Answer the following question based on the information given below.
Pappu and his five friends visited ‘Heart Rock Cafe’ on New-year’s eve. Cocktails are priced according to the cost of ingredients used. Further there is an extra service charge of Rs. 50 per glass of cocktail served.
The per bottle (1000 ml) cost of Vodka, Rum, Tequila, Brandy, Juice and Cola is Rs. 1,500, Rs.750, Rs. 2,200, Rs. 500, Rs. 300 and Rs. 100 respectively.
Table 1 shows the break up (by volume) of each drink, for eg - 27 units of Blue Hawaii contains 3 units of Vodka and 7 units of Rum.
Table 2 shows the number of glasses of different cocktails consumed by each friend e.g. - Mathews consumed 3 glasses of Blue Hawaii.
Analyze the following table and answer the subsequent questions.
Q.
How much money was spent on Tequila (excluding the service charges)?
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Rani Devi answered  •  1 hour ago
Parts of Tequila in Blue Hawaii, Cuba Libre, Screwdriver, Mojito, Metropolitan and Pina Colada are 2/27, 1/24, 4/27, 0, 0 and 3/24 respectively.
Number of glasses of Blue Hawaii, Cuba Libre, Screwdriver,
Mojito, Metropolitan and Pina Colada consumed are 11,23, 9, 15,
10 and 21 respectively.
Volume consumed = 0.2 * [11(2/27) + 23(1/24) + 9(4/27) + 21(3/24)]
= 0.2 x (22/27 + 23/24 + 36/27 + 63/24)
= 0.2 x (58/27 +86/24) = 1.15 litres.
Money spent = 1.15 x 2200 « Rs. 2,500 Hence, option 3.

Even in our globalizing world, the question as to whether “human rights” is an essentially Western concept, which ignores the very different cultural, economic and political realities of the South, persists. Can the values of a consumer society be applied to societies with nothing to consume? At the risk of sounding frivolous: when you stop a man in traditional dress from beating his wife, are you upholding her human rights or violating his? The fact is that a number of serious objections exist to the concept of universal human rights, which its defenders need to acknowledge-honestly-if only to refute them. The first objection argues that all rights and values are defined and limited by cultural perceptions; there is no universal culture, therefore there are no universal human rights. Some philosophers object that the concept of human rights is founded on an individualistic view of man as an autonomous being whose greatest need is to be free from interference by the state, imbued, as it were, with the right to be left alone. Whereas non-Western societies often espouse a communitarian ethic that sees society as more than the sum of its individual members, and considers duties to be more important than rights.
Then there is the usual North/South argument, with “human rights” cast as a cover for Western intervention in the developing world. Developing countries, some also argue, cannot afford human rights, since the tasks of nation-building and economic development remain unfinished; suspending or limiting human rights thus sacrifices the few to benefit the many. Others object to specific rights which they say reflect Western cultural bias, the most troublesome here being the women’s rights. How can women’s rights be universal when, in some societies, marriage is seen not as a contract between two individuals but as an alliance between lineages, and when the permissible behavior of women is central to a societys perception of familial honor? In addition, some religious leaders argue that human rights can only be acceptable if they are founded on the transcendent values of their faith and are thus sanctioned by God. There is a built-in conflict between the universality of human rights and the particularity of religious perspectives. How to respond to these objections? Concepts of justice and law, legitimacy and dignity, protection from oppressive rule and participation in community affairs are found in every society; and the challenge facing human rights advocates, rather than throw up their hands at the impossibility of universalism, is to identify the common denominators. These objections reflect a false opposition between the primacy of the individual and the paramountcy of society. Culture is too often cited as a defence against human rights by authoritarians who crush culture whenever it suits them. Besides, which country can claim to be following its pure “traditional culture”? You cannot follow the model of a “modern” nation-state cutting across tribal boundaries and conventions, then argue that tribal traditions should be applied to judge the state’s human rights conduct. There is nothing sacrosanct about culture anyway. Culture constantly evolves in any living society, responding to both internal and external stimuli, and much in every culture societies outgrow and reject. Let us concede that child marriage, female circumcision and the like are not found reprehensible by many societies; but let us also ask the victims of these practices about how they feel. Where coercion exists, rights are violated, and these violations must be condemned whatever the traditional justification. Coercion, not culture, is the test.
As for religion, every religion embodies certain verities that are applicable to all mankind-justice, truth, mercy, compassion and men often allow God to be blamed for their own sins. As UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan put it, the problem is not with the faith, but with the faithful. As for the suspending human rights in the interests of development: authoritarianism promotes repression, not development. Development is about change, but repression prevents change. Though there may be cases where authoritarian societies had success in achieving economic growth, but Botswana, an exemplar of African democracy, has grown faster than most authoritarian states. A number of developing countries-notably India, China, Chile, Cuba, Lebanon and Panama played an active and influential part in drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The principles of human rights have been widely adopted, imitated and ratified by developing countries, so it is hardly fair to suggest they have been imposed on them. When one hears of the unsuitability or ethnocentricism of human rights, what are these human rights that someone in a developing country can do without? The right to life? Freedom from torture? The right not to be enslaved, not to be physically assaulted, not to be arbitrarily arrested, imprisoned or executed? No one actually advocates the abridgement of any of these rights. Objections to the applicability of human rights standards are all too frequently voiced by authoritarian rulers and power elites to rationalize violations that sustain them in power. Just as the Devil can quote scripture for his purpose, Third World communitarianism can be the slogan of a deracinated tyrant trained, as in the case of Pol Pot, at the Sorbonne. The authentic voices of the South know how to cry out in pain. Those are the voices that must be heeded.
 
Q. According to the passage, which of the following is not a serious objection to the “concept of universal human rights”?
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Surekha Chadha answered  •  1 hour ago
Option 4 is not mentioned as an objection to the concept of universality, but is mentioned as There is a built-in conflict between the universality of human rights and the particularity of religious perspectives.’ This is not an objection to universality but a conflict between them. There is no argument in the passage that the concept of universality comes from any particular religious group.
Options 1,2 and 3 are explained in the passage as serious objections. Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

In a square plot of area 2500 sq. metres, a group of eighty college students is camping. They decide to put up four large identical conical tents and sleep in groups. So they decide to divide the plot equally amongst the four tents so that twenty people can sleep in each of the four tents. If the height of the tents being put up is 14 metres and each person needs roughly 15 cubic metres of air per hour to breathe, which of the following option best suits for the time for which the gang can sleep peacefully before their sleep gets disrupted on account of lack of enough air?
  • a)
    5 hours
  • b)
    7 hours
  • c)
    9 hours
  • d)
    11 hours
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Rammehar Singh answered  •  1 hour ago
The tents being put up are of same dimensions; hence the students would be dividing the plot in an equal fashion. The size of each such divided quadrant (which would also be a square) will form the diameter of the tents being put up.
Size of the whole plot = 50 m
Diameter of each tent being put up = 25 m
Volume of each tent being put up


Since, twenty people sleep in one tent; therefore amount of air needed per hour by the occupants of one tent = 300 cubic metre
The amount of air inside each tent is enough to last a time

= 7.64 hours
Therefore, time for which the occupants of each tent can sleep peacefully = 7 hours
Hence, option 2.

Group Question
Answer the following questions based on the information given below.
A certain building built up in the rectangular shape contains 10 apartments numbered from 0 to 9. The area of each apartment is dependent on the floor on which it is situated. Further all the apartments on any floors are of same size. However the total area of all the apartments put together on each of the floor is equal. The top floor is considered as row 1 in this building.
The apartments are however are not numbered in serial fashion. The clues below indicate the apartment numbers situated on any of the floors.
1. The sum of four apartment numbers in 4th row is 28.
2. The biggest apartment number in row 3 is in the central apartment of the floor.
3. The 3rd apartment number from the left in the bottom row isn't 7.
4. The sum of rightmost apartment numbers in the four rows put together is 11.
5. The apartments numbered 0 and 5 are in different rows of this building.
6. The number of the apartment at the top minus the number of leftmost apartment in row 2 is 4. 7. The sum of leftmost apartment numbers in the four rows sum to 20.
 
Q. Which apartment number has the largest area?
    Correct answer is '6'. Can you explain this answer?

    Satpal answered  •  1 hour ago
    By clue 1, the numbers in the bottom row sum to 28, so that the possible numbers in the bottom row are 9-8-7-4 and 9-8-6-5.
    By clue 4, the rightmost numbers in the four rows total 11. Therefore, 9 cannot be rightmost in row 4 since there is no combination of numbers with 9 that add to 11.
    If 8 were in the bottom right location, then the other rightmost numbers would be 0, 1, and 2 with one of them at the apex--not possible given clue 6.
    If 7 were in the bottom right location, then the other rightmost numbers would be 0, 1, and 3 with one of them at the apex--again not possible given clue 6.
    If 6 were in the bottom right location, then the other rightmost numbers would be 0, 2, and 3 with one of them at the apex--again not possible given clue 6--or 0, 1, and 4, with the 4 at the apex (clue 6)-- but 0 would also have to be leftmost in row 2 (clue 6).
    If 5 were in the bottom right location, then the other rightmost numbers would be 0, 2, and 4 with the 4 at the apex (clue 6)--but 0 would also have to be leftmost in row 2 (6)--or 1,2, and 3 and also impossible given clue 4.
    So, 4 is the rightmost number in row 4 with 9, 8, and 7 being the other bottom row numbers.
    Given clue 4, the other rightmost numbers are 0, 2, and 5 or 0, 1, and 6.
    Trying the first possibility, 5 would be at the apex and 1 leftmost in row 2 (clue 6).
    By clue 7, the four leftmost numbers in the rows sum to 20. Given the 9, 8, and 7 in row 4, the only arrangement possible is 8 leftmost in row 4 and 6 then leftmost in row 3; however, none of the remaining numbers in row 3 can be bigger than 6, contradicting clue 2. So, the rightmost numbers must be 0, 1, and 6, with 6 at the apex and 2 leftmost in row 2 (clue 6).
    By clue 7, the four leftmost numbers in the rows sum to 20. Given the 9, 8, and 7 in row 4, the only arrangements possible are 7 leftmost in row 4 with 5 leftmost in row 3 or 9 leftmost in row 4 with 3 leftmost in row 3.
    If 5 were leftmost in row 3, however, clue 2 could not work. So, 3 is leftmost in row 3 and 9 is leftmost in row 4. By clue 2, 5 is in the middle of row 3. By clue 3, 7 is next to 9 in row 4, with 8 to the right of 7. Finally, 0 is rightmost in row 2 and 1 is rightmost in row 3 (clue 5).
    The final arrangement of the apartment numbers is as shown below:

    Since apartment numbered 6 is on the top floor, it has the largest area.
    Answer: 6
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    A certain Twenty 20 cricket tournament is about to start and there are 7 media sponsors A, B, C, D, E, F and G for it. They have the advertisement rights of 50%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 5%, 5% and 10% respectively for each of the match. A typical cricket match has 2 innings each of 20 overs. The telecasting channel has the following rules in terms of advertisements.
    1. The advertisements have to be telecasted according to a company’s advertisement rights as mentioned above. For example, out of total advertisement timing, A should not hold more than 50%.
    2. There should be a commercial break at the end of every over.
    3. There should be 2 advertisements telecasted in each of these breaks.
    4. A break cannot exceed a time frame of 90 seconds but slotting of advertisements should be done in such a way so as to use the maximum of time frame.
    5. Both the advertisements telecasted in the break cannot be of the same company.
    Following table shows the advertisement from each of the sponsor together with its time frame. For example, company A has 2 advertisements; one is of 30 seconds while other is of 60 seconds.
    The table also shows the competitor of the company. For example, companies A, B and C are competitors of each other.
    The telecasting channel wants to impress the sponsors by telecasting their longest advertisement keeping in mind the above rules. On a clash of timings, the telecasting channel can telecast either of the advertisements to satisfy the rules.
    For all the questions below, assume that both the innings lasted for 20 overs each.
     
    Q. The company ‘A’ earns additional revenue of Rs. 10,000 when a 60 seconds advertisement is telecasted while it earns revenue of Rs. 5,000 when a 30 seconds advertisement is telecasted. What is the maximum revenue that the company ‘A’ can earn from a match? (Consider that entire advertisement time is utilized.)
    Note: Enter only numerical value.
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    Mahinder Kumar answered  •  1 hour ago
    ‘A’ can maximize its revenue when 60 seconds advertisements are telecasted.
    Thus there can be 28 60 seconds advertisements and 12 30 seconds advertisement in a match to maximize revenue
    Thus maximum total revenue earned would be 28 x 10000 + 4 x 5000 = Rs. 3,00,000
    Answer: 300000

    Babu Ram asked   •  1 hour ago

    i. Ten chairs numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 are situated adjacent to one another in two different rows. Both rows contain five chairs each facing each other.
    ii. Ten Indian cricketers are sitting on these chairs. They are Shikar, Rohit, Virat, Yuvraj, Suresh, Mahendra, Ravichandran, Hardik, Jasprit and Ashish, not necessarily in the same order.
    iii. Odd numbered cannot be opposite or adjacent to odd numbered chairs. The same applies to even numbered chairs as well.
    iv. Chair 8 is occupied by Rohit and his chair is to the extreme left of one row.
    v. Hardik sits on chair 5.
    vi. Chairs 4 and 6 are not in the same row as chair 8 and chair 2 is not in the middle of its row.
    vii. Virat sits on an odd numbered chair in the same row as Rohit but they do not sit adjacent to each other.
    viii. Suresh and Mahendra’s chairs are adjacent to chair 6 but Mahendra’s chair is not adjacent to chair 4.
    ix. Shikar’s and Ashish’s chairs are in the same row.
    x. Yuvraj's chair is even numbered and is diagonally opposite to chair 1, such that Yuvraj is at the farthest possible distance from chair 1.
    xi. Chair 6 is second from the left.
    xii. No two consecutive chairs are consecutively numbered and Ravichandran’s chair is neither opposite to nor adjacent to Suresh’s chair.
     
     
    Q. Which of the following statements is definitely true? 
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    If perception of sound depends on our state of mind, then conversely a state of mind can hardly exist without an external world with which it is in relation and that conditions it - either our immediate present environment, or something that happened in the past and that now echoes or goes on happening in our minds. Silence, then, is always relative. Our experience of it is more interesting than the acoustic effect itself. And the most interesting kind of silence is that of a mind free of words, free of thoughts, free of language, a mental silence. Arguably, when we have a perception of being tormented by noise, a lot of that noise is actually in our heads - the interminable fizz of anxious thoughts or the self-regarding monologue that for much of the time constitutes our consciousness. Our objection to noise in the outer world, very often, is that it makes it harder to focus on the buzz we produce for ourselves in our inner world.
    Sitting still, denying yourself physical movement, the mind’s instinctive reaction is to retreat into its normal buzzing monologue - hoping that focusing the mind elsewhere will relieve physical discomfort. Silence, then, combined with stillness - the two are intimately related - invites us to observe the relationship between consciousness and the body, in movement and moving thought. In fact, what you actually discover is less personal than you would suppose. You discover how the construct of consciousness and self, something we all share, normally gets through time, to a large extent by ignoring our physical being and existence in the present moment. This form of meditation alters the mind’s relationship with the body. It invites the meditator to focus attention on all parts of the body equally, without exception, to guide the consciousness through the body and to contemplate sensation as it ebbs and flows in the flesh, and this without reacting in any way - without aversion to pain, without attachment to pleasure. So we become aware that even when we are still, everything inside us is constantly moving and changing. The process is a series of small gains and losses; perhaps a larger step forward, then a small relapse. If one is persistent, undaunted, in one’s attempts to concentrate, if one is successful in showing neither aversion to pain nor indulgence in pleasure, then, very slowly, the stillness and silence deepen in an atmosphere of beatitude that is simultaneously and indivisibly both physical and mental. It is as if, as the body is slowly put together and all its component parts unite in an intense present, so the historical self is taken apart and falls away.
     
    Q. Which field of study does this article fall under?
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    Sahab Singh answered  •  1 hour ago
    The passage deals with the resulting changes in an individual's state of mind and body caused by meditation - a combination of silence and stillness. The passage seeks “ ... to observe the relationship between consciousness and the body, in movement and moving thought.”. The finding of such a discovery achieved through meditation being “You discover how the construct of consciousness and self, something we all share, normally gets through time, to a large extent by ignoring our physical being and existence in the present moment.” and the stillness and silence deepen in an atmosphere of beatitude that is simultaneously and indivisibly both physical and mental.”. This is best expressed by option 2. Philosophy is the rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct.
    Option 1 is incorrect. Social psychology is the psychological study of social behavior, especially of the reciprocal influence of the individual and the group with which the individual interacts.
    Option 3 is incorrect. It is generic in nature to accommodate the subject matter of the passage.
    Option 4 is incorrect. Social philosophy is the study of questions about social behavior and interpretations of society and social institutions in terms of ethical values rather than empirical relations.
    Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

    27, 32, 30, 35, 33, __.
    • a)
      28
    • b)
      31
    • c)
      36
    • d)
      38
    Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

    Nikhil K Singh answered  •  1 hour ago
    There are 2 number sequences...one starting with 30 and another starting with 32...each skipping adjacent numbers and progressing by adding 3

    view all 2 answers

    Raj Bala asked   •  3 hours ago

    Group Question
    A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.
    His first one-man art-gallery exhibition as a fine artist was on July 9, 1962, in the Ferus Gallery of Los Angeles. The exhibition marked the West Coast debut of pop art. Andy Warhol's first New York solo Pop exhibit was hosted at Eleanor Ward's Stable Gallery November 6-24, 1962. The exhibit included the works Marilyn Diptych, 100 Soup Cans, 100 Coke Bottles and 100 Dollar Bills. At the Stable Gallery exhibit, the artist met for the first time John Giorno who would star in Warhol's first film, Sleep, in 1963.
    It was during the 1960s that Warhol began to make paintings of iconic American products such as Campbell's Soup Cans and Coca-Cola bottles, as well as paintings of celebrities such as Marilyn Monroe, Elvis Presley, Troy Donahue, Muhammad AN and Elizabeth Taylor. He founded "The Factory", his studio during these years, and gathered around himself a wide range of artists, writers, musicians, and underground celebrities. He began producing prints using the silkscreen method. His work became popular and controversial.
    Among the imagery tackled by Warhol were dollar bills, celebrities and brand name products. He also used as imagery for his paintings newspaper headlines or photographs of mushroom clouds, electric chairs, and police dogs attacking civil rights protesters. Warhol also used Coca Cola bottles as subject matter for paintings. He had this to say about Coca Cola:“What's great about this country is that America started the tradition where the richest consumers buy essentially the same things as the poorest. You can be watching TV and see Coca Cola, and you know that the President drinks Coca Cola, Liz Taylor drinks Coca Cola, and just think, you can drink Coca Cola, too. A coke is a coke and no amount of money can get you a better coke than the one the bum on the corner is drinking. All the cokes are the same and all the cokes are good. Liz Taylor knows it, the President knows it, the bum knows it, and you know it.”
    New York's Museum of Modern Art hosted a Symposium on pop art in December 1962 during which artists like Warhol were attacked for "capitulating" to consumerism. Critics were scandalized by Warhol's open embrace of market culture. This symposium set the tone for Warhol's reception. Throughout the decade it became more and more clear that there had been a profound change in the culture of the art world, and that Warhol was at the center of that shift.
     
    Q. According to the passage, which of the following statements is Andy Warhol least likely to agree with?
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    Nitesh Sharma asked   •  5 hours ago

    Answer the following question based on the information given below. Animals can habituate to environmental disturbances. What’s more, they can get very good at telling the difference between stimuli that are relevant to them, and those that aren’t. Tree frogs can tell the difference between vibration caused by a predator and vibration caused by rain, even though these cues are extremely similar. Similarly, caterpillars living on leaves can tell the difference between vibrations caused by other caterpillars, predators, wind and rain. Spiders build webs on human-built structures such as pipelines, fences, road signs and wire rods, all of which are made out of materials not present in their evolutionary history. This means that they will absorb vibrations from the environment differently to a more natural place a spider might build its web, for example, a plant. If these human-built objects are anywhere near humans (which they are likely to be) they are also probably affected by human noise. For example, a spider that has built a web near a road will be subject to the vibration caused by cars driving by. This matters particularly to spiders because they use vibration so much in guiding their behaviour. Indeed, you can even imagine the web to be an extension of the spider itself, such that the vibrations on the very outside of the web travel down to the spider situated in the centre and tell it whether it’s being ‘touched’ by prey, a mate, wind or rain.
    Q.
     
    The italicised numbered words given below are correctly represented by which of the following parts Of Speach?
    I grew up on expeditions (1) — my first was when I was seven. It’s such a different world. It’s a place of magic and (2) mystery and beauty and danger. There’s always something new (3), every dive. So it’s more that it would be very difficult (4) to find a career that would trump that. I tried! I went (5) to school for environmental economics, and I went into international business and marketing afterwards (6). I did stints in different (7) places —I worked in graphic design, I worked in interior design. All those were very (8) short-lived careers for me because, at the end of the day, my mind and my soul kept driving me back to the ocean. To the thing, that (9) really attracted me to this life — which is the adventure, the discovery.
    ... more

    Read the following question and answer accordingly.
    JVC School has passed a new rule stating ‘Whenever a student hears the school anthem s/he must stand in respect, if s/he refuses to do so s/he will be suspended from school.’
     
    Q.What can be concluded from above?
    • a)
      School JVC needs to change its administrative policy.
    • b)
      Students in JVC stand during the national anthem.
    • c)
      There are few students in JVC.
    • d)
      School JVC follows a no-tolerance policy when it comes to respecting the school anthem
    Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

    Amol Bundhe answered  •  12 hours ago
    Go with options.
    option 1- statement talking about school policy neither its demand not its effect. So it barely stands for conclusion.
    option 2- it may state that after effect of rule or not stating about policy which is main theme of statement. So this option turn down.
    option 3 -it is out of context of passage. 
    option 4 -it state that school's policy determination towards anthem, and statement it self talking about school policy and determination. So it is a best option that fit for conclusion.

    Answer the following question based on the information given below.
    Eight representatives - A to H - one from each of the eight international test playing nations are invited by the ICC for an event where strategies to encourage different countries to take up cricket are to be discussed. All eight nations have a different ICC test ranking from 1 to 8 and every representative has scored a different number of centuries in international cricket. These representatives are staying in a hotel on the same floor but in eight different rooms. There are only eight rooms on the floor. There are four rooms in each row. There is a corridor such that one row is to the left of the corridor and the other is to its right. The Indian and Pakistani representatives stay in room numbers 401 and 408, not necessarily in the same order. Rooms adjacent to each other are numbered consecutively, such that rooms 403 and 406 are opposite each other.
    The addition of the test rank of India and Australia is the same as the rank of Sri Lanka. Also, the addition of India’s and New Zealand’s rank is equal to West Indies’ rank. The addition of ranks of Pakistan and New Zealand is the same as that of West Indies and Sri Lanka.
    B is from West Indies. C is not from Pakistan, Sri Lanka or England. G is from New Zealand. D is neither from England nor from Sri Lanka.
    The ranks of India, New Zealand, West Indies, and England are prime numbers. A, the representative from India, has scored 100 centuries. This is the maximum number of centuries scored by any representative.
    Australia’s rank as well as the number of centuries scored by the Australian representative is a perfect square. Sri Lanka’s rank is twice England’s rank. The number of centuries scored by the Australian is a perfect cube.
    The Australian is opposite room number 404 and there is only one room adjacent to his room. The South African stays in room number 407 and neither the Indian nor the Australian is his neighbor. The West Indian and the New Zealander stay opposite each other.
    The number of centuries scored by the Pakistani, Englishman, South African, Sri Lankan, and Australian are consecutive numbers in decreasing order. With 32 centuries, the New Zealander has scored the least number of centuries.
    H represents South Africa, which holds the top most spot in the test rankings. F is not from Sri Lanka
    Q.
    A @ B means A > B A # B means A < B
    A % B means the remainder when A is divided by B
    If P # Q, R @ Q and (P % Q) # (Q % R), which of the following expressions follows?
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    Maniya answered  •  14 hours ago
    P # Q, R @ Q and (P % Q) # (Q % R)
    So, P < Q and R > Q i.e. P < Q < R Let P = 4, Q = 5, R = 6 So, P % Q = 4 and Q % R = 5 Thus, this is a possible set of values.
    Consider the expression in option 1.
    -P % Q = -4 % 5 i.e. -4 -Q % R = -5 % 6 i.e. -5 -4 > -5
    So, the expression in option 1 does not follow. Q % P = 5 % 4 = 1 R % Q = 6 % 5 = 1 So, (Q % P) = (R % Q)
    So, the expression in option 2 does not follow. Thus, neither expression follows.
    Hence, option 4

    Answer the following question based on the information given below.
    Eight representatives - A to H - one from each of the eight international test playing nations are invited by the ICC for an event where strategies to encourage different countries to take up cricket are to be discussed. All eight nations have a different ICC test ranking from 1 to 8 and every representative has scored a different number of centuries in international cricket. These representatives are staying in a hotel on the same floor but in eight different rooms. There are only eight rooms on the floor. There are four rooms in each row. There is a corridor such that one row is to the left of the corridor and the other is to its right. The Indian and Pakistani representatives stay in room numbers 401 and 408, not necessarily in the same order. Rooms adjacent to each other are numbered consecutively, such that rooms 403 and 406 are opposite each other.
    The addition of the test rank of India and Australia is the same as the rank of Sri Lanka. Also, the addition of India’s and New Zealand’s rank is equal to West Indies’ rank. The addition of ranks of Pakistan and New Zealand is the same as that of West Indies and Sri Lanka.
    B is from West Indies. C is not from Pakistan, Sri Lanka or England. G is from New Zealand. D is neither from England nor from Sri Lanka.
    The ranks of India, New Zealand, West Indies, and England are prime numbers. A, the representative from India, has scored 100 centuries. This is the maximum number of centuries scored by any representative.
    Australia’s rank as well as the number of centuries scored by the Australian representative is a perfect square. Sri Lanka’s rank is twice England’s rank. The number of centuries scored by the Australian is a perfect cube.
    The Australian is opposite room number 404 and there is only one room adjacent to his room. The South African stays in room number 407 and neither the Indian nor the Australian is his neighbor. The West Indian and the New Zealander stay opposite each other.
    The number of centuries scored by the Pakistani, Englishman, South African, Sri Lankan, and Australian are consecutive numbers in decreasing order. With 32 centuries, the New Zealander has scored the least number of centuries.
    H represents South Africa, which holds the top most spot in the test rankings. F is not from Sri Lanka
    Q.
    Find the statement which is necessarily true according to the given  information
    A recent study claims that youth bulges - extraordinarily large youth cohorts relative to the adult population - can be causally linked to internal armed conflict. Youth bulges strain social institutions such as the labor market and the educational system, thereby causing grievances that result in violent conflict.
    Which of the following pieces of information would be crucially required to validate the above conclusion?
     
    ... more

    Sunita Devi answered  •  14 hours ago
    All of the options will provide insight into the conclusion made by the study mentioned in the passage. However, for the correct answer, we are required to pick an option which provides crucial information that can validate this study. Only option 1 will provide information about the bigger picture that can validate the above conclusion.
    Options 2, 3 and 4 on the other hand deal with very specific aspects and do not make for crucial information.
    Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

    Answer the following question based on the information given below.
    To assess the quality of education that was being imparted by the local schools in the state, the education ministry had assigned the project to an external research agency to find out the details of the students who had passed in the recently held state wide examinations.
    The survey was carried out across Class VIII, Class IX and Class X students of the state. To speed up the survey, the areas from where these students came were categorized into three zones: Zone A, Zone B and Zone C. The number of students sampled in each zone was 1000. The survey form was a simple four question paper in which the participant had to fill in the answer applicable to him.
    The questions asked were:
    Did you pass in Class VIII?
    Did you pass in Class IX?
    Did you pass in Class X?
    Have you failed in your examination?
    The answers to all the questions were to be in either YES or NO. There was no other answer possible.
    The survey report was presented in the following format. The percentages as shown mean the percentage of students who answered YES to that particular question.
    In the above charts, only the creator of the questionnaire knew what the options A, B, C and D meant.
    In Zone C, he knew from looking at the above charts that 220 students of all the participants in the survey had failed in the examination. And further more, in all the three zones put together, the difference between the number of students who had passed in Class IX and those who had passed in Class X was 100.
    Q.
    If in Zone A where the number of students who had passed in  Class VIII was minimum possible, then which of the following statements can be definitely concluded?
    a.    The maximum number of students had passed in Class IX in Zone B.
    b.     The minimum number of students had passed in Class X in Zone B.
    c.     The minimum number of students had passed in Class X in Zone C.
    d.    The maximum number of students had passed in Class IX in Zone A.
    e.    The minimum number of students had failed in all classes put together in Zone A.
    ... more

    Raj Dulari answered  •  14 hours ago
    Tabulating the data from the chart we have the following data table:
    Now since we have that 220 students of all the participants in the survey had failed in the examination. And further more, in all the three zones put together, the difference between the
    number of students who had passed in Class IX and that in Class X was 100.
    This would hold good only for the following cases:
    Since in Zone A where the number of students who had passed in Class VIII was minimum possible, then selection of Option A in the survey form would have indicated that the participant had passed in Class VIII since this is the least number. According to either of the case 3 or 4, this could be true and the two classes i.e. IX and X should be indicated by either B or C but their exact order cannot be concluded. Further selection of option C in the survey form indicated that the students have failed in all the three classes in that zone. Hence none of the statements except e can be concluded.
    Hence, option 3.

    Suresh Rani asked   •  9 hours ago

    Positive reinforcement is the act of increasing the probability of occurrence of a given behaviour. Negative punishment is the removal of something valued, which can take the form of revoking privileges or playing time.
    Coaches will use both forms of motivation (positive reinforcement and negative punishment), but the positive approach is arguably better because it focuses on what athletes should do and what they are doing right. Reinforcement increases task-relevant focus rather than worry focus. A task-relevant focus facilitates reaction time and decision time. A successful experience colors the athlete’s view as positive, which can lead to approach behaviors. Approach behaviors or approach motivation indicates the propensity to move towards a desired stimulus.
    Prior research has already shown that positive affect (or positive motivation/reinforcement) promotes cognitive flexibility. In a study published in Psychological Science, they extended motivational dimensional model to the domain of cognitive control by examining both low- and high-motivated positive affect on the balance between cognitive flexibility (our ability to adjust to behavior in response to a changing environment) and cognitive stability (our ability to change behavior in the face of distraction). Low and high approach- motivated positive affect would indicate the intensity of the positive affect on a selected individual in regard to approach motivation.
    Results concluded low approach-motivated positive affect promoted cognitive flexibility but also caused higher distractibility, whereas high approach-motivated positive affect enhanced perseverance but simultaneously reduced distractibility.
    There are many things that motivate us. Are you trying to find a reason to workout in the morning? Goal setting is usually the best way to do it. Having a goal you want to reach, such as “I want to increase my snatch weight by ten pounds in eight weeks” or “I want to lose ten pounds of weight in two months,” is an example of an achievement-based reason to be motivated. For those who are finding it difficult to find a reason to start fitness, go sign up for an event. Someone newer to CrossFit can easily sign up for a novice event. Those who want to get into adventure racing can go ahead and sign up for a race. The point is, find a reason to do something or you may not be motivated to do it. And don’t do something for someone else or you will likely not keep up with it. Be motivated to do it for you.
     
    Q.Which of the following weakens the position of task relevant focus?
    ... more

    Group Question
    The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
    The problem of induction may also be formulated as the question of the validity or the truth of universal statements which are based on experience, such as the hypotheses and theoretical systems of the empirical sciences. For many people believe that the truth of these universal statements is ‘known by experience’; yet it is clear that an account of an experience-of an observation or the result of an experiment-can in the first place be only a singular statement and not a universal one. Accordingly, people who say of a universal statement that we know its truth from experience usually mean that the truth of this universal statement can somehow be reduced to the truth of singular ones, and that these singular ones are known by experience to be true; which amounts to saying that the universal statement is based on inductive inference. Thus, to ask whether there are natural laws known to be true appears to be only another way of asking whether inductive inferences are logically justified.
    Yet if we want to find a way of justifying inductive inferences, we must first of all try to establish a principle of induction. A principle of induction would be a statement with the help of which we could put inductive inferences into a logically acceptable form. In the eyes of the upholders of inductive logic, a principle of induction is of supreme importance for scientific method. This principle, says Reichenbach, determines the truth of scientific theories. To eliminate it from science would mean nothing less than to deprive science of the power to decide the truth or falsity of its theories. Without it, clearly, science would no longer have the right to distinguish its theories from the fanciful and arbitrary creations of the poet’s mind.
     
    Q. According to the passage, the problem of induction is least likely to stem from which of the following?
    ... more

    Vedo answered  •  14 hours ago
    Option 1 can be inferred from “... it is clear that an account of an experience-of an observation or the result of an experiment-can in the first place be only a singular statement and not a universal one.”.
    Option 3 finds support in “A principle of induction would be a statement with the help of which we could put inductive inferences into a logically acceptable form.”. This implies that solving the problem of induction would necessitate bringing together of several individual experiences in a coherent manner.
    According to the passage, “Thus, to ask whether there are natural laws known to be true appears to be only another way of asking whether inductive inferences are logically justified. Yet if we want to find a way of justifying inductive inferences, we must first of all try to establish a principle of induction.”. This eliminates option 4. Option 2 alone cannot be concluded since the “veracity" of multitudes of experiences is not questioned in the passage as much as the ability to derive inductive inferences from them is.
    Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

    Group Question
    Answer the following question based on the information given below.
    The following graph gives the sales revenue of five companies in the years from 2000 to 2004.
    Q.
    The absolute difference between the sales revenue of GH and IJ was the least in the year
    • a)
      2000
    • b)
      2001
    • c)
      2002
    • d)
      2003
    • e)
      2004 
    Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

    Asha Devi answered  •  14 hours ago
    The absolute difference between the sales revenue of GH and IJ for each year is given below.
    For 2000= 100-50 = 50
    For 2001 = 125-75 = 50
    For 2002= 100-100 = 0
    For 2003 = 125-75 = 50
    For 2004 = 100 - 75 = 25
    ∴ The absolute difference between the sales revenue of GH and IJ was the least in the year 2002.
    Hence, option 3.

    Zile Singh asked   •  10 hours ago

    The passage given below is followed by a question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
    Today we are faced with the harsh reality that the treatment or prevention of infectious diseases has not made quantum advances since the early successes of vaccines and antimicrobial therapies. In a sense, the world is headed backward, as once-treatable microbes become resistant to existing therapies, and new infections for which there are no effective interventions continue to arise. This situation represents a serious and imminent threat to the world.
    The emergence of a highly lethal and rapidly spreading antimicrobial- resistant infection would lead to untold numbers of deaths and unimaginable misery. The consequences could be similar in magnitude to a large-scale terrorist attack. Communities could be walled off, national borders closed, and travel could be restricted or even suspended. Health systems could disintegrate or collapse, as could economies. The possibility of such an apocalyptic scenario suggests that the threat of infectious diseases is among the most important challenges that humankind faces. It is not just a public health risk; it is a threat to national and global security. Thus, it must be met with a comprehensive and effective solution.
    The research and development required to produce new medicines or vaccines is time-consuming, often taking more than a dozen years. It is also very expensive, costing hundreds of millions of dollars for every new product. Moreover, there is no guarantee of success; indeed, for each successful product, there are as many as nine equally promising candidates that fail. Given the risks involved, it is not surprising that pharmaceutical companies are very careful in their choice of investments in new drug or vaccine programs, selecting only those that promise financial gains sufficient to cover the costs of both successes and failures and provide a reasonable return on the required investment.
    Almost every country is prepared to channel a large percentage of its GDP toward investments in national defense or security. The global threat of emerging or resistant infections must be viewed first and foremost in that context, with all countries committed to providing financing, intellectual capital, and available resources to support the discovery, development, manufacture, stockpiling, and equitable distribution of new antimicrobial agents and vaccines. Unless countries recognize the risks they face, they are unlikely to make such a commitment. It goes without saying that this would be a complicated undertaking, with many details to be worked out. But somehow we must suspend disbelief and take action now, lest we be caught off-guard against an imminent global threat. This is a battle we cannot afford to lose.
     
    Q.What is the passage about?
    ... more

    Fill in the blank with the appropriate option.
    Seven-time Tour de France winner Lance Armstrong admitted in January 2013 that he used performance-enhancing drugs to______ all of his victories.
    1. retain
    2. acquire
    3. reminisce
    4. achieve
      Correct answer is '4'. Can you explain this answer?

      Nanhi answered  •  14 hours ago
      The word “victory” in the sentence is mostly associated with ‘achieve’ meaning ‘to successfully bring about or reach (a desired objective or result) by effort, skill, or courage’. “Retain” and “reminisce” can be eliminated since they do not fit contextually. Although “acquire” seems to be right, it does not form a coherent sentence.
      Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

      A country where 270 million people live below the 'poverty line', obesity seems to be a distant issue, meant for the rich kids of first world. But India is under siege: junk food, alcohol and sedentary lifestyle are leading us to silent self-destruction, making one in every five Indian men and women either obese or overweight.
      According to a study published in the noted journal Lancet, India is just behind US and China in this global hazard list of top 10 countries with highest number of obese people. The study titled 'Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013' - used data collected by international bodies and organisations in various countries like India over three decades. The US topped the list with 13 per cent of the obese people worldwide in 2013, while China and India together accounted for 15 per cent of the world's obese population, with 46 million and 30 million obese people, respectively. According to the study, number of overweight and obese people globally increased from 857 million in 1980 to 2.1 billion in 2013. This is one-third of the world's population.
      Overweight in adults is categorised as Body Mass Index of 25 kg/m2 to 30 kg/m2 and obesity as Body Mass Index of more than 30 kg/m2. In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3 to 4 million deaths, 3.9 per cent of years of life lost, and 3.8 per cent of disability-adjusted life-years worldwide, the study said. If we see the graph of obesity, from 1999 onwards Indians started gaining weight due to urbanisation. There has been gradual economical improvement in our status. The entrance of modern technology and Internet has turned people lazy and stagnant.
      With lifestyle disorders forcing more and more people to reel under excess body weight, even relatively younger people are developing joint disorders and knee pain. Excessive weight is associated with a series of health problems, including blood pressure, diabetes, and cardiovascular ailments. Experts say the prevalence of obesity is greater among women than men and is increasing among children and adolescents rapidly.
       
      Q.Which of the following is an irony mentioned in the passage? 
      ... more

      Gurdeep Kaur answered  •  14 hours ago
      - Option 1 is stating a half fact. There is nothing in the passage to confirm whether women work harder than men.
      - Option 3 also states something that is not mentioned in the passage. The statistics of the death toll is fabricated and false.
      - Option 4 is incorrect as the passage does not give us statistics of the food supply.
      - Option 2 is apt and can be validated by the first paragraph. Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

      The table below shows the journey schedule of the Agra-Kolkata Express that leaves Agra at 5 p.m. everyday and reaches Kolkata the next day at 5:20 p.m. The distance in the table below is cumulative in nature.

      Q. On a certain day, the train is delayed due to fog. It leaves Kanpur 2 hours late than the usual time. What   should be its average running speed (in km/min) for the remaining distance so that it arrives at Kolkata at the scheduled time? The stoppage time at the stations remain the same. Give your answer to two decimal points.
        Correct answer is '1.26'. Can you explain this answer?

        Anita Sharma answered  •  14 hours ago
        Consider the solution to the earlier questions.
        Distance between Kanpur and Kolkata = 1405 - 406 = 999 km Time taken by the train to travel from Kanpur to Kolkata = (17:20 - 1 : 1 5 ) - (20 + 5 + 10+15 + 2) [stoppage time in between] = 16 hour 5 min - 52 min = 15 hour 13 min = 913 minutes Since the train is delayed by 2 hours, it should take cover the journey in 913 — 120 = 793 minutes Average speed for the remaining distance = 999/793 = 1.26 km/min Answer: 1.26 

        Rajender Singh asked   •  10 hours ago

        A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.
        Folklorists often interpret the fairy tale Cinderella as the competition between the stepmother and the stepdaughter for resources, which may include the need to provide a dowry. Gioachino Rossini's opera La Cenerentola makes this economic basis explicit: Don Magnifico wishes to make his own daughters' dowry larger, to attract a grander match, which is impossible if he must provide a third dowry. One common penalty for the kidnapping of an unmarried woman was that the abductor had to provide the woman's dowry. Until the late 20th century this was sometimes called wreath money, or the breach of promise. Providing dowries for poor women was regarded as a form of charity by wealthier parishioners. The custom of Christmas stockings springs from a legend of St. Nicholas, in which he threw gold in the stockings of three poor sisters, thus providing for their dowries. St. Elizabeth of Portugal and St. Martin de Porres were particularly noted for providing such dowries, and the Archconfraternity of the Annunciation, a Roman charity dedicated to providing dowries, received the entire estate of Pope Urban VII. As the French crown provided dowries for many of the women persuaded to travel to New France for marriages and settlement there, they were known as filles du roi (daughters of the king). In some parts of Europe, land dowries were common. In the County of Bentheim, for instance, parents who had no sons might give a land dowry to their new son-in- law. It was commonly given with the condition that he take the surname of his bride, in order to continue the family name. The Portuguese crown gave two cities as dowry to the British Crown in 1661 when King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland married Catherine of Braganza, a princess of Portugal. They were Mumbai (Bombay) in India and Tangier in Morocco.
         
        Q.Which of the following can be stated about Don Magnifico from the passage?
        A. He is a miserly man who keeps his money close to his heart.
        B. He hates his daughters and simply wants to many them off.
        C. He has a social status equivalent to a king that requires him to pay a high dowry for his daughters.
        ... more

                                                                                              Group Question
        Read the following situation and choose the best possible alternative.

        Manisha is a 21-year-old MBA summer intern who has just been caught stealing Rs. 1000 from the petty cash fund in your office. This was because she wanted to party over the weekend and her internship cheque was expected to be credited in her bank account on Monday, after which she intended to put the money back in the petty cash fund. The Company has a strict policy that says that anyone who steals will be dismissed. Manisha’s mother works in another department in the Company for the past 15 years and she has come to see you, in person, to beg you not to “ruin Manisha’s life”. She also points out that she has seen many other employees take incidental office supplies like pencils and notepads home. 
         
         
        Q. Which of the following is going to be your decision? 
        ... more

        Kela Devi answered  •  14 hours ago
        Solution: The company policy needs to be strictly adhered to. No leniency is to be shown once theft is established.
        Option 2 is incorrect as it penalizes her mother.
        Option 3 contravenes company policy.
        Manisha’s dismissal is enough to send the message across- option 4 is unnecessary.
        Option 5 is incorrect as it sidetracks the issue of Manisha’s misbehavior.
        Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

        Umed Singh asked   •  10 hours ago

        The passage given below is followed by a question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
        Is anyone a born entrepreneur, a born leader or born to win? I believe everyone is born to win but you have to make winning a habit. Think of this: a quitter never wins, a winner never quits. I have been privileged to share the dream and journey of many entrepreneurs. A few traits are habits with all of them. A winner is a believer. Belief in oneself and one’s convictions — that inner voice of core strength to pursue dreams despite difficulties.
        Along the way everyone they meet gets swept up in their dreams and aspirations. This belief is rooted in a bigger purpose than self- satisfaction. Winners are great listeners. They learn continuously; they take inputs; they don’t think they have all the answers; and they are confident to have the humility to hear other points of view.
        Listening is about striving for comprehension and making oneself open to possibilities. Winners value self-development. They constantly challenge themselves and set aggressive goals and often surpass expectations. They make organisational learning a priority. Winners are unstoppable. They don’t count hurdles. They don’t brood about failures and risks. They are activators.
        They have a clear compass on why they keep trying and what they set out to achieve. Hence they have the edge to get up, dust themselves off, and set out again and again.
        Winners are decisive. They chart the course and make choices all the time while being transparent and suffused with a clarity of purpose. They are less prone to procrastination. They are resilient to change and very effective in communicating their decisions. Another word for this is nimbleness, and in these times, this quality is essential to innovate.
        Is all this too much to ask? Of late, too often, I read are we expecting too much from young entrepreneurs. Was too much expected of Alexander when he became king at 20 and set out to conquer the world? Or of Akbar who inherited the empire at the age of 14? Being a founder, building a high-velocity organisation is no doubt high-pressure, but isn’t it a choice? Isn’t competing in the Olympics different from playing cricket in your backyard?
        Over the years, I have a more nuanced take about winning itself.
        Winning doesn’t always mean being first; winning means you are doing better than you have done before.
         
        Q.Which of the following, if true, weakens the argument in the above passage?
        A. One has to be bom a winner and winning cannot be taught or learned.
        B. Losers are no different than winners apart from the fact that they are short on luck.
        ... more

        Go through the caselet below and answer the questions that follow.
        Miss Bhuvana loves her job. She wishes to progress in her company and continue there for another decade. She has been working for 2 years now and has always received good feedback about her work. Last week, the HR Director emailed all the employees that this year’s appraisal is going to be a performance based one and not a single bracket for everyone like previous years.
        Q.
        The CEO of the company realizes that Bhuvana was given a very poor hike and it was not a fair reward for her work in the organization. He also learnt that she was looking out for work options elsewhere. He regretted that his loyal and sincere employee was put in this situation. He wanted to resolve this complicated situation. He was contemplating the following 5 actions in his mind.
        A. Talk to Bhuvana and tell her that he would regret losing such a bright employee.
        B. Speak to the HR Director and tell him that Bhuvana is a great employee.
        C.  Chat with Bhuvana and her team mates during lunch to find out how it is going for her.
        D. Tell the HR department that they would not be handling appraisals anymore.
        E. Arrange a meeting with the HR Director, Miss Bhuvana and himself to sort out the situation.
        Which of the following is the best sequence to resolve the problem?
        ... more

        Aunguri Devi answered  •  yesterday
        The CEO is responsible for the entire company and he needs to make sure that every department functions smoothly. Losing a good employee either in the form of Miss Bhuvana or the HR Director is not good for the company. He would need to understand the crux of the matter and then resolve it amicably.
        Option 3 with B, A and E is a good option. Talking to the HR Director first would ensure that they are clear from the management point of view. Talking to Bhuvana would ensure that she knows that the CEO actually values her and her work. Finally step E would acknowledge the misfortune of the events in the past and would ensure smooth open door communication and redressal of grievances in the future.
        Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

        Answer the following question based on the information given below.Animals can habituate to environmental disturbances. What’s more, they can get very good at telling the difference between stimuli that are relevant to them, and those that aren’t. Tree frogs can tell the difference between vibration caused by a predator and vibration caused by rain, even though these cues are extremely similar. Similarly, caterpillars living on leaves can tell the difference between vibrations caused by other caterpillars, predators, wind and rain.Spiders build webs on human-built structures such as pipelines, fences, road signs and wire rods, all of which are made out of materials not present in their evolutionary history. This means that they will absorb vibrations from the environment differently to a more natural place a spider might build its web, for example a plant. If these human-built objects are anywhere near humans (which they are likely to be) they are also probably affected by human noise. For example, a spider that has built a web near a road will be subject to the vibration caused by cars driving by. This matters particularly to spiders because they use vibration so much in guiding their behaviour. Indeed, you can even imagine the web to be an extension of the spider itself, such that the vibrations on the very outside of the web travel down to the spider situated in the centre and tell it whether it’s being ‘touched’ by prey, a mate, wind or rain.
        Q. 
        Read the sentences and choose the option that best arranges them in a logical order.
        A. These aren't just simple holes.
        B. This seemingly simple but wholly original device imbues the game with a mind-bending sense of physics.
        C.In both games, the player/protagonist is a young, dark-haired woman in an orange jumpsuit whom you see only in glimpses. With one trigger on your controller, you place an entrance on one wall; with the opposite trigger, you place your exit on another wall (or on a floor, or a ceiling).
        E. Portal, one the most beloved video games created for the current generation of consoles, has recently spawned a sequel, Portal 2.
        F. She must surmount a series of challenges mostly through the use of a ‘portal gun’: a weapon, if it even merits the name, that creates oval-shaped portals.
         
        ... more

        Rekha Rani answered  •  yesterday
        E is the opening sentence in all the options.
        The CF link is clear: C introduces the protagonist, and F mentions what she must do in the game. This rules out options 1 and 5, which lack this link.
        E can be followed by either B or C, but certainly not D. Therefore option 4, which has an ED link, can be ruled out.
        The “mind-bending sense of physics” in statement B logically follows the description of creating portals on walls/floors/ceilings with opposing triggers, as mentioned in statement D. This link is present in option 3.
        Therefore, the correct sequence is ECFADB.
        Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

        Sukhdev Singh asked   •  13 hours ago

        The passage given below is followed by a question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
        Is anyone a born entrepreneur, a born leader or born to win? I believe everyone is born to win but you have to make winning a habit. Think of this: a quitter never wins, a winner never quits. I have been privileged to share the dream and journey of many entrepreneurs. A few traits are habits with all of them. A winner is a believer. Belief in oneself and one’s convictions — that inner voice of core strength to pursue dreams despite difficulties.
        Along the way everyone they meet gets swept up in their dreams and aspirations. This belief is rooted in a bigger purpose than self- satisfaction. Winners are great listeners. They learn continuously; they take inputs; they don’t think they have all the answers; and they are confident to have the humility to hear other points of view.
        Listening is about striving for comprehension and making oneself open to possibilities. Winners value self-development. They constantly challenge themselves and set aggressive goals and often surpass expectations. They make organisational learning a priority. Winners are unstoppable. They don’t count hurdles. They don’t brood about failures and risks. They are activators.
        They have a clear compass on why they keep trying and what they set out to achieve. Hence they have the edge to get up, dust themselves off, and set out again and again.
        Winners are decisive. They chart the course and make choices all the time while being transparent and suffused with a clarity of purpose. They are less prone to procrastination. They are resilient to change and very effective in communicating their decisions. Another word for this is nimbleness, and in these times, this quality is essential to innovate.
        Is all this too much to ask? Of late, too often, I read are we expecting too much from young entrepreneurs. Was too much expected of Alexander when he became king at 20 and set out to conquer the world? Or of Akbar who inherited the empire at the age of 14? Being a founder, building a high-velocity organisation is no doubt high-pressure, but isn’t it a choice? Isn’t competing in the Olympics different from playing cricket in your backyard?
        Over the years, I have a more nuanced take about winning itself.
        Winning doesn’t always mean being first; winning means you are doing better than you have done before.
         
        Q.“We tend to put pressure on the young entrepreneurs”. This statement, in light of the passage, can be considered as: 
        ... more

        Ramphal asked   •  13 hours ago

        The passage given below is followed by a questios. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
        In far-off Syria, a country lying northeast of Palestine, the land in which Jesus was born, the farmers who keep vineyards are very much troubled with foxes and bears, which destroy their crops at night. And so, to protect their vineyards, they build high stone-walls about them, and put broken bottles on the top to keep these animals out, much as some people in this country who have orchards do, in order to keep out small boys. These fences keep out the bears, because they cut themselves on the glass in trying to climb over, and they also keep out some of the foxes. But after all, when the grapes are nearly ripe, the owners of the vineyards and their men are obliged to build platforms up above the trellises, and stay there all night, in order to guard their crops. These watchers manage very well with all the other wild animals excepting the little foxes. They can see the big foxes and drive them off, but the little ones they cannot see, and so these destroy the vines. I suppose that it was an experience something like that which led one of the Bible-writers to say that the little foxes destroy the vines. It seems to me that this is very true with sins, too; it is the little sins that destroy us. When a big sin like stealing, lying or cheating comes along we can see that easily enough, and we will not let it over the fence into our lives. We drive it away, and are soon rid of it. But when the little sins come, like little foxes, we do not see them, and so they get in and destroy our character. What are some of these little foxes? I think one is pride, which makes you so conceited, because you live in a big house or have an automobile or fine clothes, that you will not speak to or play with other boys and girls who have not quite such fine things, although they may be just as bright and just as good as you. Pride is a little fox that kills the vine of brotherliness which Christ planted in our hearts. Then another little fox is sulkiness. Sulkiness makes you frown and go away in a corner. It sucks up all the sunlight there is, and makes the world very gray and dull, like a day in November. This fox kills the vine called “peace” which Christ planted.
        One more little fox is jealousy. This makes boys and girls dislike others who get higher marks than they in school, or who have more friends, or better toys. It is one of the most destructive little foxes there is, for it kills the best vine of all that Christ planted: that is, love. Be careful, then, boys and girls, of these little foxes, for they are worse than bears and big foxes, because they look so small and harmless, and slip by when you are not paying attention, but which destroy your character as readily as the others.
         
        Q.Why has the author compared the little foxes to three sins, namely pride, sulkiness and jealousy?
        ... more

        Gurmeet Singh asked   •  13 hours ago

        The passage given below is followed by a question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
        Today we are faced with the harsh reality that the treatment or prevention of infectious diseases has not made quantum advances since the early successes of vaccines and antimicrobial therapies. In a sense, the world is headed backward, as once-treatable microbes become resistant to existing therapies, and new infections for which there are no effective interventions continue to arise. This situation represents a serious and imminent threat to the world.
        The emergence of a highly lethal and rapidly spreading antimicrobial- resistant infection would lead to untold numbers of deaths and unimaginable misery. The consequences could be similar in magnitude to a large-scale terrorist attack. Communities could be walled off, national borders closed, and travel could be restricted or even suspended. Health systems could disintegrate or collapse, as could economies. The possibility of such an apocalyptic scenario suggests that the threat of infectious diseases is among the most important challenges that humankind faces. It is not just a public health risk; it is a threat to national and global security. Thus, it must be met with a comprehensive and effective solution.
        The research and development required to produce new medicines or vaccines is time-consuming, often taking more than a dozen years. It is also very expensive, costing hundreds of millions of dollars for every new product. Moreover, there is no guarantee of success; indeed, for each successful product, there are as many as nine equally promising candidates that fail. Given the risks involved, it is not surprising that pharmaceutical companies are very careful in their choice of investments in new drug or vaccine programs, selecting only those that promise financial gains sufficient to cover the costs of both successes and failures and provide a reasonable return on the required investment.
        Almost every country is prepared to channel a large percentage of its GDP toward investments in national defense or security. The global threat of emerging or resistant infections must be viewed first and foremost in that context, with all countries committed to providing financing, intellectual capital, and available resources to support the discovery, development, manufacture, stockpiling, and equitable distribution of new antimicrobial agents and vaccines. Unless countries recognize the risks they face, they are unlikely to make such a commitment. It goes without saying that this would be a complicated undertaking, with many details to be worked out. But somehow we must suspend disbelief and take action now, lest we be caught off-guard against an imminent global threat. This is a battle we cannot afford to lose.
         
        Q.The following could be the repercussions of the spread of infectious diseases, except: 
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        Sh Gian Chand asked   •  13 hours ago

        The passage given below is followed by a question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
        Conventional wisdom for the future of India is that we must grow like China or Japan. That we must build large companies creating thousands of jobs and exporting goods. I believe that domestic consumption, not exports, will drive India’s growth. The economy will be services-led and not manufacturing-led like China or Japan. Small businesses will lead rather than large corporations.
        India is the largest young country in an ageing world and will continue to have a young population for the next 25 years, whereas China has started ageing. Indians will either migrate or do outsourcing work. Care providers around the world will come from India. There will be doubling of GDP growth in housing, education, health - all services. Services are labour intensive and their incremental return on capital is much faster than manufacturing and then there will be services like tourism that create jobs.
        Many economists have suggested that India should copy China, but it cannot. When China started its development journey, it had no established competition. Global overcapacity challenges India. For example, China has steel capacity of 822 million tonnes and India has 86 million tonnes. Recently, the Indian government had to protect its steel industry by introducing minimum import pricing. Normal competition without tariffs will be difficult in many sectors in Indian economy.
        India’s free market for labour combined with single market for services is the reason why services is the country’s biggest growth area. The only place where India can achieve economy of scale is in services. This is apparent in the dramatic growth of service tax.
        The set of programming interfaces built on the trifecta of government- created people’s bank account of Jan Dhan, Aadhaar no., and mobile phones - in brief JAM - enables paperless, presence-less and cashless transactions.
        Dramatic consequences will follow creating thousands of startups and billions of dollars of capitalisation. Four shifts will happen. First, banking at scale because everything a bank can do, individuals can do on a mobile phone. Second, investment at scale - people can buy a mutual fund on the phone with one click. Third, credit at scale where entrepreneurs can get a loan with just a click by aggregating their own data. And fourth, skilling at scale - as platforms happen, India will have thousands, millions of people gathering skills to operate in this new economy with great strides in reading and math literacy happening at scale.
        World trade may be shrinking and barriers may be emerging among nations, all making movement of labour difficult. India with its vast unified market, youthful labour force and growing digital platform-backed services alone is poised to build a new power economy.
         
        Q.Which of the following is a plausible reason for the substantial  growth in service tax in India?
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        Jai Paul asked   •  13 hours ago

        In a certain training institute which had exactly 200 students, each student was given exactly one question from one among the following categories: Reasoning, Mathematics, Grammar, Interpretation and Comprehension.
        Chart 1 gives the distribution of questions among the students.
        However, since the students were not happy with the type of questions each one had received, they exchanged their questions with other students in such a way that none of them had a question of the same category as they had earlier.
        Chart 2 shows the distribution of number of students who initially had questions from Reasoning category and exchanged their questions across students of various categories.
        Further, exactly 8 students who originally had questions on Interpretation now have questions on Reasoning with them. Also 8 students who initially had questions on comprehension now have questions on Interpretation category.
        Also out of the students who initially had questions on Grammar, 3 students now have questions on Reasoning and 16 have questions on Mathematics category.
         
        Q.If out of the students who initially had questions on Mathematics,  the number of students who now have questions on Reasoning is twice the number of students now having questions on Grammar, then at least how many students now have questions on Comprehension with them who initially had questions on Mathematics with them?
        ... more

        Randhir Singh asked   •  13 hours ago

        The passage given below is followed by a question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
        Is anyone a born entrepreneur, a born leader or born to win? I believe everyone is born to win but you have to make winning a habit. Think of this: a quitter never wins, a winner never quits. I have been privileged to share the dream and journey of many entrepreneurs. A few traits are habits with all of them. A winner is a believer. Belief in oneself and one’s convictions — that inner voice of core strength to pursue dreams despite difficulties.
        Along the way everyone they meet gets swept up in their dreams and aspirations. This belief is rooted in a bigger purpose than self- satisfaction. Winners are great listeners. They learn continuously; they take inputs; they don’t think they have all the answers; and they are confident to have the humility to hear other points of view.
        Listening is about striving for comprehension and making oneself open to possibilities. Winners value self-development. They constantly challenge themselves and set aggressive goals and often surpass expectations. They make organisational learning a priority. Winners are unstoppable. They don’t count hurdles. They don’t brood about failures and risks. They are activators.
        They have a clear compass on why they keep trying and what they set out to achieve. Hence they have the edge to get up, dust themselves off, and set out again and again.
        Winners are decisive. They chart the course and make choices all the time while being transparent and suffused with a clarity of purpose. They are less prone to procrastination. They are resilient to change and very effective in communicating their decisions. Another word for this is nimbleness, and in these times, this quality is essential to innovate.
        Is all this too much to ask? Of late, too often, I read are we expecting too much from young entrepreneurs. Was too much expected of Alexander when he became king at 20 and set out to conquer the world? Or of Akbar who inherited the empire at the age of 14? Being a founder, building a high-velocity organisation is no doubt high-pressure, but isn’t it a choice? Isn’t competing in the Olympics different from playing cricket in your backyard?
        Over the years, I have a more nuanced take about winning itself.
        Winning doesn’t always mean being first; winning means you are doing better than you have done before.
         
        Q.Which of the following agrees with the author’s perception of young entrepreneurs? 
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        Mamta Devi asked   •  13 hours ago

        Instructions
        Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
        The only thing worse than being lied to is not knowing you’re being lied to. It’s true that plastic pollution is a huge problem, of planetary proportions. And it’s true we could all do more to reduce our plastic footprint. The lie is that blame for the plastic problem is wasteful consumers and that changing our individual habits will fix it.
        Recycling plastic is to saving the Earth what hammering a nail is to halting a falling skyscraper. You struggle to find a place to do it and feel pleased when you succeed. But your effort is wholly inadequate and distracts from the real problem of why the building is collapsing in the first place. The real problem is that single-use plastic—the very idea of producing plastic items like grocery bags, which we use for an average of 12 minutes but can persist in the environment for half a millennium—is an incredibly reckless abuse of technology. Encouraging individuals to recycle more will never solve the problem of a massive production of single-use plastic that should have been avoided in the first place.
        As an ecologist and evolutionary biologist, I have had a disturbing window into the accumulating literature on the hazards of plastic pollution. Scientists have long recognized that plastics biodegrade slowly, if at all, and pose multiple threats to wildlife through entanglement and consumption. More recent reports highlight dangers posed by absorption of toxic chemicals in the water and by plastic odors that mimic some species’ natural food. Plastics also accumulate up the food chain, and studies now show that we are likely ingesting it ourselves in seafood. . . .
        Beginning in the 1950s, big beverage companies like Coca-Cola and Anheuser-Busch, along with Phillip Morris and others, formed a non-profit called Keep America Beautiful. Its mission is/was to educate and encourage environmental stewardship in the public. . . . At face value, these efforts seem benevolent, but they obscure the real problem, which is the role that corporate polluters play in the plastic problem. This clever misdirection has led journalist and author Heather Rogers to describe Keep America Beautiful as the first corporate greenwashing front, as it has helped shift the public focus to consumer recycling behavior and actively thwarted legislation that would increase extended producer responsibility for waste management. . . . [T]he greatest success of Keep America Beautiful has been to shift the onus of environmental responsibility onto the public while simultaneously becoming a trusted name in the environmental movement. . . .
        So what can we do to make responsible use of plastic a reality? First: reject the lie. Litterbugs are not responsible for the global ecological disaster of plastic. Humans can only function to the best of their abilities, given time, mental bandwidth and systemic constraints. Our huge problem with plastic is the result of a permissive legal framework that has allowed the uncontrolled rise of plastic pollution, despite clear evidence of the harm it causes to local communities and the world’s oceans. Recycling is also too hard in most parts of the U.S. and lacks the proper incentives to make it work well.
        Q. In the first paragraph, the author uses “lie” to refer to the:
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        Mukesh Devi asked   •  18 hours ago

        The passage given below is followed by a question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
        Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia. This incurable, degenerative, and terminal disease was first described by German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and was named after him. Generally it is diagnosed in people over 65 years of age, although the less-prevalent early-onset Alzheimer's can occur much earlier. The first symptoms are often mistaken as related to ageing or stress. Detailed neuropsychological testing can reveal mild cognitive difficulties up to eight years before a person fulfills the clinical criteria for diagnosis of AD. These early symptoms can affect the most complex daily living activities. The most noticeable deficit is memory loss, which shows up as difficulty in remembering recently learned facts and inability to acquire new information. Subtle problems with the executive functions of attentiveness, planning, flexibility, and abstract thinking, or impairments in semantic memory can also be symptomatic of the early stages of AD. Apathy can be observed at this stage, and remains the most persistent neuropsychiatric symptom throughout the course of the disease. The preclinical stage of the disease has also been termed mild cognitive impairment, but there is still debate on whether this term corresponds to a different diagnostic entity by itself or just a first step of the disease.

        In people with AD the increasing impairment of learning and memory eventually leads to a definitive diagnosis. In a small proportion of them, difficulties with language, executive functions, perception (agnosia), or execution of movements (apraxia) are more prominent than memory problems. AD does not affect all memory capacities equally. Older memories of the person's life (episodic memory), facts learned (semantic memory), and implicit memory are affected to a lesser degree than new facts or memories. Language problems are mainly characterised by a shrinking vocabulary and decreased word fluency, which lead to a general impoverishment of oral and written language.
        Progressive deterioration eventually hinders independence. Speech difficulties become evident due to an inability to recall vocabulary, which leads to frequent incorrect word substitutions. Reading and writing skills are also progressively lost. Complex motor sequences become less coordinated as time passes, reducing the ability to perform most normal daily living activities. During this phase, memory problems worsen, and the person may fail to recognise close relatives. Long-term memory, which was previously intact, becomes impaired and behavioural changes become more prevalent. Common neuropsychiatric manifestations are wandering, sundowning, irritability and labile affect, leading to crying, outbursts of unpremeditated aggression, or resistance to caregiving. During this last stage of AD, the patient is completely dependent upon caregivers. Language is reduced to simple phrases or even single words, eventually leading to complete loss of speech. Despite the loss of verbal language abilities, patients can often understand and return emotional signals. Finally comes death, usually caused directly by some external factor such as pressure ulcers or pneumonia, not by the disease itself.
         
        Q.According to the passage, which of the following is not true? 
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        Sharda Devi asked   •  18 hours ago

        Positive reinforcement is the act of increasing the probability of occurrence of a given behaviour. Negative punishment is the removal of something valued, which can take the form of revoking privileges or playing time.
        Coaches will use both forms of motivation (positive reinforcement and negative punishment), but the positive approach is arguably better because it focuses on what athletes should do and what they are doing right. Reinforcement increases task-relevant focus rather than worry focus. A task-relevant focus facilitates reaction time and decision time. A successful experience colors the athlete’s view as positive, which can lead to approach behaviors. Approach behaviors or approach motivation indicates the propensity to move towards a desired stimulus.
        Prior research has already shown that positive affect (or positive motivation/reinforcement) promotes cognitive flexibility. In a study published in Psychological Science, they extended motivational dimensional model to the domain of cognitive control by examining both low- and high-motivated positive affect on the balance between cognitive flexibility (our ability to adjust to behavior in response to a changing environment) and cognitive stability (our ability to change behavior in the face of distraction). Low and high approach- motivated positive affect would indicate the intensity of the positive affect on a selected individual in regard to approach motivation.
        Results concluded low approach-motivated positive affect promoted cognitive flexibility but also caused higher distractibility, whereas high approach-motivated positive affect enhanced perseverance but simultaneously reduced distractibility.
        There are many things that motivate us. Are you trying to find a reason to workout in the morning? Goal setting is usually the best way to do it. Having a goal you want to reach, such as “I want to increase my snatch weight by ten pounds in eight weeks” or “I want to lose ten pounds of weight in two months,” is an example of an achievement-based reason to be motivated. For those who are finding it difficult to find a reason to start fitness, go sign up for an event. Someone newer to CrossFit can easily sign up for a novice event. Those who want to get into adventure racing can go ahead and sign up for a race. The point is, find a reason to do something or you may not be motivated to do it. And don’t do something for someone else or you will likely not keep up with it. Be motivated to do it for you.
        Q.Which of the following is true about high-approach motivated positive affect? 
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        Krishana asked   •  18 hours ago

        It is year 1211 and Genghis Khan has attacked the outpost to the Chinese Empire with Trebuchets. Trebuchets fire gunpowder hundreds of meters away and a single shot can destroy the outpost with all its inhabitants. The commander of the outpost Kim Chee realized that there is no way to stop the trebuchets. They would be lucky if they could somehow run away from the outpost and escape the attack. So he tells all his 10 team members to escape. The outpost is in the middle and there are four ways to escape from the outpost. Assume that the individual speeds of all men in the outpost are the same.
        North: To the north, there is a flowing river. A man can swim underwater in the river at a speed of 10.8 km/hr. However after swimming for 20 seconds, he has to stop for one-sixth of a minute to breathe, or else he will drown.
        East: To the east, there is a hilly area. A man can run in the hilly area at a speed of 3.6 km/hr. However, after running for 20 meters, he has to stop for 10 seconds to catch his breathe.
        West: To the west, there is a forest. Here a man can run at a speed of 7.2 km/hr. But since the forest is dense, a man has to stop for 2 seconds after running for 10 seconds to find the way through the dense undergrowth.
        South: To the south, there are tall grasses. A man can run at a speed of 5.4 km/hr here. But since there are poisonous snakes in this area, after running for 15 meters, a man has to stop for 5 seconds to ensure that there are no snakes in the next 15 meters lest he may be bitten.
         
         
        Q. Assume that two men start running simultaneously, one towards East and the other towards South. At what time out of the options given below a person running towards east is at the same distance away from the outpost as a man running towards south?
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        Suraj Bhan asked   •  19 hours ago

        Structuration theory aims to avoid extremes of structural or agent determinism. The balancing of agency and structure is referred to as the duality of structure: social structures make social action possible and at the same time, that social action creates those very structures. For Giddens, structures are rules and resources (sets of transformation relations) organized as properties of social systems. Rules are patterns people may follow in social life. Resources relate to what is created by human action; they are not given by nature (explained further below). The theory employs a recursive notion of actions constrained and enabled by structures which are produced and reproduced by those actions. Consequently, this theory has been adopted by those with structuralist inclinations, but who wish to situate such structures in human practice rather than reify them as an ideal type or material property. (This is different, for example, from actor-network theory which grants certain autonomy to technical artefacts.) Additionally, the theory of structuration distinguishes between discursive and practical knowledge recognizes actors as having knowledge is reflexive and situated, and that habitual use becomes institutionalized.

        A social system can be understood by its structure, modality, and interaction. Structure is constituted by rules and resources governing and available to agents. (Authoritative resources control persons, whereas allocative resources control material objects.) The modality of a structural system is the means by which structures are translated into action. Interaction is the activity instantiated by the agent acting within the social system. There has been some attempt by various theorists to link structuration theory to systems theory (with its emphasis on recursive loops) or the complexity theory of organizational structure (which emphasizes the adaptability that simple structures provide). Social systems have patterns of social relation that exist over time; the changing nature of space and time will determine the interaction of social relations and therefore structure. For example, 19th century Britain set out certain rules for that time and space. Those rules affected the action which determines structure and the structure was upheld as long as it was reproduced in action. Hitherto social structures or ‘models of society’ were taken to be beyond the realm of human control - the positivistic approach; the other social theory would be that of action creating society - the interpretivist approach. The duality of structure would argue that, in the most basic assumption, that they are one and the same - different sides to the coin of a similar problem of order.

        Agency, as Giddens calls it, is human action. To be human is to be an agent, although not all agents are human beings. Agents’ knowledge of their society informs their action, which reproduce social structures, which in turn enforce and maintain the dynamics of action. Giddens defines ‘ontological security’ as the trust people have in social structure; everyday actions have some degree of predictability, thus ensuring social stability. This is not always true, though, as the possession of agency allows one to break away from normative actions, and depending on the sum of social factors at work, they may instigate shifts in the social structure. The dynamic between agency and structure makes such generative action possible. Thus agency can lead to both the reproduction and the transformation of society. Another way to explain this concept is by, what Giddens calls, the “reflexive monitoring of actions”. Reflexive monitoring looks at the ability to look at actions to judge their effectiveness in achieving their objectives: if agents can reproduce structure through action, they can also transform it.
         
        Q. According to the author, possession of agency allows which of the following?
        ... more

        Roshni Devi asked   •  19 hours ago

        The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere: the shift to hybrid vehicles is already under way among manufacturers. Volvo has announced it will make no purely petrol-engined cars after 2019...and Tesla has just started selling its first electric car aimed squarely at the middle classes: the Tesla 3 sells for $35,000 in the US, and 400,000 people have put down a small, refundable deposit towards one. Several thousand have already taken delivery, and the company hopes to sell half a million more next year. This is a remarkable figure for a machine with a fairly short range and a very limited number of specialised charging stations.
        Some of it reflects the remarkable abilities of Elon Musk, the company's founder, as a salesman, engineer, and a man able to get the most out his factory workers and the governments he deals with...Mr Musk is selling a dream that the world wants to believe in.
        This last may be the most important factor in the story. The private car is...a device of immense practical help and economic significance, but at the same time a theatre for myths of unattainable self-fulfilment. The one thing you will never see in a car advertisement is traffic, even though that is the element in which drivers spend their lives. Every single driver in a traffic jam is trying to escape from it, yet it is the inevitable consequence of mass car ownership.
        The sleek and swift electric car is at one level merely the most contemporary fantasy of autonomy and power. But it might also disrupt our exterior landscapes nearly as much as the fossil fuel-engined car did in the last century. Electrical cars would of course pollute far less than fossil fuel-driven ones; instead of oil reserves, the rarest materials for batteries would make undeserving despots and their dynasties fantastically rich. Petrol stations would disappear. The air in cities would once more be breathable and their streets as quiet as those of Venice. This isn't an unmixed good. Cars that were as silent as bicycles would still be as dangerous as they are now to anyone they hit without audible warning.
        The dream goes further than that. The electric cars of the future will be so thoroughly equipped with sensors and reaction mechanisms that they will never hit anyone. Just as brakes don't let you skid today, the steering wheel of tomorrow will swerve you away from danger before you have even noticed it...
        This is where the fantasy of autonomy comes full circle. The logical outcome of cars which need no driver is that they will become cars which need no owner either. Instead, they will work as taxis do, summoned at will but only for the journeys we actually need. This the future towards which Ubem.is working. The ultimate development of the private car will be to reinvent public transport. Traffic jams will be abolished only when the private car becomes a public utility. What then will happen to our fantasies of independence? We'll all have to take to electrically powered bicycles.
        Q.
        According to the author, the main reason for Tesla's remarkable sales is that​
        ... more

        Foola Ram asked   •  19 hours ago

        Structuration theory aims to avoid extremes of structural or agent determinism. The balancing of agency and structure is referred to as the duality of structure: social structures make social action possible and at the same time, that social action creates those very structures. For Giddens, structures are rules and resources (sets of transformation relations) organized as properties of social systems. Rules are patterns people may follow in social life. Resources relate to what is created by human action; they are not given by nature (explained further below). The theory employs a recursive notion of actions constrained and enabled by structures which are produced and reproduced by those actions. Consequently, this theory has been adopted by those with structuralist inclinations, but who wish to situate such structures in human practice rather than reify them as an ideal type or material property. (This is different, for example, from actor-network theory which grants certain autonomy to technical artefacts.) Additionally, the theory of structuration distinguishes between discursive and practical knowledge recognizes actors as having knowledge is reflexive and situated, and that habitual use becomes institutionalized.
        A social system can be understood by its structure, modality, and interaction. Structure is constituted by rules and resources governing and available to agents. (Authoritative resources control persons, whereas allocative resources control material objects.) The modality of a structural system is the means by which structures are translated into action. Interaction is the activity instantiated by the agent acting within the social system. There has been some attempt by various theorists to link structuration theory to systems theory (with its emphasis on recursive loops) or the complexity theory of organizational structure (which emphasizes the adaptability that simple structures provide). Social systems have patterns of social relation that exist over time; the changing nature of space and time will determine the interaction of social relations and therefore structure. For example, 19th century Britain set out certain rules for that time and space. Those rules affected the action which determines structure and the structure was upheld as long as it was reproduced in action. Hitherto social structures or ‘models of society’ were taken to be beyond the realm of human control - the positivistic approach; the other social theory would be that of action creating society - the interpretivist approach. The duality of structure would argue that, in the most basic assumption, that they are one and the same - different sides to the coin of a similar problem of order.
        Agency, as Giddens calls it, is human action. To be human is to be an agent, although not all agents are human beings. Agents’ knowledge of their society informs their action, which reproduce social structures, which in turn enforce and maintain the dynamics of action. Giddens defines ‘ontological security’ as the trust people have in social structure; everyday actions have some degree of predictability, thus ensuring social stability. This is not always true, though, as the possession of agency allows one to break away from normative actions, and depending on the sum of social factors at work, they may instigate shifts in the social structure. The dynamic between agency and structure makes such generative action possible. Thus agency can lead to both the reproduction and the transformation of society. Another way to explain this concept is by, what Giddens calls, the “reflexive monitoring of actions”. Reflexive monitoring looks at the ability to look at actions to judge their effectiveness in achieving their objectives: if agents can reproduce structure through action, they can also transform it.
         
        Q. Which of the following supports the theory that duality of structure is cyclic in nature?
        ... more

        Kanta Devi asked   •  19 hours ago

        Spectator comfort at the cricket venue is a rare benevolence. Intrusive security, mostly insensitive, can discourage the most faithful of spectators from coming to the stadium. Yet they throng, with an unmistakable passion to stretch their vocal chords and cheer their heroes.
        They have been doing it for years, most loyally, but have always been accorded second class treatment. Yet they throng!
        Why do they come? S. Ganesh, an avid cricket fan, does not anymore. “It is degrading,” is his acerbic response. He has been a regular at cricket venues, many times overseas, but the modern trend to make noise and indulge in jingoism does not appeal to him. It compels him to stay “indoors” and enjoy the fare on the small screen. “In mute mode,” he insists.
        Mute when indoors; vociferous at the venue. Such variance among cricket fans, or spectators, is uncommon in other sport. “In India, it is all about cacophony,” quips G.B. Lai, a veteran from Patna. He has watched “quality” cricket in Patna and Calcutta but just can't come to terms with the modern I PL (Indian Premier League) cricket fan.
        Faces painted and sentiments expressed through banners and placards, the cricket fan of today comes in all hues and shapes at the I PL games. Most reputable experts are appalled that the cricket fan at the I PL is so starkly different from the spectator at a Test match. There has been a marked transformation in the character of a cricket follower. The emphasis now is on entertainment and it explains why there is an unending surge at matches that promise a result.
        Is it erosion of cricket culture? The boisterous cricket fan, supporting Delhi Daredevils or Chennai Super Kings, has little regard for the man occupying the next seat. “They don't come to watch cricket skills. They want to shout, wave like mad, jump and dance, all mainly to be seen on the television. It can be irritating for someone who wants to follow the action seriously. Half the time you miss a clear view because of this breed of spectators who just go wild at the sight of a camera,” says Ganesh, who has watched cricket at Kotla by queuing up at 6 in the morning for a day's play at a Test.
        Cricket watching is not a pleasure anymore. “It was fun. I could carry my snacks, lunch and single malt in a hip flask,” remembers Anurag Mathur, a club cricketer. Not anymore! “I can only carry myself,” laments Praveen Kaushik, who has always bought a ticket to a cricket match in a city where acquiring a complimentary pass is a status symbol.
         
        Q.(For the match) “I can only carry myself implies:
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        Yadnyesh Chaudhari asked   •  20 hours ago

        Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one. As anyone who has ever spent any time with children knows, every single human being is born creative; every human being is innately endowed with the ability to combine and recombine data, perceptions, materials and ideas, and devise new ways of thinking and doing. What fosters creativity? More than anything else: the presence of other creative people. The big myth is that creativity is the province of great individual geniuses. In fact creativity is a social process. Our biggest creative breakthroughs come when people learn from, compete with, and collaborate with other people.
        Cities are the true fonts of creativity... With their diverse populations, dense social networks, and public spaces where people can meet spontaneously and serendipitously, they spark and catalyze new ideas. With their infrastructure for finance, organization and trade, they allow those ideas to be swiftly actualized.
        As for what staunches creativity, that's easy, if ironic. It's the very institutions that we build to manage, exploit and perpetuate the fruits of creativity — our big bureaucracies, and sad to say, too many of our schools. Creativity is disruptive; schools and organizations are regimented, standardized and stultifying.
        The education expert Sir Ken Robinson points to a 1968 study reporting on a group of 1,600 children who were tested over time for their ability to think in out-of-the-box ways. When the children were between 3 and 5 years old, 98 percent achieved positive scores. When they were 8 to 10, only 32 percent passed the same test, and only 10 percent at 13 to 15. When 280,000 25-year-olds took the test, just 2 percent passed. By the time we are adults, our creativity has been wrung out of us.
        I once asked the great urbanist Jane Jacobs what makes some places more creative than others. She said, essentially, that the question was an easy one. All cities, she said, were filled with creative people; that's our default state as people. But some cities had more than their shares of leaders, people and institutions that blocked out that creativity. She called them "squelchers."
        Creativity (or the lack of it) follows the same general contours of the great socio-economic divide - our rising inequality - that plagues us. According to my own estimates, roughly a third of us across the United States, and perhaps as much as half of us in our most creative cities - are able to do work which engages our creative faculties to some extent, whether as artists, musicians, writers, techies, innovators, entrepreneurs, doctors, lawyers, journalists or educators - those of us who work with our minds. That leaves a group that I term "the other 66 percent," who toil in low-wage rote and rotten jobs — if they have jobs at all — in which their creativity is subjugated, ignored or wasted.
        Creativity itself is not in danger. It's flourishing is all around us - in science and technology, arts and culture, in our rapidly revitalizing cities. But we still have a long way to go if we want to build a truly creative society that supports and rewards the creativity of each and every one of us.
        Q.
        In the author's view, cities promote human creativity for all the following reasons EXCEPT that they​
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        Web Sprint asked   •  21 hours ago

        Read the infonnation provided and answer thequestions which follow.
        Five MBA studentS - Aman. Manish, Rohit, Sandeep and Vinay, specializing in sales and marketing got nal campus placement in ve different companies - Asian Paints, Dabur, Hindustan Unilever, ITC and L' Oreal.(though not necessarily in the same order). Their initial Job assignment has been xed in ve different cities - Bhopal, Chenna Delhi, Mumba·i and Patna (in any order). They are avid book readers, but like different themes - business and management, classic ction, historical ction, mystery ction and non-ction (again in any order). Further the following additional information are provided: ·
        (a)Vinay got placed in Asian Paints.
        (b)Aman is not placed in Hindustan Unilever.
        (c)Manish's job location isnot in Chennai and hedoes not like books on mystery fiction.
        (d)Sandeep got placed at Delhi, while Vinay is not placed at Mwnbai.
        (e)Aman likes reading books on historical ction and is placed either at Chennai or Patna and the student who got placed in ITC does not lilce mystery ction and his job posting . is in theother city amongst Chennai or Patna.
        (f) The student who got placed in L'Oreal likes reading non-ction books and is not posted at Mumbai.
        (g)The student who likes reading classic ction, is posted at Bhopal.
        Q.Who among the following is posted in Patna?
        ... more

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