Directions: Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below.
As NASA works toward its long-term goal of establishing a human settlement on Mars, SpaceX is fleshing out its plans to help NASA make that dream a reality.
The private spaceflight company, which regularly launches cargo to the International Space Station with the Falcon 9 rocket and will soon launch astronauts up there, is currently building an interplanetary spacecraft for Mars. Known as Starship, the rocket-spacecraft combo will be able to launch 100 passengers and large amounts of cargo to and from the Red Planet.
Before Starship can launch to Mars, it will start off launching commercial satellites as early as 2021, followed by a manned flight around the moon in 2023. Although SpaceX has not given a timeline for its first missions to Mars, SpaceX founder Elon Musk has said that the first Mars base could be up and running in 2028. And while Musk shared some eye-catching artist illustrations depicting what he called "Mars Base Alpha" as an intricate network of buildings and infrastructure, SpaceX's plans for the Red Planet are not quite that extensive.
"SpaceX very much is a transportation company," Paul Wooster, the principal Mars development engineer at SpaceX, said during a speech at the Humans to Mars Summit in Washington in May. He explained that SpaceX plans to build whatever infrastructure is necessary to support the company's Starship flights to and from Mars; that could include landing pads and refueling stations for the reusable rockets.
For its very first Mars missions, SpaceX will land at least two unmanned cargo ships on the Red Planet before sending any humans there, Wooster said. Those cargo missions would bring supplies, such as life- support systems and power generators that the first astronauts on Mars will need when they set up camp.
The first unmanned Mars missions will also be tasked with confirming the presence of natural resources that can provide fuel for future two-way missions to the Red Planet, Wooster said. SpaceX wants to use water ice from the planet's surface and carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to refuel Starships on Mars, enabling the rockets to return to Earth.
After those first two cargo missions, SpaceX will launch two manned missions alongside two additional cargo-only flights to begin setting up a propellant production plant. At that plant, water and carbon dioxide will be converted into liquid methane and liquid oxygen, which fuel the rocket's engines.
So, while SpaceX intends to set up a transportation system for humans and cargo traveling to the Red Planet, the company won't be building an entire Mars base on its own. Musk has laid out his vision to create a million-person colony on Mars, but to establish that colony SpaceX will have to work together with NASA and the agency's international partners and other commercial space companies. Several companies have already begun designing concepts for Mars habitats and have proposed orbital outposts similar to NASA's Lunar Gateway, which could serve as a waypoint for Starship and reduce the amount of fuel needed for return trips to Earth.
As per the passage, which rocket is used by SpaceX to send cargo to the International Space Station?
I. Falcon 9
II. Falcon Heavy