Mahender Singh asked   •  19 minutes ago

Legrand Casino recently purchased a slot machine; a gaming machine, which had a main unit and five sub-units, labeled as Alpha, Gamma, Beta, Theta and Omega. The main as well as each of the sub-units had five slots, labeled as Red, Blue, Grey, Black and Yellow. The game with this slotting machine involved punching the right coin in the right slot in the right sequence i.e. one after another. For example, if coin number 3 is punched into slot Blue in Gamma sub-unit and if the main unit also pushes the coin to Blue slot, then the punch is said to be a winning shot. If the coin in the sub-unit is punched into the right slot when compared to the corresponding coin in the main unit, then the player gets Rs. 1,000 as reward. On the other hand, if the slots do not match then the player loses Rs. 333. Each player gets 25 coins to play.
However, after a couple of days this slotting machine developed a peculiar problem. In the sub-units irrespective of the slot you intended to put in the coin, the sub-unit pushed the coin into the slot it wanted to every time on its own. 
To find out which slots in the sub-units had developed the snag, the technician played on all the sub-units using 25 coins in each of the sub-units.
After some kind of analysis he found that the main machine and each of the sub-units could identify right slots for 15 coins, however for the balance of 10 coins listed below, each of the sub-units assumed different positions as right slots when compared to the main unit whose allocation of slots was the benchmark for performance of other sub-units. 
On playing with these sub-units, the technician earned Rs. 17,000, Rs. 11,660, Rs. 18,330, Rs. 14,330 and Rs. 18,330 respectively from each of Alpha, Gamma, Beta, Theta and Omega. All the amount being rounded off to previous tens figure. Of the ten slots which had developed the snag, there was atleast one sub-unit which identified the right slot for exactly 9 of the 10 slots. 
The table below gives the slots identified by each of the sub-units as right slots for the 10 problematic coins. 
Q. For the 10 incorrectly slotted coins, how many slots were commonly and correctly identified by more than 1 sub-unit?
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For how many values of k do the equations x2 - y2 = 0 and (x - k)2 + y2 = 1 have exactly 3 real solutions
  • a)
    4
  • b)
    3
  • c)
    2
  • d)
    1
  • e)
    None of the above
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Darshan Singh answered  •  4 hours ago
x2 - y 2 = 0
x = ±y
This forms a pair of straight lines having equations x + y = 0 and x - y - 0
Now,
( x - k)2 + y2 = 1 is a circle with centre (Ac, 0) and radius 1.
Since the centre of this circle is on the x-axis and the radius is 1 unit, k = ±1 Consider k = 1
(x - 1 )2 + y2 = 1
Consider x = y
The above equation becomes y2 - 2y + 1 + y2 = 1
2y2 - 2y = 0 i.e. y = 0 or y = 1
Hence, the possible real solutions here are (0, 0) and (1,1) Now, consider x = -y
The above equation becomes y2 + 2y + 1 + y2 = 1
2y2 + 2y = 0 i.e. y = 0
or y = -1
Hence, the possible real solutions here are (0, 0) and (1,-1)
Thus, k = 1 gives three possible real solutions (0, 0), (1,1) and (1.-1)
Similarly, k = -1 gives three possible real solutions (0, 0), (-1 , 1) and (-1, -1) Thus, there are two possible values of k.
Hence, option 3.
Note: Using co-ordinate geometry (i.e. equation of pair of lines and equation of circle), solution set can be directly found by plotting a figure as shown below.
 

Rohi Ram asked   •  21 minutes ago

The management team of Eta, a footwear company implemented a massive revamping exercise after making losses for four consecutive fiscal years in which more than 250 managers and their juniors were asked to quit. Eta decided to stop further recruitment. The management offered its staff a performance based salary. In 1996, for the first time in Eta's 62-year-old history, the company signed a long-term bipartite agreement. This agreement was signed without any disruption of work. In the six-year period 1993-99, Eta had considerably brought down the staff strength of its Itanagar factory and Calcutta offices to 6,700.
In fiscal year 1996, Eta was back in the black with the company reporting net profits of Rs. 41.5 million on revenues of Rs. 5.90 billion (Rs. 5.32 billion in 1995). In fiscal year 1997, Eta further consolidated the gains with the company reporting net profits of Rs 166.9 million on revenues of Rs. 6.70 billion. A senior HR manager at the company admitted that with an upswing in Eta's fortunes, even its traditionally intransigent workers were motivated to do better. In 1997, Eta workers achieved 93% of their production targets. The management rewarded the workers with a 17% bonus, up from the 15% given in 1996. 
However, by the end of 1997, Eta still faced problems of a high-cost structure and surplus labor. In fact, the turnaround had made the unions more aggressive and demanding. Eta’s CEO had failed to strike a deal with the All India Eta Shop Managers Union (AIESMU) since the third quarter of 1997. The shop managers were insisting that Eta honour the 1990 agreement, which stipulated that the management would fill up 248 vacancies in its retail outlets. It also opposed the move to sack all the cashiers in outlets with annual sales of less than Rs 5 million, which meant elimination of 690 jobs. 
 
 
Q. As a lawyer working for Dastur and Associates, you have been asked to mediate the dispute. What is likely to be the sequence in your course of action from the options given?
A. Call a meeting with both parties at once.
B. Study different approaches to the situation.
C. Meet both parties individually.
D. Suggest a solution that is median to both parties’ requirements.
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There are 7 baskets - b1, b2 and so on upto b7 - containing oranges. A man starts counting the number of oranges in the baskets in a single unbroken sequence. The man observes that the numbers that he arrives at the end of counting the oranges in each basket are in GP. Which of the following is true?
  • a)
    The following totals are in GP: b1 + b2 + b3 + b4, b5 + b6
  • b)
    Number of oranges in each basket from the second onwards are in GP.
  • c)
    The following totals are in GP: b2 + b3 + b4, b3 + b4 + b5, b4 + b5 + b
    6
  • d)
    Both 2 and 3
  • e)
    None of these
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Shrichand answered  •  4 hours ago
Let the number of oranges that the man arrives at the end of successive baskets be as shown below:
b1  a; b2 ar  b3 ar2: b4  ar3: b5  ar4; b6  ar5; b7 ar6 The number of oranges in each basket is: b1 = a; b2= a ( r - 1); b3 = ar ( r - 1); b4 = ar2 ( r - 1); b5 = ar3 ( r - 1); b6 = ar4 ( r - 1); b7 = ar5 ( r - 1)
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The tangled web of international organizations that constitutes global governance has become so remote and ineffective that few count on it to deliver results anymore. Now, after decades of turf wars and self-marginalization, international organizations must rally around an increasingly pressing global priority: sustainable urbanization. The world is undergoing an unprecedented and irreversible wave of urbanization, with the share of the global population living in cities set to reach 60% by 2030. But rapid urbanization is driving up industrial fossil-fuel consumption and household water consumption, and is increasing demand for food in areas where arable land is scarce. In short, the current urbanization trajectory is not sustainable. But existing efforts to alter the situation remain woefully inadequate.
Moreover, international development players - including UN agencies, NGOs, corporate citizenship programs, and other charitable organizations - rarely coordinate their activities, even though their interventions are increasingly concentrated in densely populated cities. Given that promoting sustainable urbanization and improving coordination would bolster progress in other priority areas (including women’s rights, climate change, youth unemployment, and literacy), sustainable urbanization must become a bureaucratic priority. And it must be complemented by a technological disruption, with investments channeled toward developing and distributing innovations that would make cities more livable, efficient, and sustainable. In fact, many useful innovations, such as energy-generating building materials and zero-emissions transportation, already exist; they simply need to be made accessible to those who need them most.The future impact of global governance rests on forging new alignments that facilitate the flow of vital knowledge and technologies from an increasingly diverse array of sources to urban populations worldwide. The tools needed to make urban life more sustainable are no longer flowing only from North to South and West to East. China has taken the lead in exporting solar photovoltaic cells, while clean-tech parks are arising even in the Arab world.
With new, innovative solutions appearing every day, the real challenge lies in bringing them to scale - and that requires international cooperation. But the “smartest” cities are not necessarily the most technologically advanced. Rather, they are the places where technology and public policy support citizens’ welfare and aspirations. This crucial fact will guide discussion at the New Cities Foundation’s second annual summit in June - the theme of which is “The Human City” - and should be at the heart of sustainable urbanization initiatives. Making sustainable urbanization a strategic priority might be the only way to overcome the interrelated crises of jobless growth, youth unemployment, and income inequality. While some factory jobs can be outsourced or automated, robots cannot yet retrofit buildings, install solar PV cells on rooftops, or construct vertical farms.
 
 
Q.According to the passage, which one of the following statements is false?
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Mam Chand answered  •  4 hours ago
Option 1 is true from the following statement in the passage, "The future impact of global governance rests on forging new alignments that facilitate the flow of vital knowledge and technologies from an increasingly diverse array of sources to urban populations worldwide."
Option 3 is true from, "In fact, many useful innovations, such as energy-generating building materials and zero-emissions transportation, already exist; they simply need to be made accessible to those who need them most."
Option 4 is true from, "China has taken the lead in exporting solar photovoltaic cells, while clean-tech parks are arising even in the Arab world."
Option 5 is true from, "But existing efforts to alter the situation remain woefully inadequate."
Option 2 is false. The passage states, "But the “smartest” cities are not necessarily the most technologically advanced. Rather, they are the places where technology and public policy support citizens’ welfare and aspirations." Option 2 contradicts this.
Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

Group Question
Answer the following question based on the information given below.

Ten friends ranked 10 Indian newspapers from 1 to 10. It turned out that all of them gave a different rank to different newspapers and each newspaper was given a different rank by different friends.
Some data has been deliberately kept missing from the table.
 
Q. What is the rank that Aarif gave to Hindustan Times?
  • a)
    9
  • b)
    10
  • c)
    8
  • d)
    1
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Balwan Singh answered  •  4 hours ago
The missing ranks for TOI are: 3, 6 and 9 The missing ranks for Hindustan Times are: 1 and 8
The missing rank for Indian Express is: 8 The missing rank for New Indian Express is: 10
The missing rank for Deccan Herald is: 10 The missing rank for Deccan Chronicle is: 7
The missing rank by Rahul is: 3
The missing ranks by Aarif are: 1,9 and 10 The missing ranks by Amardeep are: 8 and 10
The missing rank by Mkhaya is: 8
The missing ranks by Viru are: 6 and 7 Thus, we can obtain detailed rank allocation as follows:
Thus, the rank given by Aarif to Hindustan Times is 1. Hence, option 4.

Instructions
Comprehension:
Three doctors, Dr. Ben, Dr. Kane and Dr. Wayne visit a particular clinic Monday to Saturday to see patients. Dr. Ben sees each patient for 10 minutes and charges Rs. 100/-. Dr. Kane sees each patient for 15 minutes and charges Rs. 200/-, while Dr. Wayne sees each patient for 25 minutes and charges Rs. 300/-. The clinic has three rooms numbered 1, 2 and 3 which are assigned to the three doctors as per the following table.

The clinic is open from 9 a.m. to 11.30 a.m. every Monday to Saturday.
On arrival each patient is handed a numbered token indicating their position in the queue, starting with token number 1 every day. As soon as any doctor becomes free, the next patient in the queue enters that emptied room for consultation.
If at any time, more than one room is free then the waiting patient enters the room with the smallest number. For example, if the next two patients in the queue have token numbers 7 and 8 and if rooms numbered 1 and 3 are free, then patient with token number 7 enters room number 1 and patient with token number 8 enters room number 3.
Q. Mr. Singh visited the clinic on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday of a particular week, arriving at 8:50 a.m. on each of the three days. His token number was 13 on all three days. On which day was he at the clinic for the maximum duration?
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Omparkash answered  •  4 hours ago
Mr Singh is 13th in the sequence on all the three days.
The following table will show the sequence for Monday, Wednesday and Friday.


He will stay the longest when the 13th guy is served by Doctor Wayne.
From the table, on Monday he had to wait at the clinic for the maximum duration: till 10:15.

Group Question
The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Water, electricity, transport, education, health, financial transactions — the average rural resident spends much more time on these pursuits than the average urban resident. The poor urban resident spends much more time on these pursuits than the rich urban resident. Stated differently, since some services have been outsourced, so to speak, the relatively rich person has more time to spend on more “productive” pursuits. Conversely, the relatively poor person spends a lot of time on “unproductive” pursuits that are unnecessarily in-sourced. Isn’t it surprising that there is little research in India on what poor people spend their time on? If you are poor, you will spend more of your income on food. If you are rich, you will have more discretionary income. There is plenty of stuff on distribution of consumption expenditure, nothing on distribution of time. Part of the reason is lack of data, since the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) asks questions on consumption expenditure, not on time expended. But surely it would be interesting to obtain answers to such questions?
Does it make a difference? Low per capita consumption expenditure and high share of time spent on unproductive pursuits are likely to be correlated. If nothing else, it makes a difference in terms of mindset. Consumption and income are outcomes of a process of engaging with the labour market. Time is more in the nature of an input. We have plenty of public expenditure schemes for what can broadly be called public goods and services. If we focus on consumption expenditure, the mindset is one of enhancing consumption expenditure and income and therefore, the lens becomes one of income transfers and subsidies, rather than the causes of low consumption expenditure or income. If, in addition (not as a replacement), we focus on time, we will begin to recognise that in-sourcing occurs because of a lack of collective goods. Whether it is Union or state resources, the kitty for public expenditure is limited. Because of market failures, there is scope for private-sector engagement in such areas, but it is also limited. Therefore, there is a question of prioritisation in the expenditure of public resources.
 
 
Q. What is the central idea of the passage?
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Subhash Chander answered  •  4 hours ago
The passage talks about how it is a rare knowledge that proper utilisation of time determines the mindset of rich and poor. The rarity of this knowledge can be attributed to the surveys that fail to keep track of time expended by each class. It goes on to elaborate on how time is an essential factor in determining the rich and poor mindsets. This is best reflected by option 3.
Option 1 is incorrect because different pursuits are mentioned in the passage only in order to validate the main argument presented by the passage. Hence, eliminate option 1 .
Option 2 is incorrect because the passage does not revolve around the spending habits of different classes of people.
Option 4 is incorrect because prioritization in the expenditure of public resources is a concluding part and not the main idea.
Option 5 is incorrect because the failure of surveys in capturing distribution of time information is a reason as to why the importance of time in compartmentalization of rich and poor was unaware of. Hence, eliminate option 5.
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

Surinder Kaur asked   •  2 hours ago

In December 2010 I appeared on John Stossel’s television special on scepticism on Fox Business News, during which I debunked numerous pseudoscientific beliefs. Stossel added his own scepticism of possible financial pseudoscience in the form of active investment fund managers who claim that they can consistently beat the market. In a dramatic visual demonstration, Stossel threw 30 darts into a page of stocks and compared their performance since January 1,2010, with stock picks of the 10 largest managed funds. Results: Dartboard, a 31 percent increase; managed funds, a 9.5 percent increase. Admitting that he got lucky because of his limited sample size, Stossel explained that had he thrown enough darts to fully represent the market he would have generated a 12 percent increase — the market average — a full 2.5 percentage points higher than the 10 largest managed funds average increase. As Princeton University economist Burton G. Malkiel elaborated on the show, over the past decade ‘more than two thirds of actively managed funds were beaten by a simple low-cost indexed fund [for example, a mutual fund invested in a large number of stocks], and the active funds that win in one period aren’t the same ones who win in the next period.’
Stossel cited a study in the journal Economics and Portfolio Strategy that tracked 452 managed funds from 1990 to 2009, finding that only 13 beat the market average. Equating managed fund directors to ‘snake-oil salesmen’, Malkiel said that Wall Street is selling Main Street on the belief that experts can consistently time the market and make accurate predictions of when to buy and sell. They can’t. No one can. Not even professional economists and not even for large-scale market indicators. As economics Nobel laureate Paul Samuelson long ago noted in a 1966 Newsweek column: ‘Commentators quote economic studies alleging that market downturns predicted four out of the last five recessions. That is an understatement. Wall Street indexes predicted nine out of the last five recessions!’ 
Even in a given tech area, where you might expect a greater level of specific expertise, economic forecasters fumble. On December 22, 2010, for example, the Wall Street Journal ran a piece on how the great hedge fund financier T. Boone Pickens (chair of BP Capital Management) just abandoned his ‘Pickens Plan’ of investing in wind energy. Pickens invested $2 billion based on his prediction that the price of natural gas would stay high. It didn’t, plummeting as the drilling industry’s ability to unlock methane from shale beds improved, a turn of events even an expert such as Pickens failed to see. Why are experts (along with us nonexperts) so bad at making predictions? The world is a messy, complex and contingent place with countless intervening variables and confounding factors, which our brains are not equipped to evaluate. We evolved the capacity to make snap decisions based on short-term predictions, not rational analysis about long-term investments, and so we deceive ourselves into thinking that experts can foresee the future. This self-deception among professional prognosticators was investigated by University of California, Berkeley, professor Philip E. Tetlock, as reported in his 2005 book Expert Political Judgment. After testing 284 experts in political science, economics, history and journalism in a staggering 82,361 predictions about the future, Tetlock concluded that they did little better than ‘a dart-throwing chimpanzee’. There was one significant factor in greater prediction success, however, and that was cognitive style: ‘foxes’ who know a little about many things do better than ‘hedgehogs’ who know a lot about one area of expertise. Low scorers, Tetlock wrote, were ‘thinkers who “know one big thing”, aggressively extend the explanatory reach of that one big thing into new domains, display bristly impatience with those who “do not get it”, and express considerable confidence that they are already pretty proficient forecasters.’ High scorers in the study were ‘thinkers who know many small things (tricks of their trade), are sceptical of grand schemes, see explanation and prediction not as deductive exercises but rather as exercises in flexible “ad hocery” that require stitching together diverse sources of information, and are rather diffident about their own forecasting prowess.’ Being deeply knowledgeable on one subject narrows focus and increases confidence but also blurs the value of dissenting views and transforms data collection into belief confirmation. One way to avoid being wrong is to be sceptical whenever you catch yourself making predictions based on reducing complex phenomena into one overarching scheme. This type of cognitive trap is why I don’t make predictions and why I never will.
 
 
Q. What is the difference between ‘foxes’ and ‘hedgehogs’? 
I. Foxes know many little things, while hedgehogs know one big thing.
II. Foxes know one big thing, while hedgehogs know many little things.
III. Foxes think of themselves as good predictors, while hedgehogs think the opposite of themselves.
IV. Foxes do not boast that they are good predictors, while hedgehogs think of themselves as highly skilled.
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Jamna Devi asked   •  2 hours ago

Group Question
Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

In December 2010 I appeared on John Stossel’s television special on scepticism on Fox Business News, during which I debunked numerous pseudoscientific beliefs. Stossel added his own scepticism of possible financial pseudoscience in the form of active investment fund managers who claim that they can consistently beat the market. In a dramatic visual demonstration, Stossel threw 30 darts into a page of stocks and compared their performance since January 1,2010, with stock picks of the 10 largest managed funds. Results: Dartboard, a 31 percent increase; managed funds, a 9.5 percent increase. Admitting that he got lucky because of his limited sample size, Stossel explained that had he thrown enough darts to fully represent the market he would have generated a 12 percent increase — the market average — a full 2.5 percentage points higher than the 10 largest managed funds average increase. As Princeton University economist Burton G. Malkiel elaborated on the show, over the past decade ‘more than two thirds of actively managed funds were beaten by a simple low-cost indexed fund [for example, a mutual fund invested in a large number of stocks], and the active funds that win in one period aren’t the same ones who win in the next period.’
Stossel cited a study in the journal Economics and Portfolio Strategy that tracked 452 managed funds from 1990 to 2009, finding that only 13 beat the market average. Equating managed fund directors to ‘snake-oil salesmen’, Malkiel said that Wall Street is selling Main Street on the belief that experts can consistently time the market and make accurate predictions of when to buy and sell. They can’t. No one can. Not even professional economists and not even for large-scale market indicators. As economics Nobel laureate Paul Samuelson long ago noted in a 1966 Newsweek column: ‘Commentators quote economic studies alleging that market downturns predicted four out of the last five recessions. That is an understatement. Wall Street indexes predicted nine out of the last five recessions!’ 
Even in a given tech area, where you might expect a greater level of specific expertise, economic forecasters fumble. On December 22, 2010, for example, the Wall Street Journal ran a piece on how the great hedge fund financier T. Boone Pickens (chair of BP Capital Management) just abandoned his ‘Pickens Plan’ of investing in wind energy. Pickens invested $2 billion based on his prediction that the price of natural gas would stay high. It didn’t, plummeting as the drilling industry’s ability to unlock methane from shale beds improved, a turn of events even an expert such as Pickens failed to see. Why are experts (along with us nonexperts) so bad at making predictions? The world is a messy, complex and contingent place with countless intervening variables and confounding factors, which our brains are not equipped to evaluate. We evolved the capacity to make snap decisions based on short-term predictions, not rational analysis about long-term investments, and so we deceive ourselves into thinking that experts can foresee the future. This self-deception among professional prognosticators was investigated by University of California, Berkeley, professor Philip E. Tetlock, as reported in his 2005 book Expert Political Judgment. After testing 284 experts in political science, economics, history and journalism in a staggering 82,361 predictions about the future, Tetlock concluded that they did little better than ‘a dart-throwing chimpanzee’. There was one significant factor in greater prediction success, however, and that was cognitive style: ‘foxes’ who know a little about many things do better than ‘hedgehogs’ who know a lot about one area of expertise. Low scorers, Tetlock wrote, were ‘thinkers who “know one big thing”, aggressively extend the explanatory reach of that one big thing into new domains, display bristly impatience with those who “do not get it”, and express considerable confidence that they are already pretty proficient forecasters.’ High scorers in the study were ‘thinkers who know many small things (tricks of their trade), are sceptical of grand schemes, see explanation and prediction not as deductive exercises but rather as exercises in flexible “ad hocery” that require stitching together diverse sources of information, and are rather diffident about their own forecasting prowess.’ Being deeply knowledgeable on one subject narrows focus and increases confidence but also blurs the value of dissenting views and transforms data collection into belief confirmation. One way to avoid being wrong is to be sceptical whenever you catch yourself making predictions based on reducing complex phenomena into one overarching scheme. This type of cognitive trap is why I don’t make predictions and why I never will.
 
 
Q. Match the person in the left column to a description of them  in the right column.
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Narinder Kumar asked   •  3 hours ago

Legrand Casino recently purchased a slot machine; a gaming machine, which had a main unit and five sub-units, labeled as Alpha, Gamma, Beta, Theta and Omega. The main as well as each of the sub-units had five slots, labeled as Red, Blue, Grey, Black and Yellow. The game with this slotting machine involved punching the right coin in the right slot in the right sequence i.e. one after another. For example, if coin number 3 is punched into slot Blue in Gamma sub-unit and if the main unit also pushes the coin to Blue slot, then the punch is said to be a winning shot. If the coin in the sub-unit is punched into the right slot when compared to the corresponding coin in the main unit, then the player gets Rs. 1,000 as reward. On the other hand, if the slots do not match then the player loses Rs. 333. Each player gets 25 coins to play.
However, after a couple of days this slotting machine developed a peculiar problem. In the sub-units irrespective of the slot you intended to put in the coin, the sub-unit pushed the coin into the slot it wanted to every time on its own. 
To find out which slots in the sub-units had developed the snag, the technician played on all the sub-units using 25 coins in each of the sub-units.
After some kind of analysis he found that the main machine and each of the sub-units could identify right slots for 15 coins, however for the balance of 10 coins listed below, each of the sub-units assumed different positions as right slots when compared to the main unit whose allocation of slots was the benchmark for performance of other sub-units. 
On playing with these sub-units, the technician earned Rs. 17,000, Rs. 11,660, Rs. 18,330, Rs. 14,330 and Rs. 18,330 respectively from each of Alpha, Gamma, Beta, Theta and Omega. All the amount being rounded off to previous tens figure. Of the ten slots which had developed the snag, there was atleast one sub-unit which identified the right slot for exactly 9 of the 10 slots. 
The table below gives the slots identified by each of the sub-units as right slots for the 10 problematic coins. 
Q. Which of these can never be a valid combination of correctly slotted coin numbers for the Alpha sub-unit?
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Surjit Kaur asked   •  3 hours ago

Instructions
Contemporary internet shopping conjures a perfect storm of choice anxiety. Research has consistently held that people who are presented with a few options make better, easier decisions than those presented with many. . . . Helping consumers figure out what to buy amid an endless sea of choice online has become a cottage industry unto itself. Many brands and retailers now wield marketing buzzwords such as curation, differentiation, and discovery as they attempt to sell an assortment of stuff targeted to their ideal customer. Companies find such shoppers through the data gold mine of digital advertising, which can catalog people by gender, income level, personal interests, and more. Since Americans have lost the ability to sort through the sheer volume of the consumer choices available to them, a ghost now has to be in the retail machine, whether it’s an algorithm, an influencer, or some snazzy ad tech to help a product follow you around the internet. Indeed, choice fatigue is one reason so many people gravitate toward lifestyle influencers on Instagram—the relentlessly chic young moms and perpetually vacationing 20-somethings—who present an aspirational worldview, and then recommend the products and services that help achieve it. . . .
For a relatively new class of consumer-products start-ups, th ere’s another method entirely. Instead of making sense of a sea of existing stuff, these companies claim to disrupt stuff as Americans know it. Casper (mattresses), Glossier (makeup), Away (suitcases), and many others have sprouted up to offer consumers freedom from choice: The companies have a few aesthetically pleasing and supposedly highly functional options, usually at mid-range prices.
They’re selling nice things, but maybe more importantly, they’re selling a confidence in those things, and an ability to opt out of the stuff rat race. . . .
One-thousand-dollar mattresses and $300 suitcases might solve choice anxiety for a certain tier of consumer, but the companies that sell them, along with those that attempt to massage the larger stuff economy into something navigable, are still just working within a consumer market that’s broken in systemic ways. The presence of so much stuff in America might be more valuable if it were more evenly distributed, but stuff’s creators tend to focus their energy on those who already have plenty. As options have expanded for people with disposable income, the opportunity to buy even basic things such as fresh food or quality diapers has contracted for much of America’s lower classes.
For start-ups that promise accessible simplicity, their very structure still might eventually push them toward overwhelming variety. Most of these companies are based on hundreds of millions of dollars of venture capital, the investors of which tend to expect a steep growth rate that can’t be achieved by selling one great mattress or one great sneaker. Casper has expanded into bedroom furniture and bed linens. Glossier, after years of marketing itself as no-makeup makeup that requires little skill to apply, recently launched a full line of glittering color cosmetics. There may be no way to opt out of stuff by buying into the right thing.
Q. A new food brand plans to launch a series of products in the American market. Which of the following product plans is most likely to be supported by the author of the passage?
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Sona Devi asked   •  3 hours ago

Instructions
Scientists recently discovered that Emperor Penguins—one of Antarctica’s most celebrated species—employ a particularly unusual technique for surviving the daily chill. As detailed in an article published today in the journal Biology Letters, the birds minimize heat loss by keeping the outer surface of their plumage below the temperature of the surrounding air. At the same time, the penguins’ thick plumage insulates their body and keeps it toasty. . . .
The researchers analyzed thermographic images . . . taken over roughly a month during June 2008. During that period, the average air temperature was 0.32 degrees Fahrenheit. At the same time, the majority of the plumage covering the penguins’ bodies was even colder: the surface of their warmest body part, their feet, was an average 1.76 degrees Fahrenheit, but the plumage on their heads, chests and backs were -1.84, -7.24 and -9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively. Overall, nearly the entire outer surface of the penguins’ bodies was below freezing at all times, except for their eyes and beaks. The scientists also used a computer simulation to determine how much heat was lost or gained from each part of the body - and discovered that by keeping their outer surface below air temperature, the birds might paradoxically be able to draw very slight amounts of heat from the air around them. The key to their trick is the difference between two different types of heat transfer: radiation and convection.
The penguins do lose internal body heat to the surrounding air through thermal radiation, just as our bodies do on a cold day. Because their bodies (but not surface plumage) are warmer than the surrounding air, heat gradually radiates outward over time, moving from a warmer material to a colder one. To maintain body temperature while losing heat, penguins, like all warm-blooded animals, rely on the metabolism of food. The penguins, though, have an additional strategy. Since their outer plumage is even colder than the air, the simulation showed that they might gain back a little of this heat through thermal convection—the transfer of heat via the movement of a fluid (in this case, the air). As the cold Antarctic air cycles around their bodies, slightly warmer air comes into contact with the plumage and donates minute amounts of heat back to the penguins, then cycles away at a slightly colder temperature.
Most of this heat, the researchers note, probably doesn’t make it all the way through the plumage and back to the penguins’ bodies, but it could make a slight difference. At the very least, the method by which a penguin’s plumage wicks heat from the bitterly cold air that surrounds it helps to cancel out some of the heat that’s radiating from its interior. And given the Emperors’ unusually demanding breeding cycle, every bit of warmth counts. . . . Since [penguins trek as far as 75 miles to the coast to breed and male penguins] don’t eat anything during [the incubation period of 64 days], conserving calories by giving up as little heat as possible is absolutely crucial.
Q. Which of the following best explains the purpose of the word “paradoxically” as used by the author?
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Sandhya Das asked   •  3 hours ago

Instructions
Comprehension:
Around the world, capital cities are disgorging bureaucrats. In the post-colonial fervour of the 20th century, coastal capitals picked by trade-focused empires were spurned for “regionally neutral” new ones . . . . But decamping wholesale is costly and unpopular; governments these days prefer piecemeal dispersal. The trend reflects how the world has changed. In past eras, when information travelled at a snail’s pace, civil servants had to cluster together. But now desk-workers can ping emails and video-chat around the world. Travel for face-to-face meetings may be unavoidable, but transport links, too, have improved. . . .
Proponents of moving civil servants around promise countless benefits. It disperses the risk that a terrorist attack or natural disaster will cripple an entire government. Wonks in the sticks will be inspired by new ideas that walled-off capitals cannot conjure up. Autonomous regulators perform best far from the pressure and lobbying of the big city.
Some even hail a cure for ascendant cynicism and populism. The unloved bureaucrats of faraway capitals will become as popular as firefighters once they mix with regular folk.
Beyond these sunny visions, dispersing central-government functions usually has three specific aims: to improve the lives of both civil servants and those living in clogged capitals; to save money; and to redress regional imbalances. The trouble is that these goals are not always realised.
The first aim—improving living conditions—has a long pedigree. After the second world war Britain moved thousands of civil servants to “agreeable English country towns” as London was rebuilt. But swapping the capital for somewhere smaller is not always agreeable. Attrition rates can exceed 80%. . . . The second reason to pack bureaucrats off is to save money. Office space costs far more in capitals. . . . Agencies that are moved elsewhere can often recruit better workers on lower salaries than in capitals, where well-paying multinationals mop up talent.
The third reason to shift is to rebalance regional inequality. . . . Norway treats federal jobs as a resource every region deserves to enjoy, like profits from oil. Where government jobs go, private ones follow. . . . Sometimes the aim is to fulfil the potential of a country’s second-tier cities. Unlike poor, remote places, bigger cities can make the most of relocated government agencies, linking them to local universities and businesses and supplying a better-educated workforce. The decision in 1946 to set up America’s Centres for Disease Control in Atlanta rather than Washington, D.C., has transformed the city into a hub for health-sector research and business. 
The dilemma is obvious. Pick small, poor towns, and areas of high unemployment get new jobs, but it is hard to attract the most qualified workers; opt for larger cities with infrastructure and better-qualified residents, and the country’s most deprived areas see little benefit. . .
Others contend that decentralisation begets corruption by making government agencies less accountable. . . . A study in America found that state-government corruption is worse when the state capital is isolated—journalists, who tend to live in the bigger cities, become less watchful of those in power.
Q. According to the passage, colonial powers located their capitals:
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Parmjit Kaur asked   •  3 hours ago

Instructions
Comprehension:
War, natural disasters and climate change are destroying some of the world's most precious cultural sites. Google is trying to help preserve these archaeological wonders by allowing users access to 3D images of these treasures through its site. But the project is raising questions about Google's motivations and about who should own the digital copyrights.
Some critics call it a form of "digital colonialism." When it comes to archaeological treasures, the losses have been mounting. ISIS blew up parts of the ancient city of Palmyra in Syria and an earthquake hit Bagan, an ancient city in Myanmar, damaging dozens of temples, in 2016. In the past, all archaeologists and historians had for restoration and research were photos, drawings, remnants and intuition. But that's changing. Before the earthquake at Bagan, many of the temples on the site were scanned. . . . [These] scans . . . are on Google's Arts & Culture site. The digital renditions allow viewers to virtually wander the halls of the temple, look up-close at paintings and turn the building over, to look up at its chambers. . . . [Google Arts & Culture] works with museums and other nonprofits . . . to put high-quality images online. The images of the temples in Bagan are part of a collaboration with CyArk, a nonprofit that creates the 3D scanning of historic sites. . . . Google . . . says [it] doesn't make money off this website, but it fits in with Google's mission to make the world's information available and useful.
Critics say the collaboration could be an attempt by a large corporation to wrap itself in the sheen of culture. Ethan Watrall, an archaeologist, professor at Michigan State University and a member of the Society for American Archaeology, says he's not comfortable with the arrangement between CyArk and Google. . . . Watrall says this project is just a way for Google to promote Google. "They want to make this material accessible so people will browse it and be filled with wonder by it," he says. "But at its core, it's all about advertisements and driving traffic." Watrall says these images belong on the site of a museum or educational institution, where there is serious scholarship and a very different mission. . . . [There's] another issue for some archaeologists and art historians.
CyArk owns the copyrights of the scans — not the countries where these sites are located. That means the countries need CyArk's permission to use these images for commercial purposes.
Erin Thompson, a professor of art crime at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York City, says it's the latest example of a Western nation appropriating a foreign culture, a centuries-long battle. . . . CyArk says it copyrights the scans so no one can use them in an inappropriate way. The company says it works closely with authorities during the process, even training local people to help. But critics like Thompson are not persuaded. . . . She would prefer the scans to be owned by the countries and people where these sites are located.
Q. Of the following arguments, which one is LEAST likely to be used by the companies that digitally scan cultural sites?
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Reshama asked   •  3 hours ago

Instructions
Comprehension:
Around the world, capital cities are disgorging bureaucrats. In the post-colonial fervour of the 20th century, coastal capitals picked by trade-focused empires were spurned for “regionally neutral” new ones . . . . But decamping wholesale is costly and unpopular; governments these days prefer piecemeal dispersal. The trend reflects how the world has changed. In past eras, when information travelled at a snail’s pace, civil servants had to cluster together. But now desk-workers can ping emails and video-chat around the world. Travel for face-to-face meetings may be unavoidable, but transport links, too, have improved. . . .
Proponents of moving civil servants around promise countless benefits. It disperses the risk that a terrorist attack or natural disaster will cripple an entire government. Wonks in the sticks will be inspired by new ideas that walled-off capitals cannot conjure up. Autonomous regulators perform best far from the pressure and lobbying of the big city.
Some even hail a cure for ascendant cynicism and populism. The unloved bureaucrats of faraway capitals will become as popular as firefighters once they mix with regular folk.
Beyond these sunny visions, dispersing central-government functions usually has three specific aims: to improve the lives of both civil servants and those living in clogged capitals; to save money; and to redress regional imbalances. The trouble is that these goals are not always realised.
The first aim—improving living conditions—has a long pedigree. After the second world war Britain moved thousands of civil servants to “agreeable English country towns” as London was rebuilt. But swapping the capital for somewhere smaller is not always agreeable. Attrition rates can exceed 80%. . . . The second reason to pack bureaucrats off is to save money. Office space costs far more in capitals. . . . Agencies that are moved elsewhere can often recruit better workers on lower salaries than in capitals, where well-paying multinationals mop up talent.
The third reason to shift is to rebalance regional inequality. . . . Norway treats federal jobs as a resource every region deserves to enjoy, like profits from oil. Where government jobs go, private ones follow. . . . Sometimes the aim is to fulfil the potential of a country’s second-tier cities. Unlike poor, remote places, bigger cities can make the most of relocated government agencies, linking them to local universities and businesses and supplying a better-educated workforce. The decision in 1946 to set up America’s Centres for Disease Control in Atlanta rather than Washington, D.C., has transformed the city into a hub for health-sector research and business. 
The dilemma is obvious. Pick small, poor towns, and areas of high unemployment get new jobs, but it is hard to attract the most qualified workers; opt for larger cities with infrastructure and better-qualified residents, and the country’s most deprived areas see little benefit. . .
Others contend that decentralisation begets corruption by making government agencies less accountable. . . . A study in America found that state-government corruption is worse when the state capital is isolated—journalists, who tend to live in the bigger cities, become less watchful of those in power.
Q. The “dilemma” mentioned in the passage refers to:
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Lalta Parsad asked   •  3 hours ago

Instructions
Comprehension:
Around the world, capital cities are disgorging bureaucrats. In the post-colonial fervour of the 20th century, coastal capitals picked by trade-focused empires were spurned for “regionally neutral” new ones . . . . But decamping wholesale is costly and unpopular; governments these days prefer piecemeal dispersal. The trend reflects how the world has changed. In past eras, when information travelled at a snail’s pace, civil servants had to cluster together. But now desk-workers can ping emails and video-chat around the world. Travel for face-to-face meetings may be unavoidable, but transport links, too, have improved. . . .
Proponents of moving civil servants around promise countless benefits. It disperses the risk that a terrorist attack or natural disaster will cripple an entire government. Wonks in the sticks will be inspired by new ideas that walled-off capitals cannot conjure up. Autonomous regulators perform best far from the pressure and lobbying of the big city.
Some even hail a cure for ascendant cynicism and populism. The unloved bureaucrats of faraway capitals will become as popular as firefighters once they mix with regular folk.
Beyond these sunny visions, dispersing central-government functions usually has three specific aims: to improve the lives of both civil servants and those living in clogged capitals; to save money; and to redress regional imbalances. The trouble is that these goals are not always realised.
The first aim—improving living conditions—has a long pedigree. After the second world war Britain moved thousands of civil servants to “agreeable English country towns” as London was rebuilt. But swapping the capital for somewhere smaller is not always agreeable. Attrition rates can exceed 80%. . . . The second reason to pack bureaucrats off is to save money. Office space costs far more in capitals. . . . Agencies that are moved elsewhere can often recruit better workers on lower salaries than in capitals, where well-paying multinationals mop up talent.
The third reason to shift is to rebalance regional inequality. . . . Norway treats federal jobs as a resource every region deserves to enjoy, like profits from oil. Where government jobs go, private ones follow. . . . Sometimes the aim is to fulfil the potential of a country’s second-tier cities. Unlike poor, remote places, bigger cities can make the most of relocated government agencies, linking them to local universities and businesses and supplying a better-educated workforce. The decision in 1946 to set up America’s Centres for Disease Control in Atlanta rather than Washington, D.C., has transformed the city into a hub for health-sector research and business. 
The dilemma is obvious. Pick small, poor towns, and areas of high unemployment get new jobs, but it is hard to attract the most qualified workers; opt for larger cities with infrastructure and better-qualified residents, and the country’s most deprived areas see little benefit. . .
Others contend that decentralisation begets corruption by making government agencies less accountable. . . . A study in America found that state-government corruption is worse when the state capital is isolated—journalists, who tend to live in the bigger cities, become less watchful of those in power.
Q. People who support decentralising central government functions are LEAST likely to cite which of the following reasons for their view?
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Parkasho Sharma asked   •  3 hours ago

Instructions
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Economists have spent most of the 20th century ignoring psychology, positive or otherwise. But today there is a great deal of emphasis on how happiness can shape global economies, or — on a smaller scale — successful business practice. This is driven, in part, by a trend in "measuring" positive emotions, mostly so they can be optimized.
Neuroscientists, for example, claim to be able to locate specific emotions, such as happiness or disappointment, in particular areas of the brain. Wearable technologies, such as Spire, offer data-driven advice on how to reduce stress.
We are no longer just dealing with "happiness" in a philosophical or romantic sense — it has become something that can be monitored and measured, including by our behavior, use of social media and bodily indicators such as pulse rate and facial expressions.
There is nothing automatically sinister about this trend. But it is disquieting that the businesses and experts driving the quantification of happiness claim to have our best interests at heart, often concealing their own agendas in the process.
In the workplace, happy workers are viewed as a "win-win." Work becomes more pleasant, and employees, more productive. But this is now being pursued through the use of performance-evaluating wearable technology, such as Humanyze or Virgin Pulse, both of which monitor physical signs of stress and activity toward the goal of increasing productivity.
Cities such as Dubai, which has pledged to become the "happiest city in the world," dream up ever-more elaborate and intrusive ways of collecting data on well-being — to the point where there is now talk of using CCTV cameras to monitor facial expressions in public spaces. New ways of detecting emotions are hitting the market all the time: One company, Beyond Verbal, aims to calculate moods conveyed in a phone conversation, potentially without the knowledge of at least one of the participants. And Facebook [has] demonstrated . . . that it could influence our emotions through tweaking our news feeds — opening the door to ever-more targeted manipulation in advertising and influence.
As the science grows more sophisticated and technologies become more intimate with our thoughts and bodies, a clear trend is emerging. Where happiness indicators were once used as a basis to reform society, challenging the obsession with money that G.D.P. measurement entrenches, they are increasingly used as a basis to transform or discipline individuals.
Happiness becomes a personal project, that each of us must now work on, like going to the gym. Since the 1970s, depression has come to be viewed as a cognitive or neurological defect in the individual, and never a consequence of circumstances. All of this simply escalates the sense of responsibility each of us feels for our own feelings, and with it, the sense of failure when things go badly. A society that deliberately removed certain sources of misery, such as precarious and exploitative employment, may well be a happier one. But we won't get there by making this single, often fleeting emotion, the over-arching goal.
Q. From the passage we can infer that the author would like economists to:
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Harwinder Kaur asked   •  3 hours ago

Instructions
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

When researchers at Emory University in Atlanta trained mice to fear the smell of almonds (by pairing it with electric shocks), they found, to their consternation, that both the children and grandchildren of these mice were spontaneously afraid of the same smell. That is not supposed to happen. Generations of schoolchildren have been taught that the inheritance of acquired characteristics is impossible. A mouse should not be born with something its parents have learned during their lifetimes, any more than a mouse that loses its tail in an accident should give birth to tailless mice. . . .
Modern evolutionary biology dates back to a synthesis that emerged around the 1940s-60s, which married Charles Darwin’s mechanism of natural selection with Gregor Mendel’s discoveries of how genes are inherited. The traditional, and still dominant, view is that adaptations - from the human brain to the peacock’s tail - are fully and satisfactorily explained by natural selection (and subsequent inheritance). Yet [new evidence] from genomics, epigenetics and developmental biology [indicates] that evolution is more complex than we once assumed. . . .
In his book On Human Nature (1978), the evolutionary biologist Edward O Wilson claimed that human culture is held on a genetic leash. The metaphor [needs revision]. . . . Imagine a dog-walker (the genes) struggling to retain control of a brawny mastiff (human culture). The pair’s trajectory (the pathway of evolution) reflects the outcome of the struggle.
Now imagine the same dog-walker struggling with multiple dogs, on leashes of varied lengths, with each dog tugging in different directions. All these tugs represent the influence of developmental factors, including epigenetics, antibodies and hormones passed on by parents, as well as the ecological legacies and culture they bequeath. . . .
The received wisdom is that parental experiences can’t affect the characters of their offspring. Except they do. The way that genes are expressed to produce an organism’s phenotype - the actual characteristics it ends up with - is affected by chemicals that attach to them. Everything from diet to air pollution to parental behaviour can influence the addition or removal of these chemical marks, which switches genes on or off. Usually these socalled ‘epigenetic’ attachments are removed during the production of sperm and eggs cells, but it turns out that some escape the resetting process and are passed on to the next generation, along with the genes. This is known as ‘epigenetic inheritance’, and more and more studies are confirming that it really happens. Let’s return to the almond-fearing mice. The inheritance of an epigenetic mark transmitted in the sperm is what led the mice’s offspring to acquire an inherited fear. . . .
Epigenetics is only part of the story. Through culture and society, [humans and other animals] inherit knowledge and skills acquired by [their] parents. . . . All this complexity . . . points to an evolutionary process in which genomes (over hundreds to thousands of generations), epigenetic modifications and inherited cultural factors (over several, perhaps tens or hundreds of generations), and parental effects (over single-generation timespans) collectively inform how organisms adapt. These extra-genetic kinds of inheritance give organisms the flexibility to make rapid adjustments to environmental challenges, dragging genetic change in their wake - much like a rowdy pack of dogs.
Q. Which of the following options best describes the author's argument?
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Raj Rani asked   •  3 hours ago

Instructions
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
The only thing worse than being lied to is not knowing you’re being lied to. It’s true that plastic pollution is a huge problem, of planetary proportions. And it’s true we could all do more to reduce our plastic footprint. The lie is that blame for the plastic problem is wasteful consumers and that changing our individual habits will fix it.
Recycling plastic is to saving the Earth what hammering a nail is to halting a falling skyscraper. You struggle to find a place to do it and feel pleased when you succeed. But your effort is wholly inadequate and distracts from the real problem of why the building is collapsing in the first place. The real problem is that single-use plastic—the very idea of producing plastic items like grocery bags, which we use for an average of 12 minutes but can persist in the environment for half a millennium—is an incredibly reckless abuse of technology. Encouraging individuals to recycle more will never solve the problem of a massive production of single-use plastic that should have been avoided in the first place.
As an ecologist and evolutionary biologist, I have had a disturbing window into the accumulating literature on the hazards of plastic pollution. Scientists have long recognized that plastics biodegrade slowly, if at all, and pose multiple threats to wildlife through entanglement and consumption. More recent reports highlight dangers posed by absorption of toxic chemicals in the water and by plastic odors that mimic some species’ natural food. Plastics also accumulate up the food chain, and studies now show that we are likely ingesting it ourselves in seafood. . . .
Beginning in the 1950s, big beverage companies like Coca-Cola and Anheuser-Busch, along with Phillip Morris and others, formed a non-profit called Keep America Beautiful. Its mission is/was to educate and encourage environmental stewardship in the public. . . . At face value, these efforts seem benevolent, but they obscure the real problem, which is the role that corporate polluters play in the plastic problem. This clever misdirection has led journalist and author Heather Rogers to describe Keep America Beautiful as the first corporate greenwashing front, as it has helped shift the public focus to consumer recycling behavior and actively thwarted legislation that would increase extended producer responsibility for waste management. . . . [T]he greatest success of Keep America Beautiful has been to shift the onus of environmental responsibility onto the public while simultaneously becoming a trusted name in the environmental movement. . . .
So what can we do to make responsible use of plastic a reality? First: reject the lie. Litterbugs are not responsible for the global ecological disaster of plastic. Humans can only function to the best of their abilities, given time, mental bandwidth and systemic constraints. Our huge problem with plastic is the result of a permissive legal framework that has allowed the uncontrolled rise of plastic pollution, despite clear evidence of the harm it causes to local communities and the world’s oceans. Recycling is also too hard in most parts of the U.S. and lacks the proper incentives to make it work well.
Q. The author lists all of the following as negative effects of the use of plastics EXCEPT the:
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Sheela Devi asked   •  3 hours ago

Instructions
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
The only thing worse than being lied to is not knowing you’re being lied to. It’s true that plastic pollution is a huge problem, of planetary proportions. And it’s true we could all do more to reduce our plastic footprint. The lie is that blame for the plastic problem is wasteful consumers and that changing our individual habits will fix it.
Recycling plastic is to saving the Earth what hammering a nail is to halting a falling skyscraper. You struggle to find a place to do it and feel pleased when you succeed. But your effort is wholly inadequate and distracts from the real problem of why the building is collapsing in the first place. The real problem is that single-use plastic—the very idea of producing plastic items like grocery bags, which we use for an average of 12 minutes but can persist in the environment for half a millennium—is an incredibly reckless abuse of technology. Encouraging individuals to recycle more will never solve the problem of a massive production of single-use plastic that should have been avoided in the first place.
As an ecologist and evolutionary biologist, I have had a disturbing window into the accumulating literature on the hazards of plastic pollution. Scientists have long recognized that plastics biodegrade slowly, if at all, and pose multiple threats to wildlife through entanglement and consumption. More recent reports highlight dangers posed by absorption of toxic chemicals in the water and by plastic odors that mimic some species’ natural food. Plastics also accumulate up the food chain, and studies now show that we are likely ingesting it ourselves in seafood. . . .
Beginning in the 1950s, big beverage companies like Coca-Cola and Anheuser-Busch, along with Phillip Morris and others, formed a non-profit called Keep America Beautiful. Its mission is/was to educate and encourage environmental stewardship in the public. . . . At face value, these efforts seem benevolent, but they obscure the real problem, which is the role that corporate polluters play in the plastic problem. This clever misdirection has led journalist and author Heather Rogers to describe Keep America Beautiful as the first corporate greenwashing front, as it has helped shift the public focus to consumer recycling behavior and actively thwarted legislation that would increase extended producer responsibility for waste management. . . . [T]he greatest success of Keep America Beautiful has been to shift the onus of environmental responsibility onto the public while simultaneously becoming a trusted name in the environmental movement. . . .
So what can we do to make responsible use of plastic a reality? First: reject the lie. Litterbugs are not responsible for the global ecological disaster of plastic. Humans can only function to the best of their abilities, given time, mental bandwidth and systemic constraints. Our huge problem with plastic is the result of a permissive legal framework that has allowed the uncontrolled rise of plastic pollution, despite clear evidence of the harm it causes to local communities and the world’s oceans. Recycling is also too hard in most parts of the U.S. and lacks the proper incentives to make it work well.
Q. Which of the following interventions would the author most strongly support:
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Om Parkash asked   •  3 hours ago

Instructions
Read the passage carefully and answer the given questions

The complexity of modern problems often precludes any one person from fully understanding them. Factors contributing to rising obesity levels, for example, include transportation systems and infrastructure, media, convenience foods, changing social norms, human biology and psychological factors. . . . The multidimensional or layered character of complex problems also undermines the principle of meritocracy: the idea that the ‘best person’ should be hired. There is no best person. When putting together an oncological research team, a biotech company such as Gilead or Genentech would not construct a multiple-choice test and hire the top scorers, or hire people whose resumes score highest according to some performance criteria. Instead, they would seek diversity. They would build a team of people who bring diverse knowledge bases, tools and analytic skills. . . .
Believers in a meritocracy might grant that teams ought to be diverse but then argue that meritocratic principles should apply within each category. Thus the team should consist of the ‘best’ mathematicians, the ‘best’ oncologists, and the ‘best’ biostatisticians from within the pool. That position suffers from a similar flaw. Even with a knowledge domain, no test or criteria applied to individuals will produce the best team. Each of these domains possesses such depth and breadth, that no test can exist. Consider the field of neuroscience. Upwards of 50,000 papers were published last year covering various techniques, domains of enquiry and levels of analysis, ranging from molecules and synapses up through networks of neurons. Given that complexity, any attempt to rank a collection of neuroscientists from best to worst, as if they were competitors in the 50-metre butterfly, must fail. What could be true is that given a specific task and the composition of a particular team, one scientist would be more likely to contribute than another. Optimal hiring depends on context. Optimal teams will be diverse.
Evidence for this claim can be seen in the way that papers and patents that combine diverse ideas tend to rank as highimpact. It can also be found in the structure of the so-called random decision forest, a state-of-the-art machine-learning algorithm. Random forests consist of ensembles of decision trees. If classifying pictures, each tree makes a vote: is that a picture of a fox or a dog? A weighted majority rules. Random forests can serve many ends. They can identify bank fraud and diseases, recommend ceiling fans and predict online dating behaviour. When building a forest, you do not select the best trees as they tend to make similar classifications. You want diversity. Programmers achieve that diversity by training each tree on different data, a technique known as bagging. They also boost the forest ‘cognitively’ by training trees on the hardest cases - those that the current forest gets wrong. This ensures even more diversity and accurate forests.
Yet the fallacy of meritocracy persists. Corporations, non-profits, governments, universities and even preschools test, score and hire the ‘best’. This all but guarantees not creating the best team. Ranking people by common criteria produces homogeneity. . . . That’s not likely to lead to breakthroughs.
Q. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the example of neuroscience?
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Manorma Kashyap asked   •  3 hours ago

Instructions
Read the passage carefully and answer the given questions

The complexity of modern problems often precludes any one person from fully understanding them. Factors contributing to rising obesity levels, for example, include transportation systems and infrastructure, media, convenience foods, changing social norms, human biology and psychological factors. . . . The multidimensional or layered character of complex problems also undermines the principle of meritocracy: the idea that the ‘best person’ should be hired. There is no best person. When putting together an oncological research team, a biotech company such as Gilead or Genentech would not construct a multiple-choice test and hire the top scorers, or hire people whose resumes score highest according to some performance criteria. Instead, they would seek diversity. They would build a team of people who bring diverse knowledge bases, tools and analytic skills. . . .
Believers in a meritocracy might grant that teams ought to be diverse but then argue that meritocratic principles should apply within each category. Thus the team should consist of the ‘best’ mathematicians, the ‘best’ oncologists, and the ‘best’ biostatisticians from within the pool. That position suffers from a similar flaw. Even with a knowledge domain, no test or criteria applied to individuals will produce the best team. Each of these domains possesses such depth and breadth, that no test can exist. Consider the field of neuroscience. Upwards of 50,000 papers were published last year covering various techniques, domains of enquiry and levels of analysis, ranging from molecules and synapses up through networks of neurons. Given that complexity, any attempt to rank a collection of neuroscientists from best to worst, as if they were competitors in the 50-metre butterfly, must fail. What could be true is that given a specific task and the composition of a particular team, one scientist would be more likely to contribute than another. Optimal hiring depends on context. Optimal teams will be diverse.
Evidence for this claim can be seen in the way that papers and patents that combine diverse ideas tend to rank as highimpact. It can also be found in the structure of the so-called random decision forest, a state-of-the-art machine-learning algorithm. Random forests consist of ensembles of decision trees. If classifying pictures, each tree makes a vote: is that a picture of a fox or a dog? A weighted majority rules. Random forests can serve many ends. They can identify bank fraud and diseases, recommend ceiling fans and predict online dating behaviour. When building a forest, you do not select the best trees as they tend to make similar classifications. You want diversity. Programmers achieve that diversity by training each tree on different data, a technique known as bagging. They also boost the forest ‘cognitively’ by training trees on the hardest cases - those that the current forest gets wrong. This ensures even more diversity and accurate forests.
Yet the fallacy of meritocracy persists. Corporations, non-profits, governments, universities and even preschools test, score and hire the ‘best’. This all but guarantees not creating the best team. Ranking people by common criteria produces homogeneity. . . . That’s not likely to lead to breakthroughs.
Q. Which of the following conditions, if true, would invalidate the passage’s main argument?
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Babru Bhan asked   •  3 hours ago

                                                                                     Group Question
Answer the following question based on the information given below.
Legrand Casino recently purchased a slot machine; a gaming machine, which had a main unit and five sub-units, labeled as Alpha, Gamma, Beta, Theta and Omega. The main as well as each of the sub-units had five slots, labeled as Red, Blue, Grey, Black and Yellow. The game with this slotting machine involved punching the right coin in the right slot in the right sequence i.e. one after another. For example, if coin number 3 is punched into slot Blue in Gamma sub-unit and if the main unit also pushes the coin to Blue slot, then the punch is said to be a winning shot. If the coin in the sub-unit is punched into the right slot when compared to the corresponding coin in the main unit, then the player gets Rs. 1,000 as reward. On the other hand, if the slots do not match then the player loses Rs. 333. Each player gets 25 coins to play.
However, after a couple of days this slotting machine developed a peculiar problem. In the sub-units irrespective of the slot you intended to put in the coin, the sub-unit pushed the coin into the slot it wanted to every time on its own. 
To find out which slots in the sub-units had developed the snag, the technician played on all the sub-units using 25 coins in each of the sub-units.
After some kind of analysis he found that the main machine and each of the sub-units could identify right slots for 15 coins, however for the balance of 10 coins listed below, each of the sub-units assumed different positions as right slots when compared to the main unit whose allocation of slots was the benchmark for performance of other sub-units. 
On playing with these sub-units, the technician earned Rs. 17,000, Rs. 11,660, Rs. 18,330, Rs. 14,330 and Rs. 18,330 respectively from each of Alpha, Gamma, Beta, Theta and Omega. All the amount being rounded off to previous tens figure. Of the ten slots which had developed the snag, there was atleast one sub-unit which identified the right slot for exactly 9 of the 10 slots. 
The table below gives the slots identified by each of the sub-units as right slots for the 10 problematic coins. 
Q. What is the median value of the number of incorrect slots  individually identified by the 5 sub-units? 
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Birmi Devi asked   •  3 hours ago

It was almost 15 years ago that I first met Baba Amte in Hemalkasa. I was reporting from the Nagpur legislature session and decided to travel to the place where Amte’s son Dr Prakash provides medical treatment for free to tribals from Gadchiroli and neighbouring districts from Andhra Pradesh. There was a long weekend and we decided to put it to good use by visiting the Amtes and seeing their work first hand. Dr Prakash told us to be ready at 7 am sharp and join Baba for a morning walk. Well, it was not at all a walk. We were literally jogging to keep pace with the 85 year young Baba as he sprinted with the spirit of a deer. Huffing and puffing, we asked him so many questions - personal included (he was an atheist and his wife Sadhana who joined us in the walk was an ardent devotee of Lord Shiva) - and Baba was more than happy to answer us. It was an amazing love story and it really takes something to stay married to a man who was crazy enough to inject himself with leprosy-causing bacteria to test the efficacy of the vaccine. While Baba was fired up by the cause, Sadhanatai believed in him and loved him in an absolute selfless manner.
Coming back to Baba, we asked him what future did he see for India when the communal fire seemed to be engulfing it. And he laughed. "Oh, this keeps happening all the time. We have seen this during Bapu’s time, then we saw during Khalistan and we have seen that again during the 90s. We have done well, haven’t we? I believe in youth and I know they will always shun violence," Baba said. We were amazed by the positivity he showed and we asked him if he was ever depressed in his life. "When you see people shunned by the society just because they were afflicted by a disease and when you see the life they go through, you know your life is far better. I have two eyes, two ears, all my limbs are absolutely fine. What more do you want to stay positive?" By the time we returned to the government rest house after the invigorating 'walk', we were fully mesmerized by the man. From Baba, who took up the Gandhian cause and followed it in true spirit, his wife Sadhana who simply followed him no questions asked, his sons Dr Prakash and Dr Vikas or his grandson who was not lured by any of the urban pleasures of life, each person was worthy of great respect.
 
Q. Which word best describes Baba Amte?
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Krishna Devi asked   •  4 hours ago

In December 2010 I appeared on John Stossel’s television special on scepticism on Fox Business News, during which I debunked numerous pseudoscientific beliefs. Stossel added his own scepticism of possible financial pseudoscience in the form of active investment fund managers who claim that they can consistently beat the market. In a dramatic visual demonstration, Stossel threw 30 darts into a page of stocks and compared their performance since January 1,2010, with stock picks of the 10 largest managed funds. Results: Dartboard, a 31 percent increase; managed funds, a 9.5 percent increase. Admitting that he got lucky because of his limited sample size, Stossel explained that had he thrown enough darts to fully represent the market he would have generated a 12 percent increase — the market average — a full 2.5 percentage points higher than the 10 largest managed funds average increase. As Princeton University economist Burton G. Malkiel elaborated on the show, over the past decade ‘more than two thirds of actively managed funds were beaten by a simple low-cost indexed fund [for example, a mutual fund invested in a large number of stocks], and the active funds that win in one period aren’t the same ones who win in the next period.’
Stossel cited a study in the journal Economics and Portfolio Strategy that tracked 452 managed funds from 1990 to 2009, finding that only 13 beat the market average. Equating managed fund directors to ‘snake-oil salesmen’, Malkiel said that Wall Street is selling Main Street on the belief that experts can consistently time the market and make accurate predictions of when to buy and sell. They can’t. No one can. Not even professional economists and not even for large-scale market indicators. As economics Nobel laureate Paul Samuelson long ago noted in a 1966 Newsweek column: ‘Commentators quote economic studies alleging that market downturns predicted four out of the last five recessions. That is an understatement. Wall Street indexes predicted nine out of the last five recessions!’ 
Even in a given tech area, where you might expect a greater level of specific expertise, economic forecasters fumble. On December 22, 2010, for example, the Wall Street Journal ran a piece on how the great hedge fund financier T. Boone Pickens (chair of BP Capital Management) just abandoned his ‘Pickens Plan’ of investing in wind energy. Pickens invested $2 billion based on his prediction that the price of natural gas would stay high. It didn’t, plummeting as the drilling industry’s ability to unlock methane from shale beds improved, a turn of events even an expert such as Pickens failed to see. Why are experts (along with us nonexperts) so bad at making predictions? The world is a messy, complex and contingent place with countless intervening variables and confounding factors, which our brains are not equipped to evaluate. We evolved the capacity to make snap decisions based on short-term predictions, not rational analysis about long-term investments, and so we deceive ourselves into thinking that experts can foresee the future. This self-deception among professional prognosticators was investigated by University of California, Berkeley, professor Philip E. Tetlock, as reported in his 2005 book Expert Political Judgment. After testing 284 experts in political science, economics, history and journalism in a staggering 82,361 predictions about the future, Tetlock concluded that they did little better than ‘a dart-throwing chimpanzee’. There was one significant factor in greater prediction success, however, and that was cognitive style: ‘foxes’ who know a little about many things do better than ‘hedgehogs’ who know a lot about one area of expertise. Low scorers, Tetlock wrote, were ‘thinkers who “know one big thing”, aggressively extend the explanatory reach of that one big thing into new domains, display bristly impatience with those who “do not get it”, and express considerable confidence that they are already pretty proficient forecasters.’ High scorers in the study were ‘thinkers who know many small things (tricks of their trade), are sceptical of grand schemes, see explanation and prediction not as deductive exercises but rather as exercises in flexible “ad hocery” that require stitching together diverse sources of information, and are rather diffident about their own forecasting prowess.’ Being deeply knowledgeable on one subject narrows focus and increases confidence but also blurs the value of dissenting views and transforms data collection into belief confirmation. One way to avoid being wrong is to be sceptical whenever you catch yourself making predictions based on reducing complex phenomena into one overarching scheme. This type of cognitive trap is why I don’t make predictions and why I never will.
 
 
Q. What does Paul Samuelson’s statement ‘Wall Street indexes predicted nine out of the last five recessions!’ imply?
I. Wall Street indexes are too pessimistic in their predictions.
II. Wall Street indexes need to be more optimistic about their predictions.
III. Wall Street indexes are much better at predicting recessions than anyone realizes.
IV. Wall Street indexes make plenty of extreme predictions, out of which only some come true.
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Vedant Singh asked   •  4 hours ago

Group Question
Answer the following question based on the information given below.
 
i. Ten chairs numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 are situated adjacent to one another in two different rows. Both rows contain five chairs each facing each other.
ii. Ten Indian cricketers are sitting on these chairs. They are Shikar, Rohit, Virat, Yuvraj, Suresh, Mahendra, Ravichandran, Hardik, Jasprit and Ashish, not necessarily in the same order.
iii. Odd numbered cannot be opposite or adjacent to odd numbered chairs. The same applies to even numbered chairs as well.
iv. Chair 8 is occupied by Rohit and his chair is to the extreme left of one row.
v. Hardik sits on chair 5.
vi. Chairs 4 and 6 are not in the same row as chair 8 and chair 2 is not in the middle of its row.
vii. Virat sits on an odd numbered chair in the same row as Rohit but they do not sit adjacent to each other.
viii. Suresh and Mahendra’s chairs are adjacent to chair 6 but Mahendra’s chair is not adjacent to chair 4.
ix. Shikar’s and Ashish’s chairs are in the same row.
x. Yuvraj's chair is even numbered and is diagonally opposite to chair 1, such that Yuvraj is at the farthest possible distance from chair 1.
xi. Chair 6 is second from the left.
xii. No two consecutive chairs are consecutively numbered and Ravichandran’s chair is neither opposite to nor adjacent to Suresh’s chair.
 
 
Q. On which chair is Virat sitting?
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Asha Rani Khunger asked   •  5 hours ago

Read the following situation and choose the best possible alternative.
Mr. Shailesh Ahuja, project manager in a multinational, has to nominate one employee from his team of fifteen for the ‘Employee of the year' award. The recipient of the award will get a cash bonus and an opportunity to meet the CEO of the company. The rules clearly state that every project manager can nominate just one person irrespective of their team strength. However, Mr. Ahuja is convinced that both Subramaniam and Santosh are worthy of this award.
How should Mr. Ahuja go about selecting the best nominee for the award?
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Bimla Devi asked   •  5 hours ago

Group Question
Answer the following question based on the information given below.
The annual Korus Masters chess tournament features the world's eight best chess players, pitted against each other in a double round-robin format. In this format, each player plays one match against every other player. This match consists of two games, with black pieces for one player and white for the other in one game, and vice versa in the second game. Each player plays exactly one match every day.
If a game results in a win, the winner gets one point and the loser gets none. In case of a draw, both players get half a point each.
Given below is a table with each day's matches, and the total points of each player at the end of every day.
Day 5 was a nightmare for Romonevich as he lost both the games scheduled. At the end of Day 7, Tupolev was second in the overall rankings and had more points than Adams.
Given below are a few details about the wins, losses, and draws that occured in the matches:
1. The only players who won both their games against a particular player were Anand (vs Romonevich) and Carlson (vs Leiko).
2. In the match between Kremnik and Levonian, both games were won by the player playing with black pieces.
3. The only other instance of a player winning with black pieces was when Kremnik beat Romonevich after drawing the first game.
4. Leiko won 6 games with white pieces.
5. Adams won with white pieces against Anand and Levonian.
6. There were eight occasions in all when both games between two players ended in a draw.
The following abbreviations are used wherever necessary:
An - Anand
Ad - Adams
C - Carlson
K - Kremnik
Leiko - Leiko
Levo - Levonian
R - Romonevich
T - Tupolev
 
 
Q. On how many days was Anand leading in terms of points?
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Santosh Devi asked   •  6 hours ago

Group Question
Answer the following question based on the information given below.

King Vikramaditya had 10 ministers - Amarpal, Dharampal, Arjun, Nakul, Dharamveer, Yudhesteer, Shakti, Duryodhan, Chanakya and Suraj. These ministers handle 10 different porfolios - Defense, Finance, Entertainment, Morality, Equality, EA, Strategy, Tourism, Law and Resource - in no particular order.
In a meeting, the king and his 10 ministers sat on the long rectangular table facing the centre of the table. The king sat on the centre-left of the table and had 5 ministers each on his left and right hand side. The following information was also known:
1. Ministers sitting at any of the four comers are termed diagonally opposite ministers.
2. Amarpal, Duryodhan, Nakul and Dharampal sat at the four comers of the table.
3. Suraj, the Finance minister sat to the immediate left of the Entertainment minister and to the immediate right of the Defense minister.
4. Chanakya who was not the minister of Strategy, sat to the immediate left of Yudhesteer and to the immediate right of Shakti.
5. The Law minister and Strategy minister sat in the same row and faced the Morality minister and Finance minister respectively.
6. The Resource minister didn't sit in the same row as the Equality minister but had the EA minister in his row.
7. The Defense minister sat diagonally opposite the Resource minister.
8. Arjun is the Morality minister while Dharamveer is the Entertainment minister.
9. The EA minister sat to the right of the Strategy minister while Duryodhan sat to the right of Yudhesteer.
10. Nakul sat diagonally opposite Duryodhan.
11. Yudhesteer sits on the right hand side of the King.
 
 
Q. Who is the tourism minister?
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Meena Kumari asked   •  6 hours ago

The ICC Cricket World Cup tournaments for 2007, 2011, 2015, 2019, 2023 and 2027 are going to be hosted by six different countries - West Indies (Wl), England (Eng), South Africa (SA), Australia (Aus), Srilanka (SL) and India (Ind), not necessarily in that order. The estimated expenditure (in Rs. crores) to conduct each tournament is a different amount i.e. 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100, not necessarily in that order. The expected revenue (in Rs. crores) is also a unique amount i.e. 105, 115, 125, 135, 165 and 175, again not necessarily in that order.
The following information is also known:
1. SL spends more than Ind and Eng spends less than Aus.
2. Wl is the penultimate country to host the World Cup and and SA hosts It 16 years before Wl.
3. The 2023 and 2007 World Cups are expected be the most and least expensive respectively. The 2015 World Cup Is expected to be more expensive than the one just following It by Rs. 10 crores and more expensive than the one just concluded before it by Rs. 20 crores.
4. The list of countries in ascending order of expected revenue is: SA, Aus, Eng, SL, Ind and WL
5. Eng conducts the World Cup after Ind and Aus have conducted it.
6. The last World Cup is expected to be costlier than the first by Rs. 40 crores.
Q. What is the estimated revenue (in Rs. crores) for the tournament conducted in India?   
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Gurmeet Singh asked   •  6 hours ago

You are the newly appointed financial controller in LMB Ltd., a large private engineering company. This is your first appointment in industry having undertaken your training at a large accountancy firm where most of your experience was gained in the audit of large NSE 500 clients. LMB Ltd. makes components which are used in the manufacture of various household products and it has a wide customer base from large household names through to small local private businesses.
One of your first tasks is to undertake a view of aged debtors. Whilst undertaking your review you find that a small number of customers have credit balances on their sales ledger accounts. The amounts relate to invoices which are now over 9 months old and which appear to have been paid twice. You find this odd and decide to raise the issue with your boss, Dushyant, the Financial Director, at your next meeting.
The following morning, Dushyant calls you into his office and asks you how you are settling into your position. You respond that, although you are still finding your feet, you have been making a major effort to get up to speed with the company's business and systems and controls. Dushyant appreciates your enthusiasm and is pleased that he has managed to recruit someone so enthusiastic.
Dushyant then asks whether anything has come to your attention so far. You advise him of what you have found in relation to the customers who appear to have paid twice. Dushyant laughs and tells you that it balances out in the end.
Furthermore, he produces copies of letters from a file which are addressed to the Financial Directors at the respective customers informing them of their company's overpayment. You return to your desk - rather bewildered by his comments. Customers have overpaid and he knows this to be the case, yet he has no intention of returning their money unless prompted by the customer. 
You find it perplexing to think that the Financial Directors of the companies that have overpaid have not responded on being notified about the outstanding invoices.
Q. A couple of months pass when, whilst undertaking another review, you notice that a customer, Moe Controls Ltd., has once again paid the amount due by them twice. You decide to discuss this with Dushyant with a view to issuing an immediate repayment or at the very least, a credit note, as the company is a regular customer. Dushyant advises you that he will deal with this by personally writing to the Financial Director at Moe Controls Ltd. - he advises you that at this stage there is no need to issue a credit note or make a repayment. 
You are not at ease with his assurance, you decide to:
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Dharam Pal asked   •  7 hours ago

Shu-Tee is a medium-size manufacturing company. The company is more than 50 years old and many of the managers in the company have come from the ranks, so to speak. Recently, the Baby Boomers have started to retire and they are being replaced with Generation Yers. The remaining staff members taking the roles in the management team are Generation Xers.
These two generations (Gen X and Gen Y) are clashing in the workplace. Since the Gen Y employees have been at the company for such a short amount of time, they have very little loyalty or reason to stay. Hence, they are leaving the company at an alarming rate and the incoming replacements also are from the Gen Y group, so the problems will most likely repeat itself over and over.
Q. If you were hired as an advisor for Shu-Tee, what would you say needs to happen to slow down the exit rate and make sure the situation doesn’t repeat itself with the new staff?
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Kamlesh Kumari asked   •  8 hours ago

Legrand Casino recently purchased a slot machine; a gaming machine, which had a main unit and five sub-units, labeled as Alpha, Gamma, Beta, Theta and Omega. The main as well as each of the sub-units had five slots, labeled as Red, Blue, Grey, Black and Yellow. The game with this slotting machine involved punching the right coin in the right slot in the right sequence i.e. one after another. For example, if coin number 3 is punched into slot Blue in Gamma sub-unit and if the main unit also pushes the coin to Blue slot, then the punch is said to be a winning shot. If the coin in the sub-unit is punched into the right slot when compared to the corresponding coin in the main unit, then the player gets Rs. 1,000 as reward. On the other hand, if the slots do not match then the player loses Rs. 333. Each player gets 25 coins to play.
However, after a couple of days this slotting machine developed a peculiar problem. In the sub-units irrespective of the slot you intended to put in the coin, the sub-unit pushed the coin into the slot it wanted to every time on its own. 
To find out which slots in the sub-units had developed the snag, the technician played on all the sub-units using 25 coins in each of the sub-units.
After some kind of analysis he found that the main machine and each of the sub-units could identify right slots for 15 coins, however for the balance of 10 coins listed below, each of the sub-units assumed different positions as right slots when compared to the main unit whose allocation of slots was the benchmark for performance of other sub-units. 
On playing with these sub-units, the technician earned Rs. 17,000, Rs. 11,660, Rs. 18,330, Rs. 14,330 and Rs. 18,330 respectively from each of Alpha, Gamma, Beta, Theta and Omega. All the amount being rounded off to previous tens figure. Of the ten slots which had developed the snag, there was atleast one sub-unit which identified the right slot for exactly 9 of the 10 slots. 
The table below gives the slots identified by each of the sub-units as right slots for the 10 problematic coins. 
Q. If the correct slot for coin numbered 8 was Yellow, then what would have been the correct slot for coin number 21?
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Suraj Bhan asked   •  9 hours ago

A car accident occurred on a busy street intersection killing two people and injuring three others. In order to nab the culprits, the police took the statements of all the witnesses present at that intersection, when the accident happened.
Some of the witnesses were in a state of shock because of the horrific accident and were unable to correctly reproduce the details of the accident. The witnesses who were in a state of shock provided all incorrect details while the rest of the witnesses provide the correct information about the accident. 
The following statements have been recorded by the police:
Witness 1: Three people were killed in the accident by a red car that ran over them.
Witness 2: The green car had a license plate with eight symbols on it, two of them being letters and the rest being digits.
Witness 3: The car was blue in colour and was being driven by a young man with two people sitting in the backseat, one of them being a woman.
Witness 4: Each of the last four digits on the license plate of the car was a power of the same number and they were in the ascending order.
Witness 5: There was a blue car involved in the accident and a yellow car was right behind it. The blue car injured two people and rushed away from the spot.
Witness 6: The car was a green Maruti with four people in it. The car hit five people injuring three of them.
Witness 7: If numbers are assigned to the two letters on the license plate of the car with A being 1, B being 2 and so on, then the sum of the two letters on the license plate was equal to the sum of the last four digits. The letters were from A-l with the letter with the lower value coming first. The last four digits were in the ascending order.
Q. Which of the following could have been the first letter in the license plate?  
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Roop Chand asked   •  9 hours ago

Group Question
Answer the following question based on the information given below.
Shu-Tee is a medium-size manufacturing company. The company is more than 50 years old and many of the managers in the company have come from the ranks, so to speak. Recently, the Baby Boomers have started to retire and they are being replaced with Generation Yers. The remaining staff members taking the roles in the management team are Generation Xers.
These two generations (Gen X and Gen Y) are clashing in the workplace. Since the Gen Y employees have been at the company for such a short amount of time, they have very little loyalty or reason to stay. Hence, they are leaving the company at an alarming rate and the incoming replacements also are from the Gen Y group, so the problems will most likely repeat itself over and over.
Q. Simon is a generation X employee in Shu-Tee. He is clashing with most of the new Gen Y employees. Simon believes in micro-managing while the Gen Yers need a lot of autonomy while working. Simon would leave the organization but has a house loan to repay and would not want to start anew with the poor market scenario. He also feels that he has put in a lot of effort to take the organization where it is today. What should Simon/ Gen Y/ the management do for the benefit of Shu-Tee ?   
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Priyaurat Mehla asked   •  9 hours ago

Historical eclipses are a valuable resource for historians, in that they allow a few historical events to be dated precisely, from which other dates and a society's calendar may be deduced. Aryabhata (476-550) concluded the Heliocentric theory in solar eclipse. A solar eclipse of June 15, 763 BCE mentioned in an Assyrian text is important for the Chronology of the Ancient Orient. Also known as the eclipse of Bur Sagale, it is the earliest solar eclipse mentioned in historical sources that have been identified successfully. Perhaps the earliest still-unproven claim is that of archaeologist Bruce Masse asserting on the basis of several ancient flood myths, which mention a total solar eclipse, he links an eclipse that occurred May 10, 2807 BCE with a possible meteor impact in the Indian Ocean. There have been other claims to date earlier eclipses, notably that of Mursili II (likely 1312 BCE), in Babylonia, and also in China, during the Fifth Year (2084 BCE) of the regime of Emperor Zhong Kang of Xia dynasty, but these are highly disputed and rely on much supposition.
Herodotus wrote that Thales of Miletus predicted an eclipse which occurred during a war between the Medians and the Lydians. Soldiers on both sides put down their weapons and declared peace as a result of the eclipse. Exactly which eclipse was involved has remained uncertain, although the issue has been studied by hundreds of ancient and modern authorities. One likely candidate took place on May 28, 585 BCE, probably near the Halys river in the middle of modern Turkey.
An annular eclipse of the Sun occurred at Sardis on February 17, 478 BCE, while Xerxes was departing for his expedition against Greece, as Herodotus recorded. Hind and Chambers considered this absolute date more than a century ago. Herodotus also reports that another solar eclipse was observed in Sparta during the next year, on August 1,477 BCE. The sky suddenly darkened in the middle of the day, well after the battles of Thermopylae and Salamis, after the departure of Mardonius to Thessalyat the beginning of the spring of (477 BCE) and his second attack on Athens, after the return of Cleombrotus to Sparta. The modern conventional dates are different by a year or two, and that these two eclipse records have been ignored so far. The Chronicle of Ireland recorded a solar eclipse on June 29, 512 CE, and a solar eclipse was reported to have taken place during the Battle of Stiklestad in July, 1030.
In the Indian epic, The Mahabharata, the incident is related to the thirteenth day when Arjun vows to slay Jayadrath before nightfall, to avenge the death of Abhimanyu at Jayadratha's hands. What may only be described as a solar eclipse brought Jayadrath out to celebrate his surviving the day, only to have the sun reappear and Arjun kill Jayadrath. Astronomers have calculated all possible eclipse pairs matching the above time difference and being visible from Kurukshetra, the battlefield of the Mahabharata war. 3129 BCE and 2559 BCE appear to be the best candidate for the Mahabharata war.
Attempts have been made to establish the exact date of Good Friday by means of solar eclipses, but this research has not yielded conclusive results. Research has manifested the inability of total solar eclipses to serve as explanations for the recorded Good Friday features of the crucifixion eclipse. (Good Friday is recorded as being at Passover, which is also recorded as being at or near the time of a full moon. Also, eclipses naturally occur on a full moon day.)
 
Q. Which of the following does not find any mention in the passage?
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Santosh Rani asked   •  9 hours ago

The tangled web of international organizations that constitutes global governance has become so remote and ineffective that few count on it to deliver results anymore. Now, after decades of turf wars and self-marginalization, international organizations must rally around an increasingly pressing global priority: sustainable urbanization. The world is undergoing an unprecedented and irreversible wave of urbanization, with the share of the global population living in cities set to reach 60% by 2030. But rapid urbanization is driving up industrial fossil-fuel consumption and household water consumption, and is increasing demand for food in areas where arable land is scarce. In short, the current urbanization trajectory is not sustainable. But existing efforts to alter the situation remain woefully inadequate.
Moreover, international development players - including UN agencies, NGOs, corporate citizenship programs, and other charitable organizations - rarely coordinate their activities, even though their interventions are increasingly concentrated in densely populated cities. Given that promoting sustainable urbanization and improving coordination would bolster progress in other priority areas (including women’s rights, climate change, youth unemployment, and literacy), sustainable urbanization must become a bureaucratic priority. And it must be complemented by a technological disruption, with investments channeled toward developing and distributing innovations that would make cities more livable, efficient, and sustainable. In fact, many useful innovations, such as energy-generating building materials and zero-emissions transportation, already exist; they simply need to be made accessible to those who need them most.The future impact of global governance rests on forging new alignments that facilitate the flow of vital knowledge and technologies from an increasingly diverse array of sources to urban populations worldwide. The tools needed to make urban life more sustainable are no longer flowing only from North to South and West to East. China has taken the lead in exporting solar photovoltaic cells, while clean-tech parks are arising even in the Arab world.
With new, innovative solutions appearing every day, the real challenge lies in bringing them to scale - and that requires international cooperation. But the “smartest” cities are not necessarily the most technologically advanced. Rather, they are the places where technology and public policy support citizens’ welfare and aspirations. This crucial fact will guide discussion at the New Cities Foundation’s second annual summit in June - the theme of which is “The Human City” - and should be at the heart of sustainable urbanization initiatives. Making sustainable urbanization a strategic priority might be the only way to overcome the interrelated crises of jobless growth, youth unemployment, and income inequality. While some factory jobs can be outsourced or automated, robots cannot yet retrofit buildings, install solar PV cells on rooftops, or construct vertical farms.
 
 
Q. What is the tone of the passage?
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Sukhdev Singh asked   •  9 hours ago

Eduardo’s family had been in the banana cultivation business for many years. It all started when Eduardo’s grandfather realized that he could grow bananas next to the rail road lines he was building in Honduras. Sensing a lucrative opportunity, he invested much of his capital from his construction business into acquiring land for banana cultivation. When Eduardo’s father took charge of the business, the company owned as much as 70% of the farmland in Honduras. Eduardo had been closely working with his father and took over from him. He soon realized there were several issues plaguing the business. It was difficult to cultivate bananas on a large scale in the tropics and the narrow profit margins had forced Eduardo’s father to acquire forest land and clear it for cultivation.
This land, however, was depleting in nutrients and could not yield the same output. Many of these lands had to be abandoned after a few years of cultivation. This practice did not find favour with Eduardo; he decided he would adopt sustainable cultivation practices and restore the cultivability of the abandoned forest land. Unfortunately, the Honduran government was trying to acquire that land from the company without paying a just price. The government saw the step as a necessary part of land reform in the country.
 
 
Q. The Sigatoka disease, which affects the roots of the banana plant making them wilt before they can be packaged for export had reduced the banana yield for Eduardo’s business. After much research, a copper sulphate mixture was developed to be sprayed on the crops. This could potentially be harmful to the workers who will be required to spray it.
What should be Eduardo’s course of action in this regard?
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Dev Kumari asked   •  9 hours ago

The annual Korus Masters chess tournament features the world's eight best chess players, pitted against each other in a double round-robin format. In this format, each player plays one match against every other player. This match consists of two games, with black pieces for one player and white for the other in one game, and vice versa in the second game. Each player plays exactly one match every day.
If a game results in a win, the winner gets one point and the loser gets none. In case of a draw, both players get half a point each.
Given below is a table with each day's matches, and the total points of each player at the end of every day.
Day 5 was a nightmare for Romonevich as he lost both the games scheduled. At the end of Day 7, Tupolev was second in the overall rankings and had more points than Adams.
Given below are a few details about the wins, losses, and draws that occured in the matches:
1. The only players who won both their games against a particular player were Anand (vs Romonevich) and Carlson (vs Leiko).
2. In the match between Kremnik and Levonian, both games were won by the player playing with black pieces.
3. The only other instance of a player winning with black pieces was when Kremnik beat Romonevich after drawing the first game.
4. Leiko won 6 games with white pieces.
5. Adams won with white pieces against Anand and Levonian.
6. There were eight occasions in all when both games between two players ended in a draw.
The following abbreviations are used wherever necessary:
An - Anand
Ad - Adams
C - Carlson
K - Kremnik
Leiko - Leiko
Levo - Levonian
R - Romonevich
T - Tupolev
 
 
Q. Who was leading at the end of the second day's matches?
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Sh Gian Chand asked   •  10 hours ago

You are the newly appointed financial controller in LMB Ltd., a large private engineering company. This is your first appointment in industry having undertaken your training at a large accountancy firm where most of your experience was gained in the audit of large NSE 500 clients. LMB Ltd. makes components which are used in the manufacture of various household products and it has a wide customer base from large household names through to small local private businesses.
One of your first tasks is to undertake a view of aged debtors. Whilst undertaking your review you find that a small number of customers have credit balances on their sales ledger accounts. The amounts relate to invoices which are now over 9 months old and which appear to have been paid twice. You find this odd and decide to raise the issue with your boss, Dushyant, the Financial Director, at your next meeting.
The following morning, Dushyant calls you into his office and asks you how you are settling into your position. You respond that, although you are still finding your feet, you have been making a major effort to get up to speed with the company's business and systems and controls. Dushyant appreciates your enthusiasm and is pleased that he has managed to recruit someone so enthusiastic.
Dushyant then asks whether anything has come to your attention so far. You advise him of what you have found in relation to the customers who appear to have paid twice. Dushyant laughs and tells you that it balances out in the end.
Furthermore, he produces copies of letters from a file which are addressed to the Financial Directors at the respective customers informing them of their company's overpayment. You return to your desk - rather bewildered by his comments. Customers have overpaid and he knows this to be the case, yet he has no intention of returning their money unless prompted by the customer. 
You find it perplexing to think that the Financial Directors of the companies that have overpaid have not responded on being notified about the outstanding invoices.
Q. A&M Ltd. was one of the customers that had paid twice. Despite being notified about the same, the company had not responded to the formal communication sent by LMB Ltd. Yet, the Financial Director of A&M Ltd is very distraught that LMB Ltd. did not issue a refund sooner, especially when the two companies continued their association. A&M Ltd. has now threatened to exit all contracts with LMB Ltd.Which of the following steps would you take to salvage the situation? 
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