assembly Polls

Solution:

Step 1: Ca
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- Let x be the number of votes not cast for the PNC Party in the previous Assembly Polls
- In the National General Election, the number of votes not cast for the PNC Party = x + 0.25x = 1.25x

Step 2: Calculate the number of votes cast for the PNC Party in the National General Election:
- Number of votes cast for the PNC Party in the National General Election = Total number of votes - Votes not cast for the PNC Party
- Number of votes cast for the PNC Party in the National General Election = 2,60,000 - 1.25x

Step 3: Calculate the number of votes cast for the PNC Party in the previous Assembly Polls:
- Let y be the number of votes cast for the PNC Party in the previous Assembly Polls
- According to the given data, the PNC Party lost by a majority twice as large as that by which it had won the Assembly Polls
- This implies that the number of votes cast for the PNC Party in the Assembly Polls = y + 2(y - 1.25x)

Step 4: Calculate the number of votes cast for the PNC Party in the previous Assembly Polls:
- As the total number of votes in both the National General Election and the previous Assembly Polls is 2,60,000
- Therefore, y + 2(y - 1.25x) = 2,60,000
- Solving this equation will give you the number of votes cast for the PNC Party in the previous Assembly Polls.

By following these steps, you can calculate the number of votes cast for the PNC Party in the previous Assembly Polls.

The following Venn-Diagram shows the number of students taking the classes of Physics, Chemistry and Math. Analyzing the figure shown, answer the following questions.


Q. If we double the number of students in the category of Math keeping the same number of students in the other categories, what will be the effect on the probability of students taking Chemistry?
  • a)
    Increases
  • b)
    Decreases
  • c)
    Remains Same
  • d)
    Can't Be Determined
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Siddharth Chandel answered  •  5 days ago
The Decrease option presumes that :
Increase in Students of Mathematics i.e double the no. of students are those students who only study Mathematics. Whether the increased number. of students are students also studying Chemistry that remains a fact to be stated and cleared. If few of the students also happen to study Chemistry then from above information or data : THE PROBABILITY OF STUDENTS
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Can you explain the answer of this question below:

Alice, while driving to her workplace completes an initial distance of 50 miles in 2 hours and remaining 60 miles in 3 hours. What is the average speed in miles per hour for her entire journey?

  • A:

    22

  • B:

    22.5

  • C:

    40

  • D:

    45

  • E:

    50

The answer is a.

Athul Joshi answered  •  5 days ago

Given information:
Alice completes an initial distance of 50 miles in 2 hours and the remaining 60 miles in 3 hours.

Calculating average speed:
To find the average speed for the entire journey, we need to calculate the total distance and total time taken.

Calculating total distance:
Total distance = initial distance + remaining distan
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Machine X can complete a job in half the time it takes Machine Y to complete the same job, and Machine Z takes 50% longer than Machine X to complete the job. If all three machines always work at their respective, constant rates, what is the ratio of the amount of time it will take Machines X and Z to complete the job to the ratio of the amount of time it will take Machines Y and Z to complete the job?
  • a)
    5 to 1
  • b)
    10 to 7
  • c)
    1 to 5
  • d)
    7 to 10
  • e)
    9 to 10
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Snehal Banerjee answered  •  5 days ago

Ratio of Time for Machines X and Z vs. Machines Y and Z:

Machine X completes the job in half the time of Machine Y, so if Machine Y takes 2 units of time, then Machine X takes 1 unit of time (since X is twice as fast as Y).

Time taken by Machines:
- Machine X: 1 unit
- Machine Y: 2 units

Machine Z takes 50% longer than Machine X, which
... more
Harman Sodhi asked a question

PASSAGE:Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the United States unprecedented opportunities-as well as new and significant risks.  Civil rights activists have long argued that one of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics and the other minority groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the sizable orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies.  Now congress, in apparent agreement, has required by law that businesses awarded federal contracts of more than $500,000 do their best to find minority subcontractors and record their efforts to do so on forms field with the government.  Indeed, some federal and local agencies have gone so far as to set specific percentage goals for apportioning parts of public works contracts to minority enterprises.  
Corporate response appears to have been substantial.  Accoring to figures collected in 1977, the total of corporate contracts with minority business rose from $77 to $1. 1 billion in 1977.  The projected total of corporate contracts with minority business for the early 1980’s is estimated to be over $3 billion per year with no letup anticipated in the next decade. Promising as it is for minority businesses, this increased patronage poses dangers for them, too.  First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and overextending themselves financially, since most are small concerns and, unlike large businesses they often need to make substantial investments in new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order to perform work subcontracted to them.  If, there after, their subcontracts are for some reason reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling fixed expenses.  The world of corporate purchasing can be frustrating for small entrepreneur’s who get requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids.  Both consume valuable time and resources and a small cmpany’s efforts must soon result in orders, or both the morale and the financial health of the business will suffer.
A second risk is that White-owned companies may-seek to cash inon the increasing apportion-ments through formation of joint ventures with minority-owned concerns, of course, in many instances there are legitimate reasons for joint ventures; clearly, white and minority enterprises can team up to acquire business that neither could Third, a minority enterprise that secures the business of one large corporate customer often runs the danger of becoming – and remaining dependent.  Even in the best of circumstances, fierce competition from larger, more established companies makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden their customer bases; when such firms have nearly guaranteed orders from a single corporate benefactor, they may truly have to struggle against complacency arising from their current success.
Q. The passage suggests that the failure of a large business to have its bids for subcontracts results quickly in order might cause it to 
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