Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end.
I was recently shocked to read that several city councils in the UK are getting ready to expunge everyday Latin words from the English lexicon. Along with ‘via’ and ‘etc’ would be banished ‘viz’ and ‘i.e.’, not to speak of ‘inter alia’ and ‘bona fide’. There goes away that exotic literary advantage. It was only recently that Amrita, my 10-year-old, fighting against a tide of domestic protestations voted against romantic French and prevalent Spanish and chose Latin as her second language in middle school. I had cheered her and actually promised to help out with the homework, given that three out of five words in English are of Latin origin. Blame this vicarious decision on my formative years but growing up in Mumbai, Latin was never an option in my school, as our national language Hindi was strictly enforced. Shiv Sainiks had decreed that local Marathi was de rigueur for all citizens of the city. I therefore ended up needing to speak three additional languages, not to forget Tamil, my mother tongue.
Languages rarely heard have always fascinated me. I always had this burning desire to speak them, particularly when my travel stints exposed me to the strangest of tongues. Language CDs didn’t help me a whole lot. The thing about languages is that though you may be gifted with the art of penmanship, spoken word skills are mostly inherited or acquired after birth. I have always packed my dog-eared phrasebook along with my toothbrush and shaving cream for my travels. These haven’t helped me much either, often eliciting that controlled giggle or even outright laughter at my stuttered attempts. Printed words won’t tell you that Thai is a tonal language with grammatical minefields or Mandarin and Cantonese have a lilt to them flowing like Indian ink applied with a Chinese brush. These city councils argue that they needed to create a language devoid of such linguistic minefields. However, there could be far-reaching consequences in the professional community. Just like abstruse scientific papers and brain-twisting mathematical theorems, legal documents are made to sound pompous with Latin words sprinkled generously all over those reams of printed matter. With Latin slowly oozing out of our English dictionary our lawyers will be hard-pressed to retain their mystifying status quo.
Q. Which of the following is a suitable title for the passage?
... more

Suresh Kumar answered  •  9 hours ago
The title of the passage should express its central idea in a succinct manner. The author begins by talking about the decision of city councils in the UK to expunge everyday Latin words from the English lexicon. The author discusses the motivations behind this pruning- “to create a language devoid of such linguistic minefields...” and then goes on to talk about ‘far reaching consequences.’ He wonders whether English should be pruned or not.
Hence, option (C) is the correct answer. 
Though he mentions his fascination with languages, but this is not the main point being discussed. Hence, option 1 can be eliminated.
Option (B) can be ruled out because the author’s main purpose is not to discuss languages rarely spoken.
Option (D) is beyond the scope of the passage; the author mentions that a few Latin words are used by lawyers. However, it can’t be inferred that Latin is ‘the legal language.’ Hence, it can be ruled out.

Read the passage carefully and answer within the context
Viruses, infectious particles consisting of nucleic acid packaged in a protein coat (the capsid), are difficult to resist. Unable to reproduce outside a living cell, viruses reproduce only by subverting the genetic mechanisms of a host cell. In one kind of viral life cycle, the virus first binds to the cell’s surface, then penetrates the cell and sheds its capsid. The exposed viral nucleic acid produces new viruses from the contents of the cell. Finally, the cell releases the viral progeny, and a new cell cycle of infection begins. The human body responds to a viral infection by producing antibodies: complex, highly specific proteins that selectively bind to foreign molecules such as viruses. An antibody can either interfere with a virus’s ability to bind to a cell, or can prevent it from releasing its nucleic acid.
Unfortunately, the common cold, produced most often by rhinoviruses, is intractable to antiviral defense. Humans have difficulty resisting colds because rhinoviruses are so diverse, including at least 100 strains. The strains differ most in the molecular structure of the proteins in their capsids. Since disease-fighting antibodies bind to the capsid, an antibody developed to protect against one rhinovirus strain is useless against other strains. Different antibodies must be produced for each strain.
A defense against rhinoviruses might nonetheless succeed by exploiting hidden similarities among the rhinovirus strains. For example, most rhinovirus strains bind to the same kind of molecule (delta-receptors) on a cell’s surface when they attack human cells. Colonno, taking advantage of these common receptors, devised a strategy for blocking the attachment of rhinoviruses to their appropriate receptors. Rather than fruitlessly searching for an antibody that would bind to all rhinoviruses, Colonno realized that an antibody binding to the common receptors of a human cell would prevent rhinoviruses from initiating an infection. Because human cells normally do not develop antibodies to components of their own cells, Colonno injected human cells into mice, which did produce an antibody to the common receptor. In isolated human cells, this antibody proved to be extraordinarily effective at thwarting the rhinovirus. Moreover, when the antibody was given to chimpanzees, it inhibited rhinoviral growth, and in humans it lessened both the severity and duration of cold symptoms.
Another possible defense against rhinoviruses was proposed by Rossman, who described rhinoviruses’ detailed molecular structure. Rossman showed that protein sequences common to all rhinovirus strains lie at the base of a deep “canyon” scoring each face of the capsid. The narrow opening of this canyon possibly prevents the relatively large antibody molecules from binding to the common sequence, but smaller molecules might reach it. Among these smaller, non - antibody molecules, some might bind to the common sequence, lock the nucleic acid in its coat, and thereby prevent the virus from reproducing.
Q. Which of the following research strategies for developing a defense against the common cold would the author be likely to find most promising?
... more

Gopal Dutt Verma answered  •  9 hours ago
C is the correct answer. It perfectly describes that the small non anti-body small sized cells can go into the canyon and help nip the problem in the bud.

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.
A and B are two traders who trade in gold futures at the commodity exchange. They trade from Monday (Day 1) to Friday (Day 5). On Day 1, A started with 100 grams of gold and Rs.50000, while B started with 50 grams of gold and Rs. 100000. Gold is sold or bought only in multiples of 10 grams and at the beginning of Day 1, the price of 10 grams of gold was Rs.8600, while at the end of Day 5, the price was Rs.8400. At the end of each day, the price of 10 grams of gold went up by Rs. 200, or else it came down by Rs.200. Both A and B took buying and selling decisions, at the end of each trading day. On each day the beginning price of gold was the same as the ending price on the previous day. Below are some additional facts about how A and B traded over the five trading days. Each day if the price went up, A sold 10 grams of gold at the closing price. On the other hand, each day if the price went down, he bought 10 grams at the closing price.
If on any day, the closing price per 10 grams of gold was above Rs.8800, then B sold 10 grams of gold, and if the closing price was below Rs.8400, he bought 10 grams, all at the closing price.
Q. If both A and B sold gold on a particular day from Day 1 to Day 5, then what was the closing price of gold per 10 gms on Day 3?
... more

Mam Chand answered  •  9 hours ago
It is given that A started with 100 grams of gold and Rs.50000 while B started with 50 grams of gold and Rs. 100000.
Given that both A and B sold gold on the same day of the week. This can only happen when the price of gold is Rs.9000.
∴ The only possible price movement of gold, at the end of each day from Day 1 to Day 5 is Rs.8800, Rs.9000, Rs.8800, Rs.8600 and Rs. 8400. 
∴ The closing price of gold on Day 3 was Rs. 8800.

If a, b and c are distinct positive numbers not equal to 1 and if (logca)(logba) + (logab)(logcb) + (logbc)(logac) = 3, then the value of abc is
  • a)
    0
  • b)
    1
  • c)
    2
  • d)
    3
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Daya Shankar Gupta answered  •  9 hours ago
Given (logca)(logba) + (logab)(logcb) + (logbc)(logac) = 3

Or, (loga)3 + (logb)3 + (logc)3 = 3(loga)(logb)(logc)
Or, log a + log b + log c = 0
(We know that a3 + b+ c3 = 3abc when a + b + c = 0)
Thus, log abc = 0 or, abc = 1
Maya Kaur asked   •  1 hour ago

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
In all ages of speculation, one of the strongest obstacles to the reception of the doctrine that Utility or Happiness is the criterion of right and wrong, has been drawn from the idea of Justice, the powerful sentiment, and apparently clear perception, which that word recalls with a rapidity and certainty resembling an instinct, have seemed to the majority of thinkers to point to an inherent quality in things; to show that the Just must have an existence in Nature as something absolute-generically distinct from every variety of the Expedient, and, in idea, opposed to it, though (as is commonly acknowledged) never, in the long run, disjoined from it in fact.
In the case of this, as of our other moral sentiments, there is no necessary connection between the question of its origin, and that of its binding force. That a feeling is bestowed on us by Nature, does not necessarily legitimate all its promptings. The feeling of justice might be a peculiar instinct, and might yet require, like our other instincts, to be controlled and enlightened by a higher reason. If we have intellectual instincts, leading us to judge in a particular way, as well as animal instincts that prompt us to act in a particular way, there is no necessity that the former should be more infallible in their sphere than the latter in theirs: it may as well happen that wrong judgments are occasionally suggested by those, as wrong actions by these. But though it is one thing to believe that we have natural feelings of justice, and another to acknowledge them as an ultimate criterion of conduct, these two opinions are very closely connected in point of fact. Mankind is always predisposed to believe that any subjective feeling, not otherwise accounted for, is a revelation of some objective reality. Our present object is to determine whether the reality, to which the feeling of justice corresponds, is one which needs any such special revelation; whether the justice or injustice of an action is a thing intrinsically peculiar, and distinct from all its other qualities, or only a combination of certain of those qualities, presented under a peculiar aspect. For the purpose of this inquiry, it is practically important to consider whether the feeling itself, of justice and injustice, is sui generis like our sensations of colour and taste, or a derivative feeling, formed by a combination of others. And this it is the more essential to examine, as people are in general willing enough to allow, that objectively the dictates of justice coincide with a part of the field of General Expediency; but in as much as the subjective mental feeling of Justice is different from that which commonly attaches to simple expediency, and, except in extreme cases of the latter, is far more imperative in its demands, people find it difficult to see, in Justice, only a particular kind or branch of general utility, and think that its superior binding force requires a totally different origin.
To throw light upon this question, it is necessary to attempt to ascertain what is the distinguishing character of justice, or of injustice: what is the quality, or whether there is any quality, attributed in common to all modes of conduct designated as unjust (for justice, like many other moral attributes, is best defined by its opposite), and distinguishing them from such modes of conduct as are disapproved, but without having that particular epithet of disapprobation applied to them. If in everything which men are accustomed to characterise as just or unjust, some one common attribute or collection of attributes is always present, we may judge whether this particular attribute or combination of attributes would be capable of gathering round it a sentiment of that peculiar character and intensity by virtue of the general laws of our emotional constitution, or whether the sentiment is inexplicable, and requires to be regarded as a special provision of Nature. If we find the former to be the case, we shall, in resolving this question, have resolved also the main problem: if the latter, we shall have to seek for some other mode of investigating it.
Q. What does ‘sui generis’ mean?
... more

People who are good ---- making friends usually work in the field of trade, which requires having good communicative skills.
Correct answer is 'in'. Can you explain this answer?

Jai Singh answered  •  9 hours ago
Correct Answer :- in
Explanation : People who are good in making friends usually work in the field of trade, which requires having good communication skills.
Kela Devi asked   •  6 hours ago

Meteorological seasons are reckoned by temperature, with summer being the hottest quarter of the year and winter the coldest quarter of the year. Using this reckoning, the Roman calendar began the year and the spring season on the first of March, with each season occupying three months. In 1780 the Societas Meteorologica Palatina, an early international organization for meteorology, defined seasons as groupings of three whole months. Ever since, professional meteorologists all over the world have used this definition. So, in meteorology for the Northern hemisphere: spring begins on 1 March, summer on 1 June, autumn on 1 September, and winter on 1 December.
Ecologically speaking, a season is a period of the year in which only certain types of floral and animal events happen (e.g.: flowers bloom—spring; hedgehogs hibernate—winter). So, if we can observe a change in daily floral/animal events, the season is changing.
Traditional seasons are reckoned by insolation, with summer being the quarter of the year with the greatest insolation and winter the quarter with the least. In traditional reckoning, the seasons begin at the cross-quarter days. The solstices and equinoxes are the midpoints of these seasons.
In Australia, the traditional aboriginal people defined the seasons by what was happening to the plants, animals and weather around them. This led to each separate tribal group having different seasons, some with up to eight seasons each year. However, most modern Aboriginal Australians follow either four or six meteorological seasons, as do non-Aboriginal Australians.
In India, and in the Hindu calendar, there are six seasons or Ritu: Hemant (pre-winter), Shishira (Winter), Vasanta (Spring), Greeshma (Summer), Varsha (Rainy) and Sharad (Autumn).
 
Q.According to the passage: 
... more

Puran Lal asked   •  7 hours ago

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
They are born that way. They have become that way. They have chosen to be that way. Nature, nurture and choice, these are three 'explanations' of homosexuality that the modern world throws up every now and then. Most often, they are regarded as mutually exclusive alternatives, and might be released into the public domain as the result of genetic, psychiatric or sociological research, or as politicized convictions. These theories, and the various guises in which they become part of 'common knowledge', determine not only perceptions of and attitudes to homosexuality, but also how homosexuals make sense of and live out their own lives. So, when a Canadian psychologist's research suggests that having one or more older brothers boosts the likelihood of a boy growing up to be gay, it is important to be able to put such a 'finding' in its place and think about what is going on behind and around the research. Why is it that, every now and then, the 'causes' of homosexuality have to be located in the genes, or in some form of biological determinism, and linked to left-handedness or red-headedness, or to similar behaviour in mice, fruit-flies, monkeys or penguins' Are these explanations actually justifications ('We/They can't help it') or are they something more mischievous and sinister ('If it's genetic, then maybe something can be done about it')
First, similar explanations are never sought for heterosexuality, which is the 'order of nature', and hence beyond enquiry. Behind most such investigations into homosexuality is profoundly normative thinking. It is deviancy from the norm that requires scientific explanation, and in civilized societies some deviancies need empirically grounded justification. Second, the focus is always on male homosexuality. Lesbians complicate most hypotheses and inferences regarding sexuality, and women come into the picture only as wombs in which the drama of sexual destinies is played out. Third, biological sex, gender-roles, sexual identity and sexual behaviour are distinct but variously overlapping elements within human sexuality. They combine among one another to form complex and shifting configurations most of which cannot be reduced to simple binaries like gay and straight, active and passive, masculine and feminine. Between being absolutely heterosexual and absolutely homosexual, human sexual identity and behaviour show innumerable gradations, variations and changes, some culturally inflected, that defy fixed definitions and categories.
Most research into why homosexuals are homosexuals fails to take into account these essential complexities and variations, and is therefore premised on a limitedness that renders dubious its claims to scientific 'truth'. In the liberal West, where most battles against sexual injustice seem to have been won, the persistence of such research could only point to a deep discomfort with what the Indian Penal Code still deems, more unabashedly, to be 'against the order of nature'.
Q. In the given context of the passage, the author views "normative thinking" as:
... more

Shanti Devi asked   •  7 hours ago

Group Question
Answer the questions based on the passage given below.
 When it comes to sustained communication with hospitalised patients about complex and chronic illness and helping them navigate the end of life, the burden on physicians has always been high, which is why it’s a worry when as a group, they express uncertainty about their ability to provide this core component of care. At the end of life, physicians are typically the doctors expected to explore your deepest longings and regrets, your strongest convictions and worst fears. In between, they deliberate resuscitation status, stop antibiotics, encourage palliation and provide counsel to the frazzled resident who says, “He is dying but the family wants everything done. How should I respond?”
No matter how prepared one is for the end of life, for most of us there is accompanying consternation, grief and anxiety. One might reasonably expect a physician to be the custodian of good health but also the guarantor of comfort and dignity in death. It’s clear that physicians aspire to be that doctor but confess to needing help. In the survey, a staggering 90% of physicians thought that communication skills training should be mandatory. It isn’t, you ask. No, and it has never been. Such training in medicine, especially when it pertains to end of life care, is patchy, undervalued and considered an optional extra rather than a clinical imperative. In an era where we have mapped the human genome and talk about cancer moonshots we have consistently failed to provide not just physicians, but all doctors, with the tools to be effective communicators.It’s often feared that in discussing mortality a doctor will extinguish hope - and there is indeed a tension between maintaining hope and telling the truth - but patients tell us they value honesty and doctors know it’s the right thing to do. Becoming a tactful, sensitive and honest communicator is a lifelong process but it’s important enough that it shouldn’t be left to chance. But this is exactly what medical schools and hospitals largely do. And then we lament that despite all the advances in medicine, doctor-patient communication remains a fraught problem that underpins a significant majority of health care complaints. Doctor-patient communication has long been viewed as an indulgence that comes at the cost of service delivery. If they are clamouring to become better communicators, it’s time we took note.
 
 
Q. Which of the following can be inferred about physicians?   
... more

Nathu Ram Panchal asked   •  21 hours ago

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage and answer the questions based on it.
“Free of the taint of manufacture” – that phrase, in particular, is heavily loaded with the ideology of what the Victorian socialist William Morris called the “anti-scrape”, or an anti-capitalist conservationism (not conservatism) that solaced itself with the vision of a preindustrial golden age. In Britain, folk may often appear a cosy, fossilised form, but when you look more closely, the idea of folk – who has the right to sing it, dance it, invoke it, collect it, belong to it or appropriate it for political or cultural ends – has always been contested territory. In our own time, though, the word “folk” . . . has achieved the rare distinction of occupying fashionable and unfashionable status simultaneously. Just as the effusive floral prints of the radical William Morris now cover genteel sofas, so the revolutionary intentions of many folk historians and revivalists have led to music that is commonly regarded as parochial and conservative. And yet – as newspaper columns periodically rejoice – folk is hip again, influencing artists, clothing and furniture designers, celebrated at music festivals, awards ceremonies and on TV, reissued on countless record labels. Folk is a sonic “shabby chic”, containing elements of the uncanny and eerie, as well as an antique veneer, a whiff of Britain’s heathen dark ages. The very obscurity and anonymity of folk music’s origins open up space for rampant imaginative fancies. . . . [Cecil Sharp, who wrote about this subject, believed that] folk songs existed in constant transformation, a living example of an art form in a perpetual state of renewal. “One man sings a song, and then others sing it after him, changing what they do not like” is the most concise summary of his conclusions on its origins. He compared each rendition of a ballad to an acorn falling from an oak tree; every subsequent iteration sows the song anew. But there is tension in newness. In the late 1960s, purists were suspicious of folk songs recast in rock idioms. Electrification, however, comes in many forms. For the early-20th-century composers such as Vaughan Williams and Hoist, there were thunderbolts of inspiration from oriental mysticism, angular modernism and the body blow of the first world war, as well as input from the rediscovered folk tradition itself.
For the second wave of folk revivalists, such as Ewan MacColl and AL Lloyd, starting in the 40s, the vital spark was communism’s dream of a post-revolutionary New Jerusalem. For their younger successors in the 60s, who thronged the folk clubs set up by the old guard, the lyrical freedom of Dylan and the unchained melodies of psychedelia created the conditions for folkrock’s own golden age, a brief Indian summer that lasted from about 1969 to 1971. . . . Four decades on, even that progressive period has become just one more era ripe for fashionable emulation and pastiche. The idea of a folk tradition being exclusively confined to oral transmission has become a much looser, less severely guarded concept. Recorded music and television, for today’s metropolitan generation, are where the equivalent of folk memories are seeded. . . .
(2019)
Q. The author says that folk “may often appear a cosy, fossilised form” because:
... more

Nirmala Devi asked   •  21 hours ago

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage and answer the questions based on it.
“Everybody pretty much agrees that the relationship between elephants and people has dramatically changed,” [says psychologist Gay] Bradshaw… “Where for centuries humans and elephants lived in relatively peaceful coexistence, there is now hostility and violence. Now, I use the term ‘violence’ because of the intentionality associated with it, both in the aggression of humans and, at times, the recently observed behavior of elephants.” Typically, elephant researchers have cited, as a cause of aggression, the high levels of testosterone in newly matured male elephants or the competition for land and resources between elephants and humans. But. . . Bradshaw and several colleagues argue… that today’s elephant populations are suffering from a form of chronic stress, a kind of specieswide trauma. Decades of poaching and culling and habitat loss, they claim, have so disrupted the intricate web of familial and societal relations by which young elephants have traditionally been raised in the wild, and by which established elephant herds are governed, that what we are now witnessing is nothing less than a precipitous collapse of elephant culture.
Elephants, when left to their own devices, are profoundly social creatures. Young elephants are raised within an extended, multitiered network of doting female caregivers that includes the birth mother, grandmothers, aunts and friends. These relations are maintained over a life span as long as 70 years. Studies of established herds have shown that young elephants stay within 15 feet of their mothers for nearly all of their first eight years of life, after which young females are socialized into the matriarchal network, while young males go off for a time into an all-male social group before coming back into the fold as mature adults.
This fabric of elephant society, Bradshaw and her colleagues [demonstrate], ha[s] effectively been frayed by years of habitat loss and poaching, along with systematic culling by government agencies to control elephant numbers and translocations of herds to different habitats. As a result of such social upheaval, calves are now being born to and raised by ever younger and inexperienced mothers. Young orphaned elephants, meanwhile, that have witnessed the death of a parent at the hands of poachers are coming of age in the absence of the support system that defines traditional elephant life. “The loss of elephant elders,” [says] Bradshaw . . . “and the traumatic experience of witnessing the massacres of their family, impairs normal brain and behavior development in young elephants.” What Bradshaw and her colleagues describe would seem to be an extreme form of anthropocentric conjecture if the evidence that they’ve compiled from various elephant researchers. weren’t so compelling. The elephants of decimated herds, especially orphans who’ve watched the death of their parents and elders from poaching and culling, exhibit behavior typically associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and other trauma-related disorders in humans: abnormal startle response, unpredictable asocial behavior, inattentive mothering and hyperaggression. [According to Bradshaw], “Elephants are suffering and behaving in the same ways that we recognize in ourselves as a result of violence. Except perhaps for a few specific features, brain organization and early development of elephants and humans are extremely similar.”
(2018)
Q. In paragraph 4, the phrase, “The fabric of elephant society … has[s] effectively been frayed by . . .” is:
... more

Neeraj asked   •  21 hours ago

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage and answer the questions based on it.
“Free of the taint of manufacture” – that phrase, in particular, is heavily loaded with the ideology of what the Victorian socialist William Morris called the “anti-scrape”, or an anti-capitalist conservationism (not conservatism) that solaced itself with the vision of a preindustrial golden age. In Britain, folk may often appear a cosy, fossilised form, but when you look more closely, the idea of folk – who has the right to sing it, dance it, invoke it, collect it, belong to it or appropriate it for political or cultural ends – has always been contested territory.
In our own time, though, the word “folk” . . . has achieved the rare distinction of occupying fashionable and unfashionable status simultaneously. Just as the effusive floral prints of the radical William Morris now cover genteel sofas, so the revolutionary intentions of many folk historians and revivalists have led to music that is commonly regarded as parochial and conservative. And yet – as newspaper columns periodically rejoice – folk is hip again, influencing artists, clothing and furniture designers, celebrated at music festivals, awards ceremonies and on TV, reissued on countless record labels. Folk is a sonic “shabby chic”, containing elements of the uncanny and eerie, as well as an antique veneer, a whiff of Britain’s heathen dark ages. The very obscurity and anonymity of folk music’s origins open up space for rampant imaginative fancies. . . .
[Cecil Sharp, who wrote about this subject, believed that] folk songs existed in constant transformation, a living example of an art form in a perpetual state of renewal. “One man sings a song, and then others sing it after him, changing what they do not like” is the most concise summary of his conclusions on its origins. He compared each rendition of a ballad to an acorn falling from an oak tree; every subsequent iteration sows the song anew. But there is tension in newness. In the late 1960s, purists were suspicious of folk songs recast in rock idioms. Electrification, however, comes in many forms. For the early-20th-century composers such as Vaughan Williams and Hoist, there were thunderbolts of inspiration from oriental mysticism, angular modernism and the body blow of the first world war, as well as input from the rediscovered folk tradition itself.
For the second wave of folk revivalists, such as Ewan MacColl and AL Lloyd, starting in the 40s, the vital spark was communism’s dream of a post-revolutionary New Jerusalem. For their younger successors in the 60s, who thronged the folk clubs set up by the old guard, the lyrical freedom of Dylan and the unchained melodies of psychedelia created the conditions for folkrock’s own golden age, a brief Indian summer that lasted from about 1969 to 1971. . . . Four decades on, even that progressive period has become just one more era ripe for fashionable emulation and pastiche. The idea of a folk tradition being exclusively confined to oral transmission has become a much looser, less severely guarded concept. Recorded music and television, for today’s metropolitan generation, are where the equivalent of folk memories are seeded. . . .
(2019)
Q. Which of the following statements about folk revivalism of the 1940s and 1960s cannot be inferred from the passage?
... more

Tara Devi asked   •  21 hours ago

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage and answer the questions based on it.
“Everybody pretty much agrees that the relationship between elephants and people has dramatically changed,” [says psychologist Gay] Bradshaw… “Where for centuries humans and elephants lived in relatively peaceful coexistence, there is now hostility and violence. Now, I use the term ‘violence’ because of the intentionality associated with it, both in the aggression of humans and, at times, the recently observed behavior of elephants.” Typically, elephant researchers have cited, as a cause of aggression, the high levels of testosterone in newly matured male elephants or the competition for land and resources between elephants and humans. But. . . Bradshaw and several colleagues argue… that today’s elephant populations are suffering from a form of chronic stress, a kind of specieswide trauma. Decades of poaching and culling and habitat loss, they claim, have so disrupted the intricate web of familial and societal relations by which young elephants have traditionally been raised in the wild, and by which established elephant herds are governed, that what we are now witnessing is nothing less than a precipitous collapse of elephant culture.
Elephants, when left to their own devices, are profoundly social creatures. Young elephants are raised within an extended, multitiered network of doting female caregivers that includes the birth mother, grandmothers, aunts and friends. These relations are maintained over a life span as long as 70 years. Studies of established herds have shown that young elephants stay within 15 feet of their mothers for nearly all of their first eight years of life, after which young females are socialized into the matriarchal network, while young males go off for a time into an all-male social group before coming back into the fold as mature adults.
This fabric of elephant society, Bradshaw and her colleagues [demonstrate], ha[s] effectively been frayed by years of habitat loss and poaching, along with systematic culling by government agencies to control elephant numbers and translocations of herds to different habitats. As a result of such social upheaval, calves are now being born to and raised by ever younger and inexperienced mothers. Young orphaned elephants, meanwhile, that have witnessed the death of a parent at the hands of poachers are coming of age in the absence of the support system that defines traditional elephant life. “The loss of elephant elders,” [says] Bradshaw . . . “and the traumatic experience of witnessing the massacres of their family, impairs normal brain and behavior development in young elephants.” What Bradshaw and her colleagues describe would seem to be an extreme form of anthropocentric conjecture if the evidence that they’ve compiled from various elephant researchers. weren’t so compelling. The elephants of decimated herds, especially orphans who’ve watched the death of their parents and elders from poaching and culling, exhibit behavior typically associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and other trauma-related disorders in humans: abnormal startle response, unpredictable asocial behavior, inattentive mothering and hyperaggression. [According to Bradshaw], “Elephants are suffering and behaving in the same ways that we recognize in ourselves as a result of violence. Except perhaps for a few specific features, brain organization and early development of elephants and humans are extremely similar.”
(2018)
Q. Which of the following statements best expresses the overall argument of this passage?
... more

Salochana Devi asked   •  21 hours ago

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage and answer the questions based on it.
“Free of the taint of manufacture” – that phrase, in particular, is heavily loaded with the ideology of what the Victorian socialist William Morris called the “anti-scrape”, or an anti-capitalist conservationism (not conservatism) that solaced itself with the vision of a preindustrial golden age. In Britain, folk may often appear a cosy, fossilised form, but when you look more closely, the idea of folk – who has the right to sing it, dance it, invoke it, collect it, belong to it or appropriate it for political or cultural ends – has always been contested territory.
In our own time, though, the word “folk” . . . has achieved the rare distinction of occupying fashionable and unfashionable status simultaneously. Just as the effusive floral prints of the radical William Morris now cover genteel sofas, so the revolutionary intentions of many folk historians and revivalists have led to music that is commonly regarded as parochial and conservative. And yet – as newspaper columns periodically rejoice – folk is hip again, influencing artists, clothing and furniture designers, celebrated at music festivals, awards ceremonies and on TV, reissued on countless record labels. Folk is a sonic “shabby chic”, containing elements of the uncanny and eerie, as well as an antique veneer, a whiff of Britain’s heathen dark ages. The very obscurity and anonymity of folk music’s origins open up space for rampant imaginative fancies. . . .
[Cecil Sharp, who wrote about this subject, believed that] folk songs existed in constant transformation, a living example of an art form in a perpetual state of renewal. “One man sings a song, and then others sing it after him, changing what they do not like” is the most concise summary of his conclusions on its origins. He compared each rendition of a ballad to an acorn falling from an oak tree; every subsequent iteration sows the song anew. But there is tension in newness. In the late 1960s, purists were suspicious of folk songs recast in rock idioms. Electrification, however, comes in many forms. For the early-20th-century composers such as Vaughan Williams and Hoist, there were thunderbolts of inspiration from oriental mysticism, angular modernism and the body blow of the first world war, as well as input from the rediscovered folk tradition itself.
For the second wave of folk revivalists, such as Ewan MacColl and AL Lloyd, starting in the 40s, the vital spark was communism’s dream of a post-revolutionary New Jerusalem. For their younger successors in the 60s, who thronged the folk clubs set up by the old guard, the lyrical freedom of Dylan and the unchained melodies of psychedelia created the conditions for folkrock’s own golden age, a brief Indian summer that lasted from about 1969 to 1971. . . . Four decades on, even that progressive period has become just one more era ripe for fashionable emulation and pastiche. The idea of a folk tradition being exclusively confined to oral transmission has become a much looser, less severely guarded concept. Recorded music and television, for today’s metropolitan generation, are where the equivalent of folk memories are seeded. . . .
(2019)
Q. The primary purpose of the reference to William Morris and his floral prints is to show:
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Veena Rani asked   •  21 hours ago

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage and answer the questions based on it.
“Everybody pretty much agrees that the relationship between elephants and people has dramatically changed,” [says psychologist Gay] Bradshaw… “Where for centuries humans and elephants lived in relatively peaceful coexistence, there is now hostility and violence. Now, I use the term ‘violence’ because of the intentionality associated with it, both in the aggression of humans and, at times, the recently observed behavior of elephants.” Typically, elephant researchers have cited, as a cause of aggression, the high levels of testosterone in newly matured male elephants or the competition for land and resources between elephants and humans. But. . . Bradshaw and several colleagues argue… that today’s elephant populations are suffering from a form of chronic stress, a kind of specieswide trauma. Decades of poaching and culling and habitat loss, they claim, have so disrupted the intricate web of familial and societal relations by which young elephants have traditionally been raised in the wild, and by which established elephant herds are governed, that what we are now witnessing is nothing less than a precipitous collapse of elephant culture.
Elephants, when left to their own devices, are profoundly social creatures. Young elephants are raised within an extended, multitiered network of doting female caregivers that includes the birth mother, grandmothers, aunts and friends. These relations are maintained over a life span as long as 70 years. Studies of established herds have shown that young elephants stay within 15 feet of their mothers for nearly all of their first eight years of life, after which young females are socialized into the matriarchal network, while young males go off for a time into an all-male social group before coming back into the fold as mature adults.
This fabric of elephant society, Bradshaw and her colleagues [demonstrate], ha[s] effectively been frayed by years of habitat loss and poaching, along with systematic culling by government agencies to control elephant numbers and translocations of herds to different habitats. As a result of such social upheaval, calves are now being born to and raised by ever younger and inexperienced mothers. Young orphaned elephants, meanwhile, that have witnessed the death of a parent at the hands of poachers are coming of age in the absence of the support system that defines traditional elephant life. “The loss of elephant elders,” [says] Bradshaw . . . “and the traumatic experience of witnessing the massacres of their family, impairs normal brain and behavior development in young elephants.” What Bradshaw and her colleagues describe would seem to be an extreme form of anthropocentric conjecture if the evidence that they’ve compiled from various elephant researchers. weren’t so compelling. The elephants of decimated herds, especially orphans who’ve watched the death of their parents and elders from poaching and culling, exhibit behavior typically associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and other trauma-related disorders in humans: abnormal startle response, unpredictable asocial behavior, inattentive mothering and hyperaggression. [According to Bradshaw], “Elephants are suffering and behaving in the same ways that we recognize in ourselves as a result of violence. Except perhaps for a few specific features, brain organization and early development of elephants and humans are extremely similar.”
(2018)
Q. Which of the following measures is Bradshaw most likely to support to address the problem of elephant aggression?
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