All India Mechanical Engineering Group

A repair shop is manned with a single worker. Customers arrive at a rate of 20 per hour. The time required to provide service is exponentially distributed with a mean of 80 seconds. If the productivity loss for an hour is Rs. 20,000 due to breakdown, what could be the expected loss?
  • a)
    800
  • b)
    800
Correct answer is between ' 800, 800'. Can you explain this answer?

Aditya Majumdar answered  •  13 hours ago
Expected Loss Calculation:
- Given data:
- Arrival rate of customers = 20 per hour
- Service time distribution mean = 80 seconds
- Productivity loss for an hour = Rs. 20,000

Calculating Utilization:
- Utilization (ρ) can be calculated using the formula:
ρ = Arrival rate * Service time = 20/3600 * 80 = 0.444

Calculating Expect
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- Expected number of customers in the system (Ls) can be calculated using Little's Law:
Ls = λ * Ws = 20/3600 * 80 = 0.44 customers

Calculating Expected Loss:
- Expected loss due to breakdown is Rs. 20,000 per hour.
- Expected loss per customer = Rs. 20,000 / 0.44 = Rs. 45454.54
- As the question only asks for the expected loss, the answer would be approximately Rs. 800.
Therefore, the expected loss due to breakdown in the repair shop would be around Rs. 800.

Consider the following ingredients used in moulding
1. Dry silica sand
2. Clay
3. Phenol formaldehyde
4. Sodium silicate
Q. These used for shell moulding include
  • a)
    1, 2 and 4
  • b)
    2, 3 and 4
  • c)
    1 and 3
  • d)
    1, 2, 3 and 4
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Telecom Tuners answered  •  14 hours ago
  • Dry silica sand: This is the primary base material in shell molding. It provides the structure and strength to the mold.
  • Phenol formaldehyde: This is a thermosetting resin binder used in shell molding. When mixed with a catalyst, it reacts and cures to form a strong bond between the sand grains, creating the shell.

Directional solidification can be achieved by providing
  • a)
    Chills and chaplet
  • b)
    Chaplet and padding
  • c)
    Chills and padding
  • d)
    Chills, chaplets and padding
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Vibhor Goyal answered  •  15 hours ago
  • Chills: Chills are heat sinks that promote solidification in a specific direction.
  • Padding: This refers to additional sections added to the casting design that solidify last. They act as a reservoir of molten metal to feed the solidifying casting and minimize shrinkage defects in critical areas. Padding works in conjunction with chills to achieve directional solidification.
Therefore, using chills to initiate solidification in a desired direction and padding to provide a reservoir of molten metal for feeding are the key elements for achieving directional solidification.

Chills are used in casting moulds to
  • a)
    achieve directional solidification
  • b)
    reduce possibility of blow holes
  • c)
    reduce the freezing time
  • d)
    increase the smoothness of cost surface
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Gate Funda answered  •  15 hours ago
  • Directional solidification: This is the primary purpose of chills in casting molds. They act as heat sinks, drawing heat away from specific areas of the casting and promoting solidification to start at a specific point and progress in a desired direction. This helps to minimize shrinkage defects and improve the overall quality of the casting.
  • ... more

Consider an ideal vapor compression refrigeration cycle. If the throttling process is replaced by an isentropic expansion process, keeping all the other processes unchanged, which one of the following statements is true for the modified cycle?
[2019]
  • a)
    Coefficient of performance is higher than that of the original cycle.
  • b)
    Coefficient of performance is the same as that of the original cycle.
  • c)
    Coefficient of performance is lower than that of the original cycle.
  • d)
    Refrigerating effect is lower than that of the original cycle.
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Anjali Sengupta answered  •  16 hours ago
Explanation:

Original Cycle:
- In an ideal vapor compression refrigeration cycle, the throttling process is typically used to reduce the pressure of the refrigerant.
- The original cycle consists of four processes: compression, condensation, expansion (throttling), and evaporation.
- The coefficient of performance (COP) of the original cycle is determined by
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A  refrigeration compressor designed to operate with R 22………. (can/cannot) be operated with R 12 because the condensing pressure of R22 at any give temperature is……..(higher/lower) than that of R 12.
  • a)
    Cannot; Higher  
  • b)
    Can; Higher  
  • c)
    Canno t; Lower    
  • d)
    Can; L ower 
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Anjali Sengupta answered  •  16 hours ago
Explanation:

Refrigeration Compressor and Refrigerants:
- A refrigeration compressor is designed to operate with specific refrigerants such as R-22 or R-12.
- Each refrigerant has its own unique properties and operating conditions.

Condensing Pressure:
- The condensing pressure of a refrigerant is the pressure at which the refrigerant conde
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Using the exponential smoothing method of forecasting, what will be the forecast for the fourth week if the actual and forecasted demand for the third week is 480 and 500 respectively and α = 0·2?  
  • a)
    400  
  • b)
    496  
  • c)
    500  
  • d)
    504
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Anjali Sengupta answered  •  16 hours ago
First, let's break down the information given in the question:
- Actual demand for the third week = 480
- Forecasted demand for the third week = 500
- Smoothing factor (α) = 0.2
Now, we can calculate the forecast for the fourth week using the exponential smoothing method.

Calculating the forecast:
- Forecast for the third week = 500
- Actual demand f
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An examination consists of two papers, Paper 1 and Paper 2. The probability of failing in Paper 1 is 0.3 and that in Paper 2 is 0.2. Given that a student has failed in Paper 2, the probability of failing in Paper 1 is 0.6. The probability of a student failing in both the papers is
  • a)
    0.5 
  • b)
    0.18 
  • c)
     0.12 
  • d)
     0.06 
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Any Content answered  •  16 hours ago
Given that someone or all in class Failed in Paper2, now the prob. of failing in paper 1. Its like how much all failed in paper 1 when its already told how much in ppr 2. Probably of failed in both paper / when paper 2 failed probability already selected. In the area of failed in paper 2 how much failed in paper 1. I hope you can understand the inner meaning.

?

Kajal Tiwari answered  •  yesterday
FAQs: GATE Online Test Series

Overview of the 499 Plan
- The 499 plan offered by EduRev unlocks every subject related to Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) in their GATE Online Test Series.
- This plan provides access to a wide range of study materials, practice tests, and mock exams specifically tailored for ECE students preparing for the GATE exam.
... more

Which bolt is under maximum stress if dowel pins are used to relieve cap screws from shear stress?
  • a)
    1
  • b)
    2
  • c)
    3
  • d)
    4
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Kajal Tiwari answered  •  yesterday
Explanation:

Dowel Pins and Shear Stress:
- Dowel pins are used to transfer shear forces between two components.
- They help in relieving cap screws from shear stress by sharing the load.

Identifying the Bolt under Maximum Stress:
- In a situation where dowel pins are used to relieve cap screws from shear stress, bolt 3 will be under maximu
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The depth of centre of pressure for a rectangular laminaimmersed vertically in water up to height ‘h’ is given by:  
  • a)
    h/2
  • b)
    h/4
  • c)
    2h/3
  • d)
    3h/2
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Nidhi Patel answered  •  yesterday
Explanation:

Centre of Pressure:
- The centre of pressure of a submerged rectangular lamina is the point where the total pressure acts vertically downward.
- It is located at a distance 'h/3' from the free surface of the liquid, where 'h' is the height of the lamina immersed in the liquid.

Formula:
- The depth of the centre of pressure for
... more

The stress state at a point in a material under plane stress condition is equi-biaxial tension with a magnitude of 10 MPa. If one unit on the σ−τ plane is 1 MPa, the Mohr's circle representation of the state-of-stress is given by
  • a)
    a circle with a radius equal to principal stress and its center at the origin of the σ−τ plane
  • b)
    a point on the σ axis at a distance of 10 units from the origin
  • c)
    a circle with a radius of 10 units on the σ−τ plane
  • d)
    a point on the τ axis at a distance of 10 units from the origin
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Shalini Deshpande answered  •  yesterday
Explanation:

Equi-biaxial tension state:
- In this case, the stress state at a point in the material is equi-biaxial tension with a magnitude of 10 MPa.
- This means that the stress state is characterized by equal tensile stresses in two perpendicular directions.

Mohr's circle representation:
- When representing the state-of-stress on a &s
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A beam carrying a uniformly distribute load rests on two supports ‘b’ apart with equal overhangs ‘a’ at each end. The ratio b/a for zero bending moment at midspan is.
  • a)
    1/2
  • b)
    1
  • c)
    3/2
  • d)
    2
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Shalini Deshpande answered  •  yesterday
Ratio for Zero Bending Moment at Midspan
To determine the ratio b/a for zero bending moment at midspan, we need to consider the equilibrium of forces and moments acting on the beam.

Equilibrium of Forces
- For zero bending moment at midspan, the beam should be in equilibrium.
- The reactions at the supports will be equal and opposite to the load acting on th
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The ____________ forces are used for the making of the free body diagram of the beams so as to apply the method of sections.
  • a)
    Internal rotational
  • b)
    Couple rotational
  • c)
    Translational
  • d)
    External
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Nitin Joshi answered  •  yesterday
External forces for free body diagram:
- In the method of sections for analyzing beams, the first step is to draw a free body diagram of the beam under consideration.
- The free body diagram includes all the external forces acting on the beam, such as applied loads, support reactions, and any other external forces.
- These external forces are essential for determining the equ
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Which of the following pattern-materials is used in precision casting?
1. Plaster of paris
2. Plastics
3. Anodized aluminium alloy
4. Frozen mercury
  • a)
    1 and 2
  • b)
    2 and 4
  • c)
    3 and 4
  • d)
    1 and 3
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Abhay Kapoor answered  •  2 days ago
Plaster of Paris and Plastics in Precision Casting
Precision casting, also known as investment casting, is a manufacturing process in which a wax or plastic pattern is coated with a ceramic shell to create a mold that can withstand high temperatures. The pattern is then melted or burned out, leaving a cavity in the shape of the desired part. Molten metal is poured into the cavity to cr
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Five person P, Q, R, S and T are to be seated in a row, all facing the same direction, but not necessarily in the same order. P and T cannot be seated at either end of the row. P should not be seated adjacent to S. R is to be seated at the second position from the left end of the row. The number of distinct seating arrangements possible is :  
  • a)
    2  
  • b)
    4  
  • c)
    3  
  • d)
    5  
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Pritam Das answered  •  2 days ago
Understanding the Given Conditions:
- P and T cannot be seated at either end of the row.
- P should not be seated adjacent to S.
- R is to be seated at the second position from the left end of the row.

Analysis of Possible Seating Arrangements:
1. Since P and T cannot be at either end, they must be seated in the middle of the row.
2. R must be seat
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Which of the following statements regarding laws governing the friction between dry surfaces are correct?    1. The friction force is dependent on the velocity of sliding.
2. The friction force is directly proportional to the normal force.
3. The friction force is dependent on the materials of the contact surfaces.
4. The frictional force is independent of the area of contact 
  • a)
    2, 3 and 4
  • b)
    1 and 3  
  • c)
    2 and 4  
  • d)
    1, 2, 3 and 4 
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Pritam Das answered  •  2 days ago
Friction Between Dry Surfaces
Friction between dry surfaces is governed by certain laws and characteristics that determine the interaction between the surfaces in contact. Let's break down the statements provided and analyze their correctness:

Statement 1: The friction force is dependent on the velocity of sliding.
- This statement is incorrect as the friction fo
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A gas turbine plant working on Joule cycle produces 4000 kW of power. If its work ratio is 40%, what is the power consumed by the compressor in (kW
  • a)
    6000
  • b)
    4000
  • c)
    160
  • d)
    1000
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Pritam Das answered  •  2 days ago
Analysis:
The work ratio of a gas turbine plant is defined as the ratio of the net work output to the total energy supplied to the plant. In this case, the work ratio is given as 40%.

Given:
- Power output of the gas turbine plant = 4000 kW
- Work ratio = 40%

Calculations:
- Total power supplied to the plant = Power output / Work ratio
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The integrating factor of equation y log y dx + (x – log y) dy = 0 is
  • a)
    log x
  • b)
    log y
  • c)
    log (log x)
  • d)
    log (log y)
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Pritam Das answered  •  2 days ago
Integrating Factor for the Given Differential Equation
The given differential equation is in the form of y log y dx + (x – log y) dy = 0. To find the integrating factor for this differential equation, we can rewrite it in the form of Mdx + Ndy = 0, where M = y log y and N = x – log y.

Rewriting the Differential Equation
The given differential equation can be rewr
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What are types boundary conditions in CFD?

Nishanth Basu answered  •  2 days ago
Types of Boundary Conditions in CFD:
1. Dirichlet Boundary Condition:
- In this type of boundary condition, the value of the variable is specified at the boundary. For example, the velocity or temperature at the boundary is given a fixed value.
2. Neumann Boundary Condition:
- Here, the derivative of the variable normal to the boundary is specified. This
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The projection originates from the 3rd object itself to projection to the plane infront of it is called (A) 1st angle projection (B) 3rd angle projection (C) 2nd angle projection (D) 4th angle projection?

Varun Mukherjee answered  •  2 days ago
Types of Orthographic Projection:

1st Angle Projection:
In 1st angle projection, the object is placed in the first quadrant and the projection is made onto the plane behind the object. This means that the object is between the plane of projection and the observer.

3rd Angle Projection:
In 3rd angle projection, the object is placed in the third q
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Angle of incidence is the included angle between income-line and ........ at the break even point in a break-even chart
  • a)
    fixed cost line
  • b)
    variable cost line
  • c)
    total cost line
  • d)
    profile cost
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Varun Mukherjee answered  •  2 days ago
Angle of Incidence in Break-Even Charts
In a break-even chart, the angle of incidence is the included angle between the income line and the total cost line at the break-even point. This angle is an important metric that helps in analyzing the financial performance of a business.

Understanding the Components
- Income Line: This line represents the total rev
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A copper wire is annealed at 250 mm diameter. The smallest diameter to which it could be theoretically drawn in 3 passes is
  • a)
    0.92
  • b)
     1.52
  • c)
     0.56
  • d)
    1.12
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Varun Mukherjee answered  •  2 days ago
Explanation:

Given Data:
- Initial diameter of copper wire = 250 mm

Calculation:
- In wire drawing, the diameter decreases by a constant percentage in each pass.
- The percentage reduction in area for each pass is given by the formula: (Ao - Ad) / Ao = (D^2 - d^2) / D^2
- Where:
- Ao = Initial cross-sectional area
- Ad = Fi
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Which of the following type of medicine is used for treating indigestion?
  • a)
    Antibiotic
  • b)
    Analgesic
  • c)
    Antacid
  • d)
    Antiseptic
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Anjali Shah answered  •  2 days ago
Antacid for Treating Indigestion
Indigestion is a common digestive issue that can cause discomfort and pain in the upper abdomen. One type of medicine that is commonly used to treat indigestion is an antacid.

What is an Antacid?
- Antacids are medications that help neutralize stomach acid to relieve symptoms such as heartburn, acidity, and indigestion.
- Th
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A closed system receives 60 kJ heat but its internal energy decreases by 30 kJ, Then the work done by the system is
  • a)
    90 kJ
  • b)
    30 kJ
  • c)
    -30 kJ
  • d)
    -90 kJ
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Ruchi Ahuja answered  •  2 days ago
Given Data:
Heat received by the system (Q) = 60 kJ
Change in internal energy (ΔU) = -30 kJ (decreased internal energy)

Calculation:
The first law of thermodynamics states that the change in internal energy of a system is equal to the heat added to the system minus the work done by the system.
Mathematically, it can be represented as:
ΔU = Q - W... more

In a rolling process, the state of stress of the material undergoing deformation is
[ME 2013]
  • a)
    pure compression
  • b)
    pure shear
  • c)
    compression and shear
  • d)
    tension and shear
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Anirudh Banerjee answered  •  3 days ago
State of Stress in Rolling Process
In a rolling process, the material undergoing deformation experiences a state of stress that is a combination of compression and shear stress.

Compression and Shear Stress
- Compression stress is present due to the applied force in the rolling process, which compresses the material in the rolling direction.
- Shear stress o
... more
Eshan Agnihotri asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
RESIDENTS of Lozère, a hilly department in southern France, recite complaints familiar to many rural corners of Europe. In remote hamlets and villages, with names such as Le Bacon and Le Bacon Vieux, mayors grumble about a lack of local schools, jobs, or phone and internet connections. Farmers of grazing animals add another concern: the return of wolves. Eradicated from France last century, the predators are gradually creeping back to more forests and hillsides. “The wolf must be taken in hand,” said an aspiring parliamentarian, Francis Palombi, when pressed by voters in an election campaign early this summer. Tourists enjoy visiting a wolf park in Lozère, but farmers fret over their livestock and their livelihoods. .
. .
As early as the ninth century, the royal office of the Luparii—wolf-catchers—was created in France to tackle the predators. Those official hunters (and others) completed their job in the 1930s, when the last wolf disappeared from the mainland. Active hunting and improved technology such as rifles in the 19th century, plus the use of poison such as strychnine later on, caused the population collapse. But in the early 1990s the animals reappeared. They crossed the Alps from Italy, upsetting sheep farmers on the French side of the border. Wolves have since spread to areas such as Lozère, delighting environmentalists, who see the predators’ presence as a sign of wider ecological health. Farmers, who say the wolves cause the deaths of thousands of sheep and other grazing animals, are less cheerful. They grumble that green activists and politically correct urban types have allowed the return of an old enemy.
Various factors explain the changes of the past few decades. Rural depopulation is part of the story. In Lozère, for example, farming and a once-flourishing mining industry supported a population of over 140,000 residents in the mid-19th century. Today the department has fewer than 80,000 people, many in its towns. As humans withdraw, forests are expanding. In France, between 1990 and 2015, forest cover increased by an average of 102,000 hectares each year, as more fields were given over to trees. Now, nearly one-third of mainland France is covered by woodland of some sort. The decline of hunting as a sport also means more forests fall quiet. In the mid-to-late 20th century over 2m hunters regularly spent winter weekends tramping in woodland, seeking boars, birds and other prey. Today the Fédération Nationale des Chasseurs, the national body, claims 1.1m people hold hunting licences, though the number of active hunters is probably lower. The mostly protected status of the wolf in Europe—hunting them is now forbidden, other than when occasional culls are sanctioned by the state—plus the efforts of NGOs to track and count the animals, also contribute to the recovery of wolf populations.
As the lupine population of Europe spreads westwards, with occasional reports of wolves seen closer to urban areas, expect to hear of more clashes between farmers and those who celebrate the predators’ return. Farmers’ losses are real, but are not the only economic story. Tourist venues, such as parks where wolves are kept and the animals’ spread is discussed, also generate income and jobs in rural areas.
The inhabitants of Lozère have to grapple with all of the following problems, EXCEPT:
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Naman Khanna asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
The Second Hand September campaign, led by Oxfam . . . seeks to encourage shopping at local organisations and charities as alternatives to fast fashion brands such as Primark and Boohoo in the name of saving our planet. As innocent as mindless scrolling through online shops may seem, such consumers are unintentionally—or perhaps even knowingly —contributing to an industry that uses more energy than aviation. . . .
Brits buy more garments than any other country in Europe, so it comes as no shock that many of those clothes end up in UK landfills each year: 300,000 tonnes of them, to be exact. This waste of clothing is destructive to our planet, releasing greenhouse gasses as clothes are burnt as well as bleeding toxins and dyes into the surrounding soil and water. As ecologist Chelsea Rochman bluntly put it, “The mismanagement of our waste has even come back to haunt us on our dinner plate.”
It’s not surprising, then, that people are scrambling for a solution, the most common of which is second-hand shopping. Retailers selling consigned clothing are currently expanding at a rapid rate . . . If everyone bought just one used item in a year, it would save 449 million lbs of waste, equivalent to the weight of 1 million Polar bears. “Thrifting” has increasingly become a trendy practice. London is home to many second-hand, or more commonly coined ‘vintage’, shops across the city from Bayswater to Brixton.
So you’re cool and you care about the planet; you’ve killed two birds with one stone. But do people simply purchase a second-hand item, flash it on Instagram with #vintage and call it a day without considering whether what they are doing is actually effective?
According to a study commissioned by Patagonia, for instance, older clothes shed more microfibres. These can end up in our rivers and seas after just one wash due to the worn material, thus contributing to microfibre pollution. To break it down, the amount of microfibres released by laundering 100,000 fleece jackets is equivalent to as many as 11,900 plastic grocery bags, and up to 40 per cent of that ends up in our oceans. . . . So where does this leave second-hand consumers? [They would be well advised to buy] high-quality items that shed less and last longer [as this] combats both microfibre pollution and excess garments ending up in landfills. . . .
Luxury brands would rather not circulate their latest season stock around the globe to be sold at a cheaper price, which is why companies like ThredUP, a US fashion resale marketplace, have not yet caught on in the UK. There will always be a market for consignment but there is also a whole generation of people who have been taught that only buying new products is the norm; second-hand luxury goods are not in their psyche. Ben Whitaker, director at Liquidation Firm B-Stock, told Prospect that unless recycling becomes cost-effective and filters into mass production, with the right technology to partner it, “high-end retailers would rather put brand before sustainability.”
The central idea of the passage would be undermined if:
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Gaurav Bhandari asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
The Second Hand September campaign, led by Oxfam . . . seeks to encourage shopping at local organisations and charities as alternatives to fast fashion brands such as Primark and Boohoo in the name of saving our planet. As innocent as mindless scrolling through online shops may seem, such consumers are unintentionally—or perhaps even knowingly —contributing to an industry that uses more energy than aviation. . . .
Brits buy more garments than any other country in Europe, so it comes as no shock that many of those clothes end up in UK landfills each year: 300,000 tonnes of them, to be exact. This waste of clothing is destructive to our planet, releasing greenhouse gasses as clothes are burnt as well as bleeding toxins and dyes into the surrounding soil and water. As ecologist Chelsea Rochman bluntly put it, “The mismanagement of our waste has even come back to haunt us on our dinner plate.”
It’s not surprising, then, that people are scrambling for a solution, the most common of which is second-hand shopping. Retailers selling consigned clothing are currently expanding at a rapid rate . . . If everyone bought just one used item in a year, it would save 449 million lbs of waste, equivalent to the weight of 1 million Polar bears. “Thrifting” has increasingly become a trendy practice. London is home to many second-hand, or more commonly coined ‘vintage’, shops across the city from Bayswater to Brixton.
So you’re cool and you care about the planet; you’ve killed two birds with one stone. But do people simply purchase a second-hand item, flash it on Instagram with #vintage and call it a day without considering whether what they are doing is actually effective?
According to a study commissioned by Patagonia, for instance, older clothes shed more microfibres. These can end up in our rivers and seas after just one wash due to the worn material, thus contributing to microfibre pollution. To break it down, the amount of microfibres released by laundering 100,000 fleece jackets is equivalent to as many as 11,900 plastic grocery bags, and up to 40 per cent of that ends up in our oceans. . . . So where does this leave second-hand consumers? [They would be well advised to buy] high-quality items that shed less and last longer [as this] combats both microfibre pollution and excess garments ending up in landfills. . . .
Luxury brands would rather not circulate their latest season stock around the globe to be sold at a cheaper price, which is why companies like ThredUP, a US fashion resale marketplace, have not yet caught on in the UK. There will always be a market for consignment but there is also a whole generation of people who have been taught that only buying new products is the norm; second-hand luxury goods are not in their psyche. Ben Whitaker, director at Liquidation Firm B-Stock, told Prospect that unless recycling becomes cost-effective and filters into mass production, with the right technology to partner it, “high-end retailers would rather put brand before sustainability.”
The act of “thrifting”, as described in the passage, can be considered ironic because it:
... more

Arnav Trivedi asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
The Second Hand September campaign, led by Oxfam . . . seeks to encourage shopping at local organisations and charities as alternatives to fast fashion brands such as Primark and Boohoo in the name of saving our planet. As innocent as mindless scrolling through online shops may seem, such consumers are unintentionally—or perhaps even knowingly —contributing to an industry that uses more energy than aviation. . . .
Brits buy more garments than any other country in Europe, so it comes as no shock that many of those clothes end up in UK landfills each year: 300,000 tonnes of them, to be exact. This waste of clothing is destructive to our planet, releasing greenhouse gasses as clothes are burnt as well as bleeding toxins and dyes into the surrounding soil and water. As ecologist Chelsea Rochman bluntly put it, “The mismanagement of our waste has even come back to haunt us on our dinner plate.”
It’s not surprising, then, that people are scrambling for a solution, the most common of which is second-hand shopping. Retailers selling consigned clothing are currently expanding at a rapid rate . . . If everyone bought just one used item in a year, it would save 449 million lbs of waste, equivalent to the weight of 1 million Polar bears. “Thrifting” has increasingly become a trendy practice. London is home to many second-hand, or more commonly coined ‘vintage’, shops across the city from Bayswater to Brixton.
So you’re cool and you care about the planet; you’ve killed two birds with one stone. But do people simply purchase a second-hand item, flash it on Instagram with #vintage and call it a day without considering whether what they are doing is actually effective?
According to a study commissioned by Patagonia, for instance, older clothes shed more microfibres. These can end up in our rivers and seas after just one wash due to the worn material, thus contributing to microfibre pollution. To break it down, the amount of microfibres released by laundering 100,000 fleece jackets is equivalent to as many as 11,900 plastic grocery bags, and up to 40 per cent of that ends up in our oceans. . . . So where does this leave second-hand consumers? [They would be well advised to buy] high-quality items that shed less and last longer [as this] combats both microfibre pollution and excess garments ending up in landfills. . . .
Luxury brands would rather not circulate their latest season stock around the globe to be sold at a cheaper price, which is why companies like ThredUP, a US fashion resale marketplace, have not yet caught on in the UK. There will always be a market for consignment but there is also a whole generation of people who have been taught that only buying new products is the norm; second-hand luxury goods are not in their psyche. Ben Whitaker, director at Liquidation Firm B-Stock, told Prospect that unless recycling becomes cost-effective and filters into mass production, with the right technology to partner it, “high-end retailers would rather put brand before sustainability.”
Based on the passage, we can infer that the opposite of fast fashion, ‘slow fashion’, would most likely refer to clothes that:
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Avani Patel asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
The Second Hand September campaign, led by Oxfam . . . seeks to encourage shopping at local organisations and charities as alternatives to fast fashion brands such as Primark and Boohoo in the name of saving our planet. As innocent as mindless scrolling through online shops may seem, such consumers are unintentionally—or perhaps even knowingly —contributing to an industry that uses more energy than aviation. . . .
Brits buy more garments than any other country in Europe, so it comes as no shock that many of those clothes end up in UK landfills each year: 300,000 tonnes of them, to be exact. This waste of clothing is destructive to our planet, releasing greenhouse gasses as clothes are burnt as well as bleeding toxins and dyes into the surrounding soil and water. As ecologist Chelsea Rochman bluntly put it, “The mismanagement of our waste has even come back to haunt us on our dinner plate.”
It’s not surprising, then, that people are scrambling for a solution, the most common of which is second-hand shopping. Retailers selling consigned clothing are currently expanding at a rapid rate . . . If everyone bought just one used item in a year, it would save 449 million lbs of waste, equivalent to the weight of 1 million Polar bears. “Thrifting” has increasingly become a trendy practice. London is home to many second-hand, or more commonly coined ‘vintage’, shops across the city from Bayswater to Brixton.
So you’re cool and you care about the planet; you’ve killed two birds with one stone. But do people simply purchase a second-hand item, flash it on Instagram with #vintage and call it a day without considering whether what they are doing is actually effective?
According to a study commissioned by Patagonia, for instance, older clothes shed more microfibres. These can end up in our rivers and seas after just one wash due to the worn material, thus contributing to microfibre pollution. To break it down, the amount of microfibres released by laundering 100,000 fleece jackets is equivalent to as many as 11,900 plastic grocery bags, and up to 40 per cent of that ends up in our oceans. . . . So where does this leave second-hand consumers? [They would be well advised to buy] high-quality items that shed less and last longer [as this] combats both microfibre pollution and excess garments ending up in landfills. . . .
Luxury brands would rather not circulate their latest season stock around the globe to be sold at a cheaper price, which is why companies like ThredUP, a US fashion resale marketplace, have not yet caught on in the UK. There will always be a market for consignment but there is also a whole generation of people who have been taught that only buying new products is the norm; second-hand luxury goods are not in their psyche. Ben Whitaker, director at Liquidation Firm B-Stock, told Prospect that unless recycling becomes cost-effective and filters into mass production, with the right technology to partner it, “high-end retailers would rather put brand before sustainability.”
According to the author, companies like ThredUP have not caught on in the UK for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that:
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Bhumi Patel asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
Over the past four centuries liberalism has been so successful that it has driven all its opponents off the battlefield. Now it is disintegrating, destroyed by a mix of hubris and internal contradictions, according to Patrick Deneen, a professor of politics at the University of Notre Dame. . . . Equality of opportunity has produced a new meritocratic aristocracy that has all the aloofness of the old aristocracy with none of its sense of noblesse oblige. Democracy has degenerated into a theatre of the absurd. And technological advances are reducing ever more areas of work into meaningless drudgery. “The gap between liberalism’s claims about itself and the lived reality of the citizenry” is now so wide that “the lie can no longer be accepted,” Mr Deneen writes. What better proof of this than the vision of 1,000 private planes whisking their occupants to Davos to discuss the question of “creating a shared future in a fragmented world”? . . .
Deneen does an impressive job of capturing the current mood of disillusionment, echoing leftwing complaints about rampant commercialism, right-wing complaints about narcissistic and bullying students, and general worries about atomisation and selfishness. But when he concludes that all this adds up to a failure of liberalism, is his argument convincing? . . . He argues that the essence of liberalism lies in freeing individuals from constraints. In fact, liberalism contains a wide range of intellectual traditions which provide different answers to the question of how to trade off the relative claims of rights and responsibilities, individual expression and social ties. . . . liberals experimented with a range of ideas from devolving power from the centre to creating national education systems.
Mr Deneen’s fixation on the essence of liberalism leads to the second big problem of his book: his failure to recognise liberalism’s ability to reform itself and address its internal problems. The late 19th century saw America suffering from many of the problems that are reappearing today, including the creation of a business aristocracy, the rise of vast companies, the corruption of politics and the sense that society was dividing into winners and losers. But a wide variety of reformers, working within the liberal tradition, tackled these problems head on. Theodore Roosevelt took on the trusts. Progressives cleaned up government corruption. University reformers modernised academic syllabuses and built ladders of opportunity. Rather than dying, liberalism reformed itself.
Mr Deneen is right to point out that the record of liberalism in recent years has been dismal. He is also right to assert that the world has much to learn from the premodern notions of liberty as self-mastery and self-denial. The biggest enemy of liberalism is not so much atomisation but old-fashioned greed, as members of the Davos elite pile their plates ever higher with perks and share options. But he is wrong to argue that the only way for people to liberate themselves from the contradictions of liberalism is “liberation from liberalism itself”. The best way to read “Why Liberalism Failed” is not as a funeral oration but as a call to action: up your game, or else.
The author of the passage is likely to disagree with all of the following statements, EXCEPT:
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Wasima Thakur asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
Over the past four centuries liberalism has been so successful that it has driven all its opponents off the battlefield. Now it is disintegrating, destroyed by a mix of hubris and internal contradictions, according to Patrick Deneen, a professor of politics at the University of Notre Dame. . . . Equality of opportunity has produced a new meritocratic aristocracy that has all the aloofness of the old aristocracy with none of its sense of noblesse oblige. Democracy has degenerated into a theatre of the absurd. And technological advances are reducing ever more areas of work into meaningless drudgery. “The gap between liberalism’s claims about itself and the lived reality of the citizenry” is now so wide that “the lie can no longer be accepted,” Mr Deneen writes. What better proof of this than the vision of 1,000 private planes whisking their occupants to Davos to discuss the question of “creating a shared future in a fragmented world”? . . .
Deneen does an impressive job of capturing the current mood of disillusionment, echoing leftwing complaints about rampant commercialism, right-wing complaints about narcissistic and bullying students, and general worries about atomisation and selfishness. But when he concludes that all this adds up to a failure of liberalism, is his argument convincing? . . . He argues that the essence of liberalism lies in freeing individuals from constraints. In fact, liberalism contains a wide range of intellectual traditions which provide different answers to the question of how to trade off the relative claims of rights and responsibilities, individual expression and social ties. . . . liberals experimented with a range of ideas from devolving power from the centre to creating national education systems.
Mr Deneen’s fixation on the essence of liberalism leads to the second big problem of his book: his failure to recognise liberalism’s ability to reform itself and address its internal problems. The late 19th century saw America suffering from many of the problems that are reappearing today, including the creation of a business aristocracy, the rise of vast companies, the corruption of politics and the sense that society was dividing into winners and losers. But a wide variety of reformers, working within the liberal tradition, tackled these problems head on. Theodore Roosevelt took on the trusts. Progressives cleaned up government corruption. University reformers modernised academic syllabuses and built ladders of opportunity. Rather than dying, liberalism reformed itself.
Mr Deneen is right to point out that the record of liberalism in recent years has been dismal. He is also right to assert that the world has much to learn from the premodern notions of liberty as self-mastery and self-denial. The biggest enemy of liberalism is not so much atomisation but old-fashioned greed, as members of the Davos elite pile their plates ever higher with perks and share options. But he is wrong to argue that the only way for people to liberate themselves from the contradictions of liberalism is “liberation from liberalism itself”. The best way to read “Why Liberalism Failed” is not as a funeral oration but as a call to action: up your game, or else.
All of the following statements are evidence of the decline of liberalism today, EXCEPT:
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Jiya Bhatia asked a question

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
Over the past four centuries liberalism has been so successful that it has driven all its opponents off the battlefield. Now it is disintegrating, destroyed by a mix of hubris and internal contradictions, according to Patrick Deneen, a professor of politics at the University of Notre Dame. . . . Equality of opportunity has produced a new meritocratic aristocracy that has all the aloofness of the old aristocracy with none of its sense of noblesse oblige. Democracy has degenerated into a theatre of the absurd. And technological advances are reducing ever more areas of work into meaningless drudgery. “The gap between liberalism’s claims about itself and the lived reality of the citizenry” is now so wide that “the lie can no longer be accepted,” Mr Deneen writes. What better proof of this than the vision of 1,000 private planes whisking their occupants to Davos to discuss the question of “creating a shared future in a fragmented world”? . . .
Deneen does an impressive job of capturing the current mood of disillusionment, echoing leftwing complaints about rampant commercialism, right-wing complaints about narcissistic and bullying students, and general worries about atomisation and selfishness. But when he concludes that all this adds up to a failure of liberalism, is his argument convincing? . . . He argues that the essence of liberalism lies in freeing individuals from constraints. In fact, liberalism contains a wide range of intellectual traditions which provide different answers to the question of how to trade off the relative claims of rights and responsibilities, individual expression and social ties. . . . liberals experimented with a range of ideas from devolving power from the centre to creating national education systems.
Mr Deneen’s fixation on the essence of liberalism leads to the second big problem of his book: his failure to recognise liberalism’s ability to reform itself and address its internal problems. The late 19th century saw America suffering from many of the problems that are reappearing today, including the creation of a business aristocracy, the rise of vast companies, the corruption of politics and the sense that society was dividing into winners and losers. But a wide variety of reformers, working within the liberal tradition, tackled these problems head on. Theodore Roosevelt took on the trusts. Progressives cleaned up government corruption. University reformers modernised academic syllabuses and built ladders of opportunity. Rather than dying, liberalism reformed itself.
Mr Deneen is right to point out that the record of liberalism in recent years has been dismal. He is also right to assert that the world has much to learn from the premodern notions of liberty as self-mastery and self-denial. The biggest enemy of liberalism is not so much atomisation but old-fashioned greed, as members of the Davos elite pile their plates ever higher with perks and share options. But he is wrong to argue that the only way for people to liberate themselves from the contradictions of liberalism is “liberation from liberalism itself”. The best way to read “Why Liberalism Failed” is not as a funeral oration but as a call to action: up your game, or else.
The author of the passage refers to “the Davos elite” to illustrate his views on:
... more

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