All India UPSC Group

With reference to the Megalith, consider the following statements:
1. A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.
2. The construction of these structures took place mainly in the Neolithic period and continued into the Chalcolithic period and the Bronze Age.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 only
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Tirupati district is dotted with anthropomorphic burial sites, said to be the largest as a collection in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Anthropomorphic sites are those marked by a representation of human form above the megalithic burials.
  • The most prominent one is the ‘pillared dolmen’ of the megalithic era, found at Mallayyagaripalle, nestling on a hillock between Chandragiri and Dornakambala, in Tirupati.
  • The structure locally referred to as ‘Pandava Gullu’ or ‘Pandavula Banda’ in memory of the Pandavas, is estimated to be 2,500 years old.
  • There is another endangered megalith monument in Palem village near Kallur, which resembles a bull’s horn. It is called locally as ‘Devara Yeddhu’.
  • Another megalithic burial site in Venkatapuram is the ‘stone circle’, where the tomb is surrounded by round stones arranged in a circle.
Megalith:
  • A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.
  • The word megalithic describes structures made of such large stones without the use of mortar or concrete, representing periods of prehistory characterised by such constructions.
  • The construction of these structures took place mainly in the Neolithic period and continued into the Chalcolithic period and the Bronze Age.
Hence both statements are correct.

With reference to the Monkeypox, consider the following statements:
1. It is an orthopoxvirus.
2. It is a zoonosis, that is, a disease that is transmitted from infected animals to humans.
Which of the statements given above is/are not correct?
  • a)
    1 only
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

A study published recently in BMJ, which involves a larger cohort, found that pre-symptomatic transmission of monkeypox virus had taken place as long as four days before symptoms manifested.
  • The monkeypox virus is an orthopoxvirus, which is a genus of viruses that also includes the variola virus, which causes smallpox, and vaccinia virus, which was used in the smallpox vaccine.
  • Monkeypox causes symptoms similar to smallpox, although they are less severe.
  • While vaccination eradicated smallpox worldwide in 1980, monkeypox continues to occur in a swathe of countries in Central and West Africa, and has on occasion showed up elsewhere.
  • According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), two distinct clade are identified:
    • the West African clade and
    • the Congo Basin clade, also known as the Central African clade.
  • Monkeypox is a zoonosis, that is, a disease that is transmitted from infected animals to humans.
  • Cases occur close to tropical rainforests inhabited by animals that carry the virus.
  • Monkeypox virus infection has been detected in squirrels, Gambian poached rats, dormice, and some species of monkeys.
  • Human-to-human transmission is, however, limited. Transmission, when it occurs, can be through contact with bodily fluids, lesions on the skin or on internal mucosal surfaces, such as in the mouth or throat, respiratory droplets and contaminated objects.
Hence both statements are correct.

With reference to the Currency Monitoring List, consider the following statements:
1. The Trade Facilitation and Trade Enforcement Act of 2015 of US requires its Treasury Department to report to the Congress in every six months if any country is manipulating its currencies to gain trade advantages over the US.
2. Significant trade surplus with the US (at least $20 billion in 12 months) is one of the three criteria that US Treasury looks at in placing a country on the watch list.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 only
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

The US Department of Treasury recently removed India along with Italy, Mexico, Thailand and Vietnam from its Currency Monitoring List of major trading partners that merit close attention to their currency practices and macroeconomic policies.
  • India had been on the list for the last two years.
  • China, Japan, Korea, Germany, Malaysia, Singapore, and Taiwan are the seven economies that are a part of the current monitoring list.
  • The countries that have been removed from the list have met only one out of three criteria for two consecutive reports.
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With reference to the COVID-19 Vaccine Delivery Partnership (COVAX), consider the following statements:
1. It was launched by WHO, UNICEF, and Gavi and the World Bank, to intensify country readiness and delivery support.
2. It aimed at accelerating COVID-19 vaccination coverage in 34 low coverage countries, along with their governments.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 only
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

According to the Global Dashboard for Vaccine Equity recent data only one in four people has been vaccinated with at least one dose in low and middle income countries as of November 9, 2022. In comparison, in high income countries, three in four people have got at least one dose of the vaccine.
  • The Global Dashboard for Vaccine Equity is a joint effort by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the University of Oxford with cooperation across the UN system.
  • It combines the latest data on the global roll-out of COVID-19 vaccines with the “most recent socio-economic information to illustrate why accelerating vaccine equity is not only critical to saving lives but also to driving a faster and fairer recovery from the pandemic with benefits for all”.
Vaccine equity:
  • It means everyone in the world has the same access to vaccines.
Efforts to reduce vaccine inequity:
  • The COVID-19 Vaccine Delivery Partnership (COVAX), a collective international effort with ‘One Country Team’, ‘One Plan’, and ‘One Budget’.
  • It was launched by WHO, UNICEF, and Gavi and the World Bank, to intensify country readiness and delivery support.
  • It aimed at accelerating COVID-19 vaccination coverage in 34 low coverage countries, along with their governments.
Hence both statements are correct.

With reference to the Indian skimmer, consider the following statements:
1. It is listed as vulnerable in IUCN Red list.
2. About 20% of the total population of fewer than 2,500 birds nest along river Chambal.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 only
  • b)
    2 only
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Indian skimmer is seen in huge flocks during winter in Coringa wildlife sanctuary (Kakinada).
  • A thick, orange-yellow bill with a slightly longer lower mandible (jaw) is one of the most striking features of the Indian skimmer (Rynchops albicollis).
  • The Indian skimmer grows to a length of 40-43 cm.
Distribution:
  • More widespread in winter, the Indian skimmer is found in the coastal estuaries of western and eastern India.
  • It occurs primarily on larger, sandy, lowland rivers, around lakes and adjacent marshes and, in the non-breeding season, in estuaries and coasts.
  • About 20% of the total population of fewer than 2,500 birds nest along river Chambal.
Threat:
  • Its population is declining primarily because of the degradation of wetland and riverine habitats.
  • The damming of the Chambal River, in upstream Rajasthan, has adversely affected its population at National Chambal Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, due to the dropping water levels allowing predators and livestock access to breeding islands.
Conservation:
  • IUCN: Endangered
  • In 2020, Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS) have initiated a ‘Guardians of the Skimmer’ programme, which is a community-based conservation initiative.
  • BNHS in collaboration with Bird Count India have also initiated ‘Indian Skimmer Count’-a citizen science initiative.
Hence only statement 2 is correct.

एकलव्य आदर्श आवासीय विद्यालय (ईएमआरएस) के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिएः
1. EMRS की योजना वर्ष 1997-98 में शुरू की गई थी ताकि यह सुनिश्चित किया जा सके कि आदिवासी छात्रों को दूरस्थ आदिवासी क्षेत्रों में गुणवत्तापूर्ण शिक्षा प्राप्त हो सके।
2. केंद्रीय गृह मंत्रालय कार्यान्वयन मंत्रालय है।
ऊपर दिए गए कथनों में से कौन सा सही है/हैं?
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जनजातीय मामलों के मंत्रालय ने सभी उप-जिलों में 15 एकड़ भूमि पर नए एकलव्य मॉडल आवासीय विद्यालय (ईएमआरएस) बनाने की अपनी योजना को आगे बढ़ाने का इरादा किया है, जिसमें 20,000 से अधिक लोगों के अनुसूचित जनजाति समुदाय हैं, जो कम से कम 50% बनाते हैं। उनकी कुल आबादी, एक संसदीय पैनल के कहने के बावजूद कि यह मानदंड "अव्यावहारिक" है।
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सर सीपी रामास्वामी अय्यर के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिये:
1. वह 1936 से 1947 तक तत्कालीन त्रावणकोर रियासत के दीवान थे।
2. उनकी नीतियों के कारण पुन्नपरा-वायलार विद्रोह जैसे बड़े पैमाने पर विद्रोह हुआ।
ऊपर दिए गए कथनों में से कौन सा सही है/हैं?
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JKL Classes answered
हाल ही में वरिष्ठ भाजपा नेता प्रकाश जावड़ेकर और राज्य के शिक्षा मंत्री वी शिवनकुट्टी ने तत्कालीन त्रावणकोर दीवान सर सीपी रामास्वामी अय्यर पर आरोप लगाए थे।
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'दवा मुक्त बचपन का अधिकार' पर अंतर्राष्ट्रीय मंच के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिये:
1. यह फोर्थ वेव फाउंडेशन (FWF) द्वारा संयुक्त राष्ट्र कार्यालय ड्रग्स एंड क्राइम (UNODC) और वर्ल्ड फेडरेशन अगेंस्ट ड्रग्स (WFAD) के साथ साझेदारी में आयोजित किया जाता है।
2. 'वेंडा' (नो टू ड्रग्स) फोर्थ वेव फाउंडेशन की एक पहल है।
ऊपर दिए गए कथनों में से कौन सा सही है/हैं?
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JKL Classes answered
संयुक्त राष्ट्र समर्थित कॉन्क्लेव 16 नवंबर को तिरुवनंतपुरम में खुलेगा, जिसमें भारत और विदेशों से नशीली दवाओं के दुरुपयोग के खिलाफ प्रमुख आवाजें होंगी।
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प्रवासी पक्षी प्रजातियों के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिएः
1. दिल्ली-एनसीआर में भारत में पाई जाने वाली कुल पक्षी प्रजातियों का लगभग एक तिहाई हिस्सा है।
2. सुल्तानपुर राष्ट्रीय उद्यान गुजरात में स्थित है।
ऊपर दिए गए कथनों में से कौन सा सही है/हैं?
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सर्दियों की शुरुआत के साथ, कई प्रवासी पक्षी प्रजातियों ने आर्द्रभूमि में आना शुरू कर दिया है।
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चालू खाता घाटा के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिएः
1. चालू खाता माल और सेवाओं में निर्यात एवं आयात और अंतरण अदायगी को रिकॉर्ड करता है।
2. भुगतान संतुलन ( बीओपी ) में चालू खाता और पूंजी खाता शामिल है।
ऊपर दिए गए कथनों में से कौन सा सही है/हैं?
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स्टेट बैंक ऑफ इंडिया के अनुसार, बढ़ते सॉफ्टवेयर निर्यात, प्रेषण और स्वैप सौदों के माध्यम से विदेशी मुद्रा भंडार में संभावित $ 5 बिलियन की वृद्धि क कारण, चालू खाता घाटा 3.5% की न्यूनतम आम सहमति के मुकाबले चालू वित्त वर्ष के लिए 3% होने की संभावना है।
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मेगालिथ के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिएः
1. मेगालिथ एक बड़ा पत्थर है जिसका उपयोग अकेले या अन्य पत्थरों के साथ एक संरचना या स्मारक के निर्माण के लिए किया गया है।
2. इन संरचनाओं का निर्माण मुख्य रूप से नवपाषाण काल में हुआ और ताम्रपाषाण काल और कांस्य युग तक जारी रहा।
ऊपर दिए गए कथनों में से कौन सा सही है/हैं?
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तिरुपति जिला एंथ्रोपोमोर्फिक दफन स्थलों से युक्त है, जिसे आंध्र प्रदेश में संग्रह के रूप में सबसे बड़ा कहा जाता है।
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मंकीपॉक्स के संदर्भ में , निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिएः
1. यह एक ऑर्थोपॉक्सवायरस है ।
2. यह एक जूनोसिस है, यानी एक ऐसी बीमारी है जो संक्रमित जानवरों से इंसानों में फैलती है।
ऊपर दिए गए कथनों में से कौन-सा/से सही नहीं है/हैं ?
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बीएमजे में हाल ही में प्रकाशित एक अध्ययन, जिसमें एक बड़ा समूह शामिल है, ने पाया कि मंकीपॉक्स वायरस का पूर्व-लक्षणात्मक संचरण लक्षण प्रकट होने से चार दिन पहले हुआ था।
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मुद्रा निगरानी सूची के संदर्भ में, निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:
1. यूएस के 2015 के व्यापार सुविधा और व्यापार प्रवर्तन अधिनियम के लिए अपने ट्रेजरी विभाग को हर छह महीने में कांग्रेस को रिपोर्ट करने की आवश्यकता है यदि कोई देश अमेरिका पर व्यापार लाभ हासिल करने के लिए अपनी मुद्राओं में हेरफेर कर रहा है।
2. अमेरिका के साथ महत्वपूर्ण व्यापार अधिशेष (12 महीनों में कम से कम $20 बिलियन) एक देश को निगरानी सूची में रखने के लिए अमेरिकी ट्रेजरी द्वारा देखे जाने वाले तीन मानदंडों में से एक है।
ऊपर दिए गए कथनों में से कौन सा सही है/हैं?
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अमेरिकी ट्रेजरी विभाग ने हाल ही में इटली, मैक्सिको, थाईलैंड और वियतनाम के साथ भारत को प्रमुख व्यापारिक साझेदारों की अपनी मुद्रा निगरानी सूची से हटा दिया है, जो उनकी मुद्रा प्रथाओं और व्यापक आर्थिक नीतियों पर ध्यान देने योग्य है।
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COVID-19 वैक्सीन डिलीवरी पार्टनरशिप (COVAX) के संदर्भ में, निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार करें:
1. इसे WHO, UNICEF, और Gavi और विश्व बैंक द्वारा देश की तत्परता और वितरण सहायता को तेज करने के लिए लॉन्च किया गया था।
2. इसका उद्देश्य 34 कम कवरेज वाले देशों में उनकी सरकारों के साथ-साथ कोविड-19 टीकाकरण कवरेज में तेजी लाना है।
ऊपर दिए गए कथनों में से कौन सा सही है/हैं?
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वैक्सीन इक्विटी के लिए ग्लोबल डैशबोर्ड के हालिया आंकड़ों के अनुसार, 9 नवंबर, 2022 तक कम और मध्यम आय वाले देशों में चार में से केवल एक व्यक्ति को कम से कम एक खुराक दी गई है। इसकी तुलना में, उच्च आय वाले देशों में, चार में से तीन लोगों को टीके की कम से कम एक खुराक लगायी गई है।
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भारतीय स्किमर के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिएः
1. इसे IUCN रेड लिस्ट में असुरक्षित के रूप में सूचीबद्ध किया गया है।
2. 2,500 से कम पक्षियों की कुल आबादी का लगभग 20% चंबल नदी के किनारे घोंसला बनाता है।
ऊपर दिए गए कथनों में से कौन सा सही है/हैं?
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JKL Classes answered
इंडियन स्किमर सर्दियों के दौरान कोरिंगा वन्यजीव अभयारण्य (काकीनाडा) में विशाल झुंड में देखा जाता है।
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The intangible cultural heritage that can be inscribed into the UN’s list of intangible cultural heritage (ICH) include
  1. oral traditions
  2. performing arts
  3. social practices
  4. festive events
  5. knowledge and practices concerning nature
Select the correct answer code:
  • a)
    1, 2, 3, 4 
  • b)
    2, 3, 4, 5 
  • c)
    1, 3, 4, 5 
  • d)
    1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

  • Baguette — the staple French bread — was inscribed into the UN’s list of intangible cultural heritage (ICH). The baguette is a long and thin loaf made of flour, water, salt and yeast, and is consumed as a staple in France.
  • According to an official document by UNESCO, ‘intangible cultural heritage’ includes “oral traditions, performing arts, soc... more

Consider the following statements.
  1. DigiYatra envisages that travellers pass through various checkpoints at the airport through paperless and contactless processing.
  2. DigiYatra works on facial recognition technology.
  3. DigiYatra Foundation is a joint-venture company, where Airports Authority of India is a majority shareholder.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 only 
  • b)
    1, 2 
  • c)
    1, 3 
  • d)
    1, 2 and 3
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

  • The government has introduced paperless entry at select airports to make air travel hassle-free. Under this initiative, airports will use a facial recognition software called ‘DigiYatra’ for entry.
  • DigiYatra envisages that travellers pass through various checkpoints at the airport through paperless and contactless processing, using facial features to establish their i... more
  • Facial recognition technology is beneficial as it makes flying more convenient and reduces congestion at airports.
  • The project is being implemented by the DigiYatra Foundation — a joint-venture company whose shareholders are the Airports Authority of India (26% stake) and Bengaluru Airport, Delhi Airport, Hyderabad Airport, Mumbai Airport and Cochin International Airport. These five shareholders equally hold the remaining 74% of the shares.

Consider the following statements.
  1. Geothermal gradient is the rate of temperature change with respect to increasing depth in Earth’s interior.
  2. Magma is lighter than solid rock and hence it rises.
  3. Usually Magma that is thick and sticky leads to explosive volcanic eruptions, compared to magmathat has low viscosity.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    1, 2 
  • b)
    1, 3 
  • c)
    2, 3 
  • d)
    1, 2, 3
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

  • The geothermal gradient, the amount that the Earth’s temperature increases with depth, indicates heat flowing from the Earth’s warm interior to its surface. At a certain depth, the heat is such that it melts rocks and creates what geologists call ‘magma’.
  • Magma is lighter than solid rock and hence it rises, collecting in magma chambers. Chambers whic... more
  • In simple terms, runny magma makes for less explosive volcanic eruptions that typically are less dangerous. Since the magma is runny, gasses are able to escape, leading to a steady but relatively gentle flow of lava out of the mouth of the volcano. The eruption at Mauna Loa is of this kind. Since the lava flows out at a slow pace, people typically have enough time to move out of the way.
  • If magma is thick and sticky, it makes it harder for gasses to escape on a consistent basis. This leads to a build-up of pressure until a breaking point is reached. At this time, the gasses escape violently, all at once, causing an explosion. Mount Vesuvius, which obliterated the city of Pompeii, is an example of an explosive volcano.
  • The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) is a scale used to measure the explosivity of a volcano. It has a range of 1 to 8 with a higher VEI indicating more explosivity.

Consider the following statements.
  1. Phytoremediation is a remediation method that uses living organisms like plants, microalgae, and seaweeds to reduce the concentrations or toxic effects of contaminants in the environment.
  2. Metals like cadmium, cobalt, nickel, lead and organic pollutants can be easily removed from the soil through Phytoremediation.
  3. Hyperaccumulator plants slows down the process of Phytoremediation.
Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?
  • a)
    1 only 
  • b)
    1, 2 
  • c)
    2, 3 
  • d)
    1, 3
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

JKL Classes answered
  • “Phytoremediation”, a remediation method that uses living organisms like plants, microalgae, and seaweeds. One particular way to remove toxic heavy metals from the soil includes the use of “hyperaccumulator” plants that absorb these substances from the soil.
  • Phytoremediation refers to the usage of “hyperaccumulator” plants to absorb the toxic m... more
  • This process can be used to remove metals like silver, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead and zinc; metalloids such as arsenic and selenium; some radionuclides; and non-metallic components such as boron. But it cannot be used to remove organic pollutants from the ground due to metabolic breakdown.

Consider the following statements.
  1. Article 3 of the Constitution gives the Supreme Court of India exclusive jurisdiction to decide on the boundaries of states.
  2. The State Reorganisation Act that was passed in 1956, was based on the findings of the Justice Fazal Ali Commission.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 only 
  • b)
    2 only 
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2 
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

JKL Classes answered
  • Karnataka has cited Article 3 of the Constitution to argue that the Supreme Court does not have the jurisdiction to decide the borders of states, and only Parliament has the power to do so.
  • The State Reorganisation Act was passed by the Parliament in 1956. The Act was based on the findings of the Justice Fazal Ali Commission, which was appointed in 1953 and submitted its report t... more

Consider the following statements regarding In-camera proceedings.
  1. In-camera proceedings are conducted as per the court’s discretion in sensitive matters to ensure protection and privacy of the parties involved.
  2. In the In-camera proceedings, to maintain the freedom of press, the press is allowed to report on the matter being heard, without the permission of the court.
  3. Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) has detailed the types of cases that should be recorded on camera.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    1only 
  • b)
    1, 2 
  • c)
    1, 3 
  • d)
    1, 2, 3
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

  • In-camera proceedings are private, unlike open court proceedings. Conducted as per the court’s discretion in sensitive matters to ensure protection and privacy of the parties involved, the proceedings are usually held through video conferencing or in closed chambers, from which the public and press are excluded.
  • In an open court or open justice system, which is the usual co... more
  • Section 327 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) has detailed the types of cases that should be recorded on camera, including inquiry into and trial in rape case.
  • The said section states that if the presiding judge or a magistrate thinks fit, she can order at any stage of the proceedings that the public generally, or any particular person, shall not remain present in the courtroom or the court building.
  • Section 327 of the CrPC states that it shall not be lawful to publish any matter in relation to in-camera proceedings except with the previous permission of the court. It adds that the ban on publishing of trial proceedings for offence of rape may be lifted subject to maintaining confidentiality of name and address of the parties.
  • In-camera proceedings are usually conducted at family courts in cases of matrimonial disputes, including judicial separation, divorce proceedings, impotence, and more. In-camera proceedings are also conducted during the deposition of witnesses of terrorist activities as per the court’s discretion, so as to protect them and maintain national security.

Consider the following statements.
  1. In India, the Ministryof Agriculture & Farmers Welfare has declared millets as “Nutri Cereals”.
  2. Generally Millets are high in proteins compared to carbohydrates and dietary fibre.
  3. The year 2022 was the International Year of Millets, adopted by United Nations General Assembly (UNGA).
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 and 2 only 
  • b)
    1 only 
  • c)
    1 and 3 only 
  • d)
    1, 2 and 3
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

  • Millets are considered to be “powerhouses of nutrition”. On April 10, 2018, the Agriculture Ministry declared millets as “Nutri Cereals”. 
  • The Story of Millets published by the Karnataka State Department of Agriculture in association with ICAR-Indian Institute of Millets Research, Hyderabad, says, “Millets contain 7-12% protein, 2-5% fat, 65-75%... more
  • On March 3, 2021, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) adopted a resolution to declare 2023 as the International Year of Millets. The proposal was moved by India, and was supported by 72 countries.

Consider the following statements.
  1. Family Planning Logistics Management Information System is a dedicated software to ensure procurement and distribution of family planning commodities across all the levels of health facilities.
  2. Mission Parivar Vikas aims to accelerate access to high-quality family planning choices and to successfully increase the modern Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (mCPR).
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 only 
  • b)
    2 only 
  • c)
    Both 1 and 2 
  • d)
    Neither 1 nor 2
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

  • Family Planning Logistics Management Information System — a dedicated software to ensure the smooth forecasting, procurement and distribution of family planning commodities across all the levels of health facilities.
  • Mission Parivar Vikas aims to accelerate access to high-quality family planning choices, to successfully increase the modern Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (mCP... more

Consider the following statements.
  1. Recently the monkeypox has spread mainly in the United States and Europe, primarily among men who have sex with men (MSM).
  2. Monkeypox was named because the virus that causes the disease was first discovered in captive monkeys.
  3.  Assigning names to new and existing diseases is the responsibility of World Health Organisation (WHO) under the International Classification of Diseases (ICD).
Which of the above statement sis/are correct?
  • a)
    1, 2 
  • b)
    1, 3 
  • c)
    2, 3 
  • d)
    1, 2, 3
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

  • The World Health Organisation (WHO) announced that it would start using the term “mpox” for monkeypox, which has infected about 80,000 people in the first major outbreak of the viral disease outside Africa that began early this summer. The disease spread mainly in the Americas including the United States and Europe, primarily among men who have sex with men (MSM).
  • Mon... more
  • The WHO said that assigning names to new and, in some cases, existing diseases is the responsibility of the global body under the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the WHO Family of International Health Related Classifications through a consultative process which includes WHO Member States. In the case of monkeypox, the process was accelerated.
  • According to WHO best practices, “new disease names should be given with the aim to minimize unnecessary negative impact of names on trade, travel, tourism or animal welfare, and avoid causing offence to any cultural, social, national, regional, professional or ethnic groups”.

Har Ghar Gangajal project that aims to provide Ganga water on tap in the parched areas of the state, was launched by which state? 
  • a)
    Uttar Pradesh 
  • b)
    Jharkhand 
  • c)
    Bihar 
  • d)
    West Bengal
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

  • Bihar Chief Minister recently launched the Har Ghar Gangajal project in Rajgir. It is a unique and ambitious initiative to provide Ganga water on tap in the parched areas of the state.
  • The scheme will help to harvest the excess water of the Ganga during the monsoon season. The water will be stored in reservoirs in Rajgir and Gaya before being channelled to three treatment-and-pur... more
  • Har Ghar Gangajal is part of the Bihar government’s Jal, Jeevan, Hariyali scheme.

Consider the following statements regarding Monkeypox.
  1. Monkeypox is a rare viral infection similar to smallpox.
  2. Monkeypox is a zoonosis, that means, the disease is transmitted from infected animals to humans.
  3. Human-to-human transmission is limited.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    1, 3 
  • b)
    1, 2 
  • c)
    2, 3 
  • d)
    1, 2, 3
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

  • Monkeypox is a rare viral infection similar to smallpox.
  • The monkeypox virus is an orthopoxvirus, which is a genus of viruses that also includes the variola virus, which causes smallpox, and the vaccinia virus, which was used in the smallpox vaccine. Monkeypox causes symptoms similar to smallpox, although they are less severe.
  • Monkeypox is a zoonosis, that is, a disease ... more
  • Human-to-human transmission is limited. Transmission, when it occurs, can be through contact with bodily fluids, lesions on the skin or internal mucosal surfaces, such as in the mouth or throat, respiratory droplets and contaminated objects, the WHO says.

Consider the following statements.
  1. The Election Commission of India draws its authority from the Constitution of India.
  2. The Constitution does not fix the size of the Election Commission.
  3. Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners enjoy the same status and receive salary and perks as Speaker of the Lok Sabha.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 only 
  • b)
    1, 2 
  • c)
    2, 3 
  • d)
    1, 2, 3
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

JKL Classes answered
Appointment of Chief Election Commissioner, Election Commissioners
  • The CEC and ECs are appointed by the President to a tenure of six years, or up to the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier. They enjoy the same status and receive salary and perks as judges of the Supreme Court of India.
  • The Election Commission of India draws its authority from the Constitution itself. Under Article 324, the powers of “superintendence, direction and control of elections” is to be vested in an Election Commission.
Size of the Election Commission
  • The Constitution does not fix the size of the Election Commission. Article 324(2) says that “the Election Commission shall consist of the Chief Election Commissioner and such number of other Election Commissioners, if any, as the President may from time to time fix”.
  • From the beginning, the Election Commission of India consisted of just the Chief Election Commissioner. However, on October 16, 1989, the government appointed two more Election Commissioners, making the Election Commission a multi-member body.

Consider the following statements.
  1. The Representation of the People Act, 1951 bars associations with religious connotations to register as political parties.
  2. The Constitution of India provides Election Commission of India (ECI) the power to deregister political parties.
  3. Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order, 1968 bars political parties from having symbols with religious or communal connotations.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    1, 2 
  • b)
    1, 3 
  • c)
    3 only 
  • d)
    1, 2, 3
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

JKL Classes answered
  • The Election Commission recently told the Supreme Court that “there is no express provision which bars associations with religious connotations to register as political parties under Section 29A of the Representation of the People Act-1951”.
  • The EC generally does not have the power to deregister political parties, something which it has proposed as an electoral reform... more
  • On the issue of symbols, the Election Symbols (Reservation and Allotment) Order, 1968 bars parties from having symbols with religious or communal connotations.

Consider the following statements regarding Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) Act, 1971.
  1. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 has not been amended since inception.
  2. The MTP Act recognises abortion as a choice of the women.
  3. It makes ‘medical termination of pregnancy’ legal in India under specific conditions.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    1, 2 
  • b)
    3 only 
  • c)
    2, 3 
  • d)
    1, 3
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

JKL Classes answered
  • The MTP Act, first enacted in 1971 and then amended in 2021, certainly makes ‘medical termination of pregnancy’ legal in India under specific conditions. However, this Act is framed from a legal standpoint to primarily protect medical practitioners because under the Indian Penal Code, “induced miscarriage” is a criminal offence. This premise points to a lack of cho... more
  • The MTP Act does not recognise abortion as a choice, they need the approval of medical professionals even in the first few weeks of the pregnancy.

Consider the following statements regarding Emergency Procurement (EP) through the fast-track procurement (FTP) route in India.
  1. Emergency Procurement powers were granted to the armed forces by the Union Defence Ministry.
  2. Under the FTP route, the armed forces can procure weapons systems without any financial limits, on an urgent basis without any further clearances to cut short the procurement cycle.
  3. Such acquisitions are applicable only from indigenous sources.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    1, 2 
  • b)
    1 only 
  • c)
    1, 3 
  • d)
    1, 2, 3
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

JKL Classes answered
Emergency financial powers were granted to the armed forces by the Defence Ministry in the past on three occasions, post the Uri surgical strikes in 2016, the Balakot air strike in 2019 and the 2020 standoff with China in eastern Ladakh.
Under the FTP route, the forces can procure weapons systems upto ₹300 crores on an “urgent basis without any further clearances to cut short the procurement cycle.
Such acquisitions are applicable for both indigenous sources and ex-import.
FTP acquisitions can be categorised as under.
  • Procurement of equipment already inducted into Service.
  • Procurement of new equipment.
  • Procurement of weapon system/platform, which is in service in a friendly foreign country and is available for transfer/lease or sale.

Consider the following statements regarding Ahom kingdom.
  1. The Ahom kings ruled large parts of what is now known as Assam.
  2. It was a multi-ethnic kingdom which spread across the upper and lower reaches of the Brahmaputra valley.
  3. Ahoms had a very friendly relations with the Mughals.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    1, 2 
  • b)
    1, 3 
  • c)
    2, 3 
  • d)
    1, 2, 3
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

  • The Ahom kings ruled large parts of what is now known as Assam for nearly 600 years, from the early 13th century to the early 19th century. This was a prosperous, multi-ethnic kingdom which spread across the upper and lower reaches of the Brahmaputra valley, surviving on rice cultivation in its fertile lands.
  • The Ahoms engaged in a series of conflicts with the Mughals from 1615-1... more
  • The counter-offensive to reclaim lost Ahom territories started under Ahom King Swargadeo Chakradhwaja Singha. After the Ahoms enjoyed some initial victories, Aurangzeb dispatched Raja Ram Singh I of Jaipur in 1669 to recapture the lost territory — eventually resulting in the Battle of Saraighat in 1671.

Semi-automated offside technology, recently seen in news is mainly used in 
  • a)
    Cricket 
  • b)
    Chess 
  • c)
    Football 
  • d)
    Tennis
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

  • FIFA has implemented what they call “semi-automated offside technology” this World Cup. 
  • According to FIFA, “The new technology uses 12 dedicated tracking cameras mounted underneath the roof of the stadium to track the ball and up to 29 data points of each individual player, 50 times per second, calculating their exact position on the pitch. The 29 collecte... more

Consider the following statements regarding Community Forest Resource (CFR) area.
  1. The community forest resource area is the common forest land that has been traditionally protected and conserved for sustainable use by a particular community.
  2. The community forest resource area may include revenue forest, deemed forest, sanctuary and national parks.
  3. Community forest resource area can also be used for pastoral purpose.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    1, 2 
  • b)
    1, 3 
  • c)
    1 only 
  • d)
    1, 2, 3
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

  • The community forest resource area is the common forest land that has been traditionally protected and conserved for sustainable use by a particular community. The community uses it to access resources available within the traditional and customary boundary of the village; and for seasonal use of landscape in case of pastoralist communities.
  • Each CFR area has a customary boundary... more

Consider the following statements.
  1. A fault is a place with a long break in the rock that forms the surface of the earth.
  2. When an earthquake occurs on one of the faults, the rock on one side of the fault slips with respect to the other.
  3. Indonesia is not located on the fault lines in the Pacific Basin.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    2 only 
  • b)
    2, 3 
  • c)
    1, 2 
  • d)
    1, 2, 3
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

  • A fault is a place with a long break in the rock that forms the surface of the earth. When an earthquake occurs on one of these faults, the rock on one side of the fault slips with respect to the other.
  • The country of more than 270 million people is frequently struck by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and tsunamis because of its location on the arc of volcanoes and fault lines in... more

Consider the following statements regarding loan write-off.
  1. Writing off a loan essentially means it will no longer be counted as an asset, by the bank.
  2. The amount so written off reduces the bank’s tax liability.
  3. After the write-off, banks are not supposed to continue their efforts to recover the loan.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    1, 2 
  • b)
    1 only 
  • c)
    1, 3 
  • d)
    1, 2, 3
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

  • Writing off a loan essentially means it will no longer be counted as an asset. By writing off loans, a bank can reduce the level of non-performing assets (NPAs) on its books. An additional benefit is that the amount so written off reduces the bank’s tax liability.
  • The bank writes off a loan after the borrower has defaulted on the loan repayment and there is a very low chanc... more
  • After the write-off, banks are supposed to continue their efforts to recover the loan using various options. They have to make provisioning as well. The tax liability will also come down as the written-off amount is reduced from the profit.
  • However, the chances of recovery from written-off loans are very low.
  • Private banks wrote off loans worth Rs 2,74,772 crore in the last five years in their effort to bring down NPAs and whitewash their balance sheets.
  • Public sector banks reported the lion’s share of write-offs at Rs 734,738 crore accounting for 72.78 per cent of the exercise.

Consider the following statements.
  1. CITES Appendix I lists species threatened with extinction and import or export permits for these species are completely banned.
  2. CITES Appendix II includes species not necessarily threatened with extinction but in which trade must be strictly regulated.
  3. The endangered Asian elephant is included in CITES Appendix I.
  4. India has banned the domestic sales of ivory.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    1, 2, 3 
  • b)
    2, 3, 4 
  • c)
    1, 3, 4 
  • d)
    2, 3
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

JKL Classes answered
  • CITES Appendix I lists species threatened with extinction — import or export permits for these are issued rarely and only if the purpose is not primarily commercial. CITES Appendix II includes species not necessarily threatened with extinction but in which trade must be strictly regulated.
  • The international ivory trade was globally banned in 1989 when all African elephant p... more
  • The endangered Asian elephant was included in CITES Appendix I in 1975, which banned the export of ivory from the Asian range countries. In 1986, India amended The Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 to ban even domestic sales of ivory. After the ivory trade was globally banned, India again amended the law to ban the import of African ivory in 1991.

Consider the following statements.
  1. Gandhi Mandela Foundation is a non-government trust formed with the motive to promote Mahatma Gandhi’s and Nelson Mandela’s values of non-violence.
  2. The Gandhi Mandela Foundation instituted the Gandhi Mandela Award on the 150th birth anniversary of MK Gandhi.
  3. Gandhi Mandela Award is given to personalities who have made significant contributions in the fields of Culture, Environment, Education, Healthcare, Sports and Innovation.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    1, 2 
  • b)
    1, 3 
  • c)
    2, 3 
  • d)
    1, 2, 3
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

JKL Classes answered
The 14th Dalai Lama was conferred the Gandhi Mandela Award 2022.
  • A government of India registered Trust, the Gandhi Mandela Foundation is a non-profit organisation, formed with the motive to promote Mahatma Gandhi’s and former President of South Africa Nelson Mandela’s values of non-violence. It has constituted an international prize, the Gandhi Mandela Award.
  • The foundation instituted the award on the 150th birth anniversary of the Father of the Nation, MK Gandhi.
  • The award is given to personalities who have carried forward the legacies of Gandhi and Mandela by making significant contributions in the fields of Peace, Social Welfare, Culture, Environment, Education, Healthcare, Sports and Innovation.

Consider the following statements.
  1. In India, the Law empower the States to undertake effective measures to mitigate the harms caused during a medical emergency.
  2. Test of proportionality is a standard of review that is invoked to keep a check on the infringement of privacy of an individual by the state.
  3. Being a signatory to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, India is bound to take all possible measures to realise the enjoyment of “highest attainable standard of physical and mental health” of its citizens.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    1, 2 
  • b)
    1, 3 
  • c)
    2, 3 
  • d)
    1, 2, 3
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

  • The proportionality test is a standard of review that is invoked to keep a check on the infringement of bodily integrity and privacy of an individual by the state.
  • The Disaster Management Act of 2005 and the Epidemic Diseases Act of 1897 empower the States to undertake effective measures to mitigate the harms caused during a medical emergency. 
  • Being a signatory to ... more

Consider the following statements regarding CITES Agreement.
  1. CITES is an international agreement between governments to ensure that international trade in wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species.
  2. When a country becomes a party to the CITES, all import, export and re-export of species covered under CITES must be authorised through a permit system.
  3. Conference of the Parties (CoP), which is the supreme decision-making body of CITES, applies a set of biological and trade criteria to evaluate proposals from parties to decide if a species should be in Appendix I or II.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 and 2 only 
  • b)
    1, 2 
  • c)
    2 and 3 only 
  • d)
    1, 2 and 3
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

  • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora is an international agreement between governments — 184 at present — to ensure that international trade in wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species. The convention entered into force in 1975 and India became the 25th party — a state that voluntarily agrees to be b... more
  • All import, export and re-export of species covered under CITES must be authorised through a permit system.
  • Every two years, the Conference of the Parties (CoP), the supreme decision-making body of CITES, applies a set of biological and trade criteria to evaluate proposals from parties to decide if a species should be in Appendix I or II.

Consider the following statements.
  1. Central Depositories Services India Ltd is a Market Infrastructure Institution that is deemed as a crucial part of the capital market structure.
  2. Central Depositories Services India Ltd is the only state-owned share depository in India.
  3. Share depositories hold shares in an electronic or dematerialised form and are an enabler for securities transactions.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
  • a)
    1 and 2 only 
  • b)
    1 and 3 only 
  • c)
    2 and 3 only 
  • d)
    1, 2 and 3
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

  • CDSL, or Central Depositories Services India Ltd, is a government-registered share depository, alongside its other state-owned counterpart National Securities Depository Ltd (NSDL).
  • Share depositories hold shares in an electronic or dematerialised form and are an enabler for securities transactions, playing a somewhat similar role to what banks play in handling cash and fixed dep... more
  • CDSL was founded in 1999. It is a Market Infrastructure Institution or MII that is deemed as a crucial part of the capital market structure, providing services to all market participants, including exchanges, clearing corporations, depository participants, issuers and investors.

ओशनसैट-3 के संदर्भ में निम्नलिखित कथनों पर विचार कीजिये:
1. ओशनसैट -3 की परिकल्पना समुद्र के रंग डेटा, समुद्र की सतह के तापमान (एसएसटी) और पवन वेक्टर डेटा का निरीक्षण करने के लिए की गई है। 
2. इसे PSLV-C54 रॉकेट का उपयोग करके लॉन्च किया गया है।
ऊपर दिए गए कथनों में से कौन सा सही है/हैं?
... more

प्रधान मंत्री नरेंद्र मोदी ने हाल ही में अंतरिक्ष से नए लॉन्च किए गए ओशनसैट -3 उपग्रह द्वारा भेजी गई गुजरात और अरब सागर की पहली उपग्रह छवियों को साझा किया है।
... more
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