Mukesh Devi asked   •  54 minutes ago

The passage given below is followed by a question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia. This incurable, degenerative, and terminal disease was first described by German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and was named after him. Generally it is diagnosed in people over 65 years of age, although the less-prevalent early-onset Alzheimer's can occur much earlier. The first symptoms are often mistaken as related to ageing or stress. Detailed neuropsychological testing can reveal mild cognitive difficulties up to eight years before a person fulfills the clinical criteria for diagnosis of AD. These early symptoms can affect the most complex daily living activities. The most noticeable deficit is memory loss, which shows up as difficulty in remembering recently learned facts and inability to acquire new information. Subtle problems with the executive functions of attentiveness, planning, flexibility, and abstract thinking, or impairments in semantic memory can also be symptomatic of the early stages of AD. Apathy can be observed at this stage, and remains the most persistent neuropsychiatric symptom throughout the course of the disease. The preclinical stage of the disease has also been termed mild cognitive impairment, but there is still debate on whether this term corresponds to a different diagnostic entity by itself or just a first step of the disease.

In people with AD the increasing impairment of learning and memory eventually leads to a definitive diagnosis. In a small proportion of them, difficulties with language, executive functions, perception (agnosia), or execution of movements (apraxia) are more prominent than memory problems. AD does not affect all memory capacities equally. Older memories of the person's life (episodic memory), facts learned (semantic memory), and implicit memory are affected to a lesser degree than new facts or memories. Language problems are mainly characterised by a shrinking vocabulary and decreased word fluency, which lead to a general impoverishment of oral and written language.
Progressive deterioration eventually hinders independence. Speech difficulties become evident due to an inability to recall vocabulary, which leads to frequent incorrect word substitutions. Reading and writing skills are also progressively lost. Complex motor sequences become less coordinated as time passes, reducing the ability to perform most normal daily living activities. During this phase, memory problems worsen, and the person may fail to recognise close relatives. Long-term memory, which was previously intact, becomes impaired and behavioural changes become more prevalent. Common neuropsychiatric manifestations are wandering, sundowning, irritability and labile affect, leading to crying, outbursts of unpremeditated aggression, or resistance to caregiving. During this last stage of AD, the patient is completely dependent upon caregivers. Language is reduced to simple phrases or even single words, eventually leading to complete loss of speech. Despite the loss of verbal language abilities, patients can often understand and return emotional signals. Finally comes death, usually caused directly by some external factor such as pressure ulcers or pneumonia, not by the disease itself.
 
Q.According to the passage, which of the following is not true? 
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Sharda Devi asked   •  57 minutes ago

Positive reinforcement is the act of increasing the probability of occurrence of a given behaviour. Negative punishment is the removal of something valued, which can take the form of revoking privileges or playing time.
Coaches will use both forms of motivation (positive reinforcement and negative punishment), but the positive approach is arguably better because it focuses on what athletes should do and what they are doing right. Reinforcement increases task-relevant focus rather than worry focus. A task-relevant focus facilitates reaction time and decision time. A successful experience colors the athlete’s view as positive, which can lead to approach behaviors. Approach behaviors or approach motivation indicates the propensity to move towards a desired stimulus.
Prior research has already shown that positive affect (or positive motivation/reinforcement) promotes cognitive flexibility. In a study published in Psychological Science, they extended motivational dimensional model to the domain of cognitive control by examining both low- and high-motivated positive affect on the balance between cognitive flexibility (our ability to adjust to behavior in response to a changing environment) and cognitive stability (our ability to change behavior in the face of distraction). Low and high approach- motivated positive affect would indicate the intensity of the positive affect on a selected individual in regard to approach motivation.
Results concluded low approach-motivated positive affect promoted cognitive flexibility but also caused higher distractibility, whereas high approach-motivated positive affect enhanced perseverance but simultaneously reduced distractibility.
There are many things that motivate us. Are you trying to find a reason to workout in the morning? Goal setting is usually the best way to do it. Having a goal you want to reach, such as “I want to increase my snatch weight by ten pounds in eight weeks” or “I want to lose ten pounds of weight in two months,” is an example of an achievement-based reason to be motivated. For those who are finding it difficult to find a reason to start fitness, go sign up for an event. Someone newer to CrossFit can easily sign up for a novice event. Those who want to get into adventure racing can go ahead and sign up for a race. The point is, find a reason to do something or you may not be motivated to do it. And don’t do something for someone else or you will likely not keep up with it. Be motivated to do it for you.
Q.Which of the following is true about high-approach motivated positive affect? 
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Go through the caselet below and answer the questions that follow.
Miss Bhuvana loves her job. She wishes to progress in her company and continue there for another decade. She has been working for 2 years now and has always received good feedback about her work. Last week, the HR Director emailed all the employees that this year’s appraisal is going to be a performance based one and not a single bracket for everyone like previous years.
Q.
The CEO of the company realizes that Bhuvana was given a very poor hike and it was not a fair reward for her work in the organization. He also learnt that she was looking out for work options elsewhere. He regretted that his loyal and sincere employee was put in this situation. He wanted to resolve this complicated situation. He was contemplating the following 5 actions in his mind.
A. Talk to Bhuvana and tell her that he would regret losing such a bright employee.
B. Speak to the HR Director and tell him that Bhuvana is a great employee.
C.  Chat with Bhuvana and her team mates during lunch to find out how it is going for her.
D. Tell the HR department that they would not be handling appraisals anymore.
E. Arrange a meeting with the HR Director, Miss Bhuvana and himself to sort out the situation.
Which of the following is the best sequence to resolve the problem?
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Aunguri Devi answered  •  7 hours ago
The CEO is responsible for the entire company and he needs to make sure that every department functions smoothly. Losing a good employee either in the form of Miss Bhuvana or the HR Director is not good for the company. He would need to understand the crux of the matter and then resolve it amicably.
Option 3 with B, A and E is a good option. Talking to the HR Director first would ensure that they are clear from the management point of view. Talking to Bhuvana would ensure that she knows that the CEO actually values her and her work. Finally step E would acknowledge the misfortune of the events in the past and would ensure smooth open door communication and redressal of grievances in the future.
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

Answer the following question based on the information given below.Animals can habituate to environmental disturbances. What’s more, they can get very good at telling the difference between stimuli that are relevant to them, and those that aren’t. Tree frogs can tell the difference between vibration caused by a predator and vibration caused by rain, even though these cues are extremely similar. Similarly, caterpillars living on leaves can tell the difference between vibrations caused by other caterpillars, predators, wind and rain.Spiders build webs on human-built structures such as pipelines, fences, road signs and wire rods, all of which are made out of materials not present in their evolutionary history. This means that they will absorb vibrations from the environment differently to a more natural place a spider might build its web, for example a plant. If these human-built objects are anywhere near humans (which they are likely to be) they are also probably affected by human noise. For example, a spider that has built a web near a road will be subject to the vibration caused by cars driving by. This matters particularly to spiders because they use vibration so much in guiding their behaviour. Indeed, you can even imagine the web to be an extension of the spider itself, such that the vibrations on the very outside of the web travel down to the spider situated in the centre and tell it whether it’s being ‘touched’ by prey, a mate, wind or rain.
Q. 
Read the sentences and choose the option that best arranges them in a logical order.
A. These aren't just simple holes.
B. This seemingly simple but wholly original device imbues the game with a mind-bending sense of physics.
C.In both games, the player/protagonist is a young, dark-haired woman in an orange jumpsuit whom you see only in glimpses. With one trigger on your controller, you place an entrance on one wall; with the opposite trigger, you place your exit on another wall (or on a floor, or a ceiling).
E. Portal, one the most beloved video games created for the current generation of consoles, has recently spawned a sequel, Portal 2.
F. She must surmount a series of challenges mostly through the use of a ‘portal gun’: a weapon, if it even merits the name, that creates oval-shaped portals.
 
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Rekha Rani answered  •  7 hours ago
E is the opening sentence in all the options.
The CF link is clear: C introduces the protagonist, and F mentions what she must do in the game. This rules out options 1 and 5, which lack this link.
E can be followed by either B or C, but certainly not D. Therefore option 4, which has an ED link, can be ruled out.
The “mind-bending sense of physics” in statement B logically follows the description of creating portals on walls/floors/ceilings with opposing triggers, as mentioned in statement D. This link is present in option 3.
Therefore, the correct sequence is ECFADB.
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

Answer the following question based on the information given below.Animals can habituate to environmental disturbances. What’s more, they can get very good at telling the difference between stimuli that are relevant to them, and those that aren’t. Tree frogs can tell the difference between vibration caused by a predator and vibration caused by rain, even though these cues are extremely similar. Similarly, caterpillars living on leaves can tell the difference between vibrations caused by other caterpillars, predators, wind and rain.Spiders build webs on human-built structures such as pipelines, fences, road signs and wire rods, all of which are made out of materials not present in their evolutionary history. This means that they will absorb vibrations from the environment differently to a more natural place a spider might build its web, for example a plant. If these human-built objects are anywhere near humans (which they are likely to be) they are also probably affected by human noise. For example, a spider that has built a web near a road will be subject to the vibration caused by cars driving by. This matters particularly to spiders because they use vibration so much in guiding their behaviour. Indeed, you can even imagine the web to be an extension of the spider itself, such that the vibrations on the very outside of the web travel down to the spider situated in the centre and tell it whether it’s being ‘touched’ by prey, a mate, wind or rain.
Q.
 Select the odd man out from the given alternatives.
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Charnjit Kaur answered  •  7 hours ago
Option 1 contains names of birds. All the other options contain mammals.Kangaroo, koala and tasmanian devil are marsupials or pouched mammals.Whale, dolphin and porpoise are cetaceans or aquatic mammals.Bat, cat and rat are eutherians or placental mammals.Echidna, platypus and anteater are monotremes, mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young. Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.
Organic advocates often credit manure composting as the solution for returning lost carbon back into soil. Additionally, they say it reduces the need for the use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer that is generated through a process that depends on burning fossil fuels. It’s estimated, in fact, that the amount of energy it takes to synthesize nitrogen to grow an acre of corn is about 30 gallons of gasoline. So, the use of manure compost is chalked up as the answer to avoiding the use of fossil fuels. Because manure compost holds more of the nitrogen inside the soil, preventing pooling or runoff, the manure compost also helps build up soil carbon while reducing emissions of nitrous oxide and methane.
For all of fanfare about large-scale manure composting, however, Savage said it’s like having a “leaky pipe” releasing greenhouse gases into the environment long before it ever reaches the soil. The process of creating compost, for instance, is going to emit not only carbon dioxide, but also large amounts of methane and nitrous oxide that are far more concerning for the environment. “When you actually do the math on those emissions, it can be pretty substantial and that adds up over time. It becomes a lot greater number than what it takes to make synthetic nitrogen,” said Savage in a phone interview.
Savage has calculated that organic use of manure composts releases about 12 to 14 times more in the equivalence of carbon emissions compared to conventional agriculture using synthetic nitrogen from fossil fuels. These are greenhouse gas emissions that are largely ignored in the Rodale Institute’s life-cycle assessments, he said. In fact, one global meta-analysis from the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture of Switzerland determined that organic farming led to greater nitrous oxide emissions, while having only a relatively small methane uptake, as compared to conventional farming from the soil.
Still, there are other emissions released indirectly due to large-scale composting that are also not necessarily considered. These include emissions released during the act of hauling the manure from feedlots, food waste from recycling plants for compost, and the compost around itself to farms. It includes emissions released during the use of a tractor to turn the compost to maintain aerobic conditions. And it includes emissions released when tilling manure compost into the soil.
Q.
Which of the following is mentioned as a benefit of manure composting in the passage?
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Kiran Sharma answered  •  7 hours ago
Option 1 can be ruled out as the first paragraph mentions - “Because manure compost holds more of the nitrogen inside the soil”.
Option 2 can be ruled out as it is not a benefit of manure composting but a disadvantage of carbon emission.
Option 3 is mentioned in the first paragraph - “The manure compost also helps build up soil carbon while reducing emissions of nitrous oxide and methane.”
Option 4 misquotes what is mentioned in the passage - “ The use of manure compost is chalked up as the answer to avoiding the use of fossil fuels.” Null and void would mean fossil fuels would never be used.
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

Krishana asked   •  59 minutes ago

It is year 1211 and Genghis Khan has attacked the outpost to the Chinese Empire with Trebuchets. Trebuchets fire gunpowder hundreds of meters away and a single shot can destroy the outpost with all its inhabitants. The commander of the outpost Kim Chee realized that there is no way to stop the trebuchets. They would be lucky if they could somehow run away from the outpost and escape the attack. So he tells all his 10 team members to escape. The outpost is in the middle and there are four ways to escape from the outpost. Assume that the individual speeds of all men in the outpost are the same.
North: To the north, there is a flowing river. A man can swim underwater in the river at a speed of 10.8 km/hr. However after swimming for 20 seconds, he has to stop for one-sixth of a minute to breathe, or else he will drown.
East: To the east, there is a hilly area. A man can run in the hilly area at a speed of 3.6 km/hr. However, after running for 20 meters, he has to stop for 10 seconds to catch his breathe.
West: To the west, there is a forest. Here a man can run at a speed of 7.2 km/hr. But since the forest is dense, a man has to stop for 2 seconds after running for 10 seconds to find the way through the dense undergrowth.
South: To the south, there are tall grasses. A man can run at a speed of 5.4 km/hr here. But since there are poisonous snakes in this area, after running for 15 meters, a man has to stop for 5 seconds to ensure that there are no snakes in the next 15 meters lest he may be bitten.
 
 
Q. Assume that two men start running simultaneously, one towards East and the other towards South. At what time out of the options given below a person running towards east is at the same distance away from the outpost as a man running towards south?
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Two trains cross each other in 145 seconds when moving in the same direction. While running in opposite directions, they cross each other in 29 seconds. The length of the trains is 600 and 850 meters respectively. Find the speed of the slower train, (in km/hr)
  • a)
    72
  • b)
    108
  • c)
    36
  • d)
    54
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Vimla Devi answered  •  7 hours ago
Let the speeds of the trains be x m/s and y m/s respectively.
When the trains are moving in the same direction,

x - y = 10 ... (i)
When the trains are moving in opposite directions,

x + y = 50 ... (ii)
Solving (i) and (ii),
x = 30 m/s andy = 20 m/s
The speed of the slower train is 20 m/s = 20 x (18/5) = 72 km/hr.
Hence, option 1.

Constructivism is a new approach in education that claims humans are better able to understand the information they have constructed by themselves. According to constructivist theories, learning is a social advancement that involves language, real world situations, and interaction and collaboration among learners. The learners are considered to be central in the learning process. Learning is affected by our prejudices, experiences, the time in which we live, and both physical and mental maturity. When motivated, the learner exercises his will, determination, and action to gather selective information, convert it, formulate hypotheses, test these suppositions via applications, interactions or experiences, and to draw verifiable conclusions. Constructivism transforms today’s classrooms into a knowledge-construction site where information is absorbed and knowledge is built by the learner.
In constructivist classrooms, unlike the conventional lecturer, the teacher is a facilitator and a guide, who plans, organizes, guides, and provides directions to the learner, who is accountable for his own learning. The teacher supports the learner by means of suggestions that arise out of ordinary activities, by challenges that inspire creativity, and with projects that allow for independent thinking and new ways of learning information. Students work in groups to approach problems and challenges in real world situations, this in turn leads to the creation of practical solutions and a diverse variety of student products.
A Vygotskian classroom emphasizes creating one’s own concepts and making knowledge one’s property; this requires that school learning takes place in a meaningful context, alongside the learning that occurs in the real world. The Vygotskian classroom stresses assisted discovery through teacher-student and student-student interaction. Some of the cognitive strategies that group members bring into the classroom are questioning, predicting, summarizing, and clarifying.
In a Vygotskian classroom, dynamic support and considerate guidance are provided based on the learner’s needs, but no will or force is dictated. Students are exposed to discussions, research collaborations, electronic information resources, and project groups that work on problem analysis.
Some examples of classroom activities that might be used in a constructive classroom are as follows: Students in a political science class can use a computer simulation to decide on global issues as representatives of United Nations. A geography class studying Turkey can take a virtual trip of tourist and historical sites and parks. The journalism class may publish a newsletter with scanned photographs, excerpts from the press and charts about a recent journey to space.
Q.Which of the following cannot be called as a constructivist activity? 
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Rashmi Devi answered  •  7 hours ago
According to the passage, in a contructivist classroom, there is a great focus and emphasis on social and communication skills, as well as collaboration and exchange of ideas.
Therefore, options 1,3 and 4 are proper examples of a constructivist activity.
Option 2 involves students working alone devoid of any interaction and communication. Thus, it cannot be called as a constructivist activity.
Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

If 1896 is a leap year then 1900 (1896 4=1900) must be a leap year but it's not . And if 1900 is not a leap year then after 1896 , 1904 is a leap year which is 8 years after 1896 ?

Abhijeet Vatts answered  •  11 hours ago
Because gregorian calender says that any century year should be divisible by 400 for it to be called leap year.1896,2000 is leap year whereas 1900,1800 is not.

Suraj Bhan asked   •  1 hour ago

Structuration theory aims to avoid extremes of structural or agent determinism. The balancing of agency and structure is referred to as the duality of structure: social structures make social action possible and at the same time, that social action creates those very structures. For Giddens, structures are rules and resources (sets of transformation relations) organized as properties of social systems. Rules are patterns people may follow in social life. Resources relate to what is created by human action; they are not given by nature (explained further below). The theory employs a recursive notion of actions constrained and enabled by structures which are produced and reproduced by those actions. Consequently, this theory has been adopted by those with structuralist inclinations, but who wish to situate such structures in human practice rather than reify them as an ideal type or material property. (This is different, for example, from actor-network theory which grants certain autonomy to technical artefacts.) Additionally, the theory of structuration distinguishes between discursive and practical knowledge recognizes actors as having knowledge is reflexive and situated, and that habitual use becomes institutionalized.

A social system can be understood by its structure, modality, and interaction. Structure is constituted by rules and resources governing and available to agents. (Authoritative resources control persons, whereas allocative resources control material objects.) The modality of a structural system is the means by which structures are translated into action. Interaction is the activity instantiated by the agent acting within the social system. There has been some attempt by various theorists to link structuration theory to systems theory (with its emphasis on recursive loops) or the complexity theory of organizational structure (which emphasizes the adaptability that simple structures provide). Social systems have patterns of social relation that exist over time; the changing nature of space and time will determine the interaction of social relations and therefore structure. For example, 19th century Britain set out certain rules for that time and space. Those rules affected the action which determines structure and the structure was upheld as long as it was reproduced in action. Hitherto social structures or ‘models of society’ were taken to be beyond the realm of human control - the positivistic approach; the other social theory would be that of action creating society - the interpretivist approach. The duality of structure would argue that, in the most basic assumption, that they are one and the same - different sides to the coin of a similar problem of order.

Agency, as Giddens calls it, is human action. To be human is to be an agent, although not all agents are human beings. Agents’ knowledge of their society informs their action, which reproduce social structures, which in turn enforce and maintain the dynamics of action. Giddens defines ‘ontological security’ as the trust people have in social structure; everyday actions have some degree of predictability, thus ensuring social stability. This is not always true, though, as the possession of agency allows one to break away from normative actions, and depending on the sum of social factors at work, they may instigate shifts in the social structure. The dynamic between agency and structure makes such generative action possible. Thus agency can lead to both the reproduction and the transformation of society. Another way to explain this concept is by, what Giddens calls, the “reflexive monitoring of actions”. Reflexive monitoring looks at the ability to look at actions to judge their effectiveness in achieving their objectives: if agents can reproduce structure through action, they can also transform it.
 
Q. According to the author, possession of agency allows which of the following?
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A = {1, 4, 7, 10 .... 1999} 
8 = {1, 5, 9, 13 .... 1997} 
C = {1, 6, 11, 16 .... 1996}
Find the number of elements which are present in the union of all the three sets A, B and C.
    Correct answer is '1200'. Can you explain this answer?

    Harsh Kothari answered  •  17 hours ago
    So, it looks like it is an AP question and is based on a concept to have a common AP out of two or more AP. And for that, you havee L.C.M of common difference. For this question LCM is 60 so every 60th term will be the common term (i.e. 1st term is common, then 60th term is common, and so on such that last term should be less than 1996) and then find number of terms and the answer will be 1200.

    A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.
    The theory of island biogeography was experimentally tested by E.O. Wilson and his student Daniel Simberloff in the mangrove islands in the Florida Keys. Species richness on several small mangroves islands were surveyed. The islands were fumigated with methyl bromide to clear their arthropod communities. Following fumigation the immigration of species onto the islands was monitored. Within a year, the islands had been recolonised. Islands closer to the mainland recovered faster and larger islands had more species at equilibrium as predicted by the Theory of Island Biogeography. The theory proposes that the number of species found on an undisturbed island is determined by: immigration, emigration and extinction. Immigration and emigration are affected by the distance of an island from a source of colonists. Usually this source is the mainland, but it can also be other islands. Islands that are more isolated are less likely to receive immigrants than islands that are less isolated.
    The rate of extinction once a species manages to colonize an island is affected by island size. Larger islands contain larger habitat areas and opportunities for more different varieties of habitat. Larger habitat size reduces the probability of extinction due to chance events. Habitat heterogeneity increases the number of 5 species that will be successful after immigration.Over time, the countervailing forces of extinction and immigration result in an equilibrium level of species richness. Within a few years of the publishing of the theory its application to the field of conservation biology had been realised and was being vigorously debated in ecological circles. The realisation that reserves and national parks formed islands inside human-altered landscapes, and that these reserves could lose species as they 'relaxed towards equilibrium' caused a great deal of concern. This is particularly true when conserving larger species which tend to have larger ranges.
    In the years after the publication of Wilson and Simberloff s papers ecologists had found more examples of the species-area relationship, and conservation planning was taking the view that the one large reserve could hold more species than several smaller reserves, and that larger reserves should be the norm in reserve design. Island biogeography theory also led to the development of habitat corridors as a conservation tool to increase connectivity between habitat islands. Habitat corridors can increase the movement of species between parks and reserves and therefore increase the number of species that can be supported.
    Q.
    Which of the following statements is true?
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    Nisha answered  •  20 hours ago
    Option 1 is opposite to what is stated in the passage.
    Option 3 exaggerates what is mentioned in the passage - that the larger habitat size reduces the probability of extinction by chance.
    Option 4 has no supporting data in the message.
    The passage states, “Immigration and emigration are affected by the distance of an island from a source of colonists”.
    Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

    Roshni Devi asked   •  1 hour ago

    The end of the age of the internal combustion engine is in sight. There are small signs everywhere: the shift to hybrid vehicles is already under way among manufacturers. Volvo has announced it will make no purely petrol-engined cars after 2019...and Tesla has just started selling its first electric car aimed squarely at the middle classes: the Tesla 3 sells for $35,000 in the US, and 400,000 people have put down a small, refundable deposit towards one. Several thousand have already taken delivery, and the company hopes to sell half a million more next year. This is a remarkable figure for a machine with a fairly short range and a very limited number of specialised charging stations.
    Some of it reflects the remarkable abilities of Elon Musk, the company's founder, as a salesman, engineer, and a man able to get the most out his factory workers and the governments he deals with...Mr Musk is selling a dream that the world wants to believe in.
    This last may be the most important factor in the story. The private car is...a device of immense practical help and economic significance, but at the same time a theatre for myths of unattainable self-fulfilment. The one thing you will never see in a car advertisement is traffic, even though that is the element in which drivers spend their lives. Every single driver in a traffic jam is trying to escape from it, yet it is the inevitable consequence of mass car ownership.
    The sleek and swift electric car is at one level merely the most contemporary fantasy of autonomy and power. But it might also disrupt our exterior landscapes nearly as much as the fossil fuel-engined car did in the last century. Electrical cars would of course pollute far less than fossil fuel-driven ones; instead of oil reserves, the rarest materials for batteries would make undeserving despots and their dynasties fantastically rich. Petrol stations would disappear. The air in cities would once more be breathable and their streets as quiet as those of Venice. This isn't an unmixed good. Cars that were as silent as bicycles would still be as dangerous as they are now to anyone they hit without audible warning.
    The dream goes further than that. The electric cars of the future will be so thoroughly equipped with sensors and reaction mechanisms that they will never hit anyone. Just as brakes don't let you skid today, the steering wheel of tomorrow will swerve you away from danger before you have even noticed it...
    This is where the fantasy of autonomy comes full circle. The logical outcome of cars which need no driver is that they will become cars which need no owner either. Instead, they will work as taxis do, summoned at will but only for the journeys we actually need. This the future towards which Ubem.is working. The ultimate development of the private car will be to reinvent public transport. Traffic jams will be abolished only when the private car becomes a public utility. What then will happen to our fantasies of independence? We'll all have to take to electrically powered bicycles.
    Q.
    According to the author, the main reason for Tesla's remarkable sales is that​
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    A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.
    The theory of island biogeography was experimentally tested by E.O. Wilson and his student Daniel Simberloff in the mangrove islands in the Florida Keys. Species richness on several small mangroves islands were surveyed. The islands were fumigated with methyl bromide to clear their arthropod communities. Following fumigation the immigration of species onto the islands was monitored. Within a year, the islands had been recolonised. Islands closer to the mainland recovered faster and larger islands had more species at equilibrium as predicted by the Theory of Island Biogeography. The theory proposes that the number of species found on an undisturbed island is determined by: immigration, emigration and extinction. Immigration and emigration are affected by the distance of an island from a source of colonists. Usually this source is the mainland, but it can also be other islands. Islands that are more isolated are less likely to receive immigrants than islands that are less isolated.
    The rate of extinction once a species manages to colonize an island is affected by island size. Larger islands contain larger habitat areas and opportunities for more different varieties of habitat. Larger habitat size reduces the probability of extinction due to chance events. Habitat heterogeneity increases the number of 5 species that will be successful after immigration.Over time, the countervailing forces of extinction and immigration result in an equilibrium level of species richness. Within a few years of the publishing of the theory its application to the field of conservation biology had been realised and was being vigorously debated in ecological circles. The realisation that reserves and national parks formed islands inside human-altered landscapes, and that these reserves could lose species as they 'relaxed towards equilibrium' caused a great deal of concern. This is particularly true when conserving larger species which tend to have larger ranges.
    In the years after the publication of Wilson and Simberloff s papers ecologists had found more examples of the species-area relationship, and conservation planning was taking the view that the one large reserve could hold more species than several smaller reserves, and that larger reserves should be the norm in reserve design. Island biogeography theory also led to the development of habitat corridors as a conservation tool to increase connectivity between habitat islands. Habitat corridors can increase the movement of species between parks and reserves and therefore increase the number of species that can be supported.
    Q.
    How will habitat corridors help reduce extinction?
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    Darshan Kaur answered  •  20 hours ago
    Option 2 is contrary to the passage. The passage mentions that habitat corridors actually link islands (parks or reserves).
    Option 3 is not the objective of habitat corridors. The corridors actually increase the movement (and number) of species.
    Option 4 is not borne out by the passage.
    The passage states “Habitat corridors can increase the movement of species between parks and reserves and....".
    Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

    Foola Ram asked   •  1 hour ago

    Structuration theory aims to avoid extremes of structural or agent determinism. The balancing of agency and structure is referred to as the duality of structure: social structures make social action possible and at the same time, that social action creates those very structures. For Giddens, structures are rules and resources (sets of transformation relations) organized as properties of social systems. Rules are patterns people may follow in social life. Resources relate to what is created by human action; they are not given by nature (explained further below). The theory employs a recursive notion of actions constrained and enabled by structures which are produced and reproduced by those actions. Consequently, this theory has been adopted by those with structuralist inclinations, but who wish to situate such structures in human practice rather than reify them as an ideal type or material property. (This is different, for example, from actor-network theory which grants certain autonomy to technical artefacts.) Additionally, the theory of structuration distinguishes between discursive and practical knowledge recognizes actors as having knowledge is reflexive and situated, and that habitual use becomes institutionalized.
    A social system can be understood by its structure, modality, and interaction. Structure is constituted by rules and resources governing and available to agents. (Authoritative resources control persons, whereas allocative resources control material objects.) The modality of a structural system is the means by which structures are translated into action. Interaction is the activity instantiated by the agent acting within the social system. There has been some attempt by various theorists to link structuration theory to systems theory (with its emphasis on recursive loops) or the complexity theory of organizational structure (which emphasizes the adaptability that simple structures provide). Social systems have patterns of social relation that exist over time; the changing nature of space and time will determine the interaction of social relations and therefore structure. For example, 19th century Britain set out certain rules for that time and space. Those rules affected the action which determines structure and the structure was upheld as long as it was reproduced in action. Hitherto social structures or ‘models of society’ were taken to be beyond the realm of human control - the positivistic approach; the other social theory would be that of action creating society - the interpretivist approach. The duality of structure would argue that, in the most basic assumption, that they are one and the same - different sides to the coin of a similar problem of order.
    Agency, as Giddens calls it, is human action. To be human is to be an agent, although not all agents are human beings. Agents’ knowledge of their society informs their action, which reproduce social structures, which in turn enforce and maintain the dynamics of action. Giddens defines ‘ontological security’ as the trust people have in social structure; everyday actions have some degree of predictability, thus ensuring social stability. This is not always true, though, as the possession of agency allows one to break away from normative actions, and depending on the sum of social factors at work, they may instigate shifts in the social structure. The dynamic between agency and structure makes such generative action possible. Thus agency can lead to both the reproduction and the transformation of society. Another way to explain this concept is by, what Giddens calls, the “reflexive monitoring of actions”. Reflexive monitoring looks at the ability to look at actions to judge their effectiveness in achieving their objectives: if agents can reproduce structure through action, they can also transform it.
     
    Q. Which of the following supports the theory that duality of structure is cyclic in nature?
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    A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.
    In the early 1970s, a group of people led by Robert H. Rines obtained some underwater photographs. Two were rather vague images, perhaps of a rhomboid flipper (though others have dismissed the image as air bubbles or a fish fin). The alleged flipper was photographed in different positions, indicating movement. On the basis of these photographs, British naturalist Peter Scott announced in 1975 that the scientific name of the monster would henceforth be Nessiteras rhombopteryx (Greek for "The Ness monster with diamond-shaped fin"). Scott intended that this would enable Nessie to be added to a British register of officially protected wildlife. Scottish politician Nicholas Fairbairn pointed out that the name was an anagram for "Monster hoax by Sir Peter S".
    The underwater photos were reportedly obtained by painstakingly examining the loch depths with sonar for unusual underwater activity. A submersible camera with an affixed, high-powered light (necessary for penetrating Loch Ness's notorious murk) was deployed to record images below the surface. Several of the photographs, despite their obviously murky quality, did indeed seem to show an animal resembling a plesiosaur in various positions and lightings. One photograph appeared to show the head, neck and upper torso of a plesiosaur-like animal. A rarely publicised photograph depicted two plesiosaur-like bodies. Another photo seemed to depict a horned "gargoyle head", consistent to that of several sightings of the monster. Some believe the latter to be a tree stump found during Operation Deepscan.
    A few close-ups of what is to be the creature's supposed diamondshaped fin were taken in different positions, as though the creature was moving. But the "flipper photograph" has been highly retouched from the original image. The Museum of Hoaxes shows the original unenhanced photo. Team member Charles Wyckoff claimed that someone retouched the photo to superimpose the flipper, and that the original enhancement showed a much smaller flipper. No one is exactly sure how the original came to be enhanced in this way.
    Q.
    According to the author:
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    Mukesh Devi answered  •  20 hours ago
    The correct answer is 4. The passage talks about a search by Pete Scott’s team to conclusively prove the Loch Ness Monster’s existence, and the proof they gathered; it also argues the veracity of the proof.
    But nothing can be proven conclusively. Also, the author doesn’t take a stand one way or another, but merely states facts.
    Thus, options 1,2, and 3 are wrong.
    Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

    Krishna Rani asked   •  1 hour ago

    A country where 270 million people live below the 'poverty line', obesity seems to be a distant issue, meant for the rich kids of first world. But India is under siege: junk food, alcohol and sedentary lifestyle are leading us to silent self-destruction, making one in every five Indian men and women either obese or overweight.
    According to a study published in the noted journal Lancet, India is just behind US and China in this global hazard list of top 10 countries with highest number of obese people. The study titled 'Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013' - used data collected by international bodies and organisations in various countries like India over three decades. The US topped the list with 13 per cent of the obese people worldwide in 2013, while China and India together accounted for 15 per cent of the world's obese population, with 46 million and 30 million obese people, respectively. According to the study, number of overweight and obese people globally increased from 857 million in 1980 to 2.1 billion in 2013. This is one-third of the world's population.
    Overweight in adults is categorised as Body Mass Index of 25 kg/m2 to 30 kg/m2 and obesity as Body Mass Index of more than 30 kg/m2. In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3 to 4 million deaths, 3.9 per cent of years of life lost, and 3.8 per cent of disability-adjusted life-years worldwide, the study said. If we see the graph of obesity, from 1999 onwards Indians started gaining weight due to urbanisation. There has been gradual economical improvement in our status. The entrance of modern technology and Internet has turned people lazy and stagnant.
    With lifestyle disorders forcing more and more people to reel under excess body weight, even relatively younger people are developing joint disorders and knee pain. Excessive weight is associated with a series of health problems, including blood pressure, diabetes, and cardiovascular ailments. Experts say the prevalence of obesity is greater among women than men and is increasing among children and adolescents rapidly.
     
    Q.Which of the following is an irony mentioned in the passage? 
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    The average age of a village X at the start of the year 2008 is 30 years. Every year starting from 2009, migrants - amounting to 20% of the population of village X in 2008 - move to village X. The average age at entry, for every batch of migrants is 5 years less than that of the village X at the start of 2008. Find the average age of the village X just after the third batch of migrants enter it.
    • a)
      28.67
    • b)
      27.08
    • c)
      32.33
    • d)
      30.375
    Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

    Saroj Devi answered  •  20 hours ago
    Let the current population of the village be x.
    The population of the village just after the third batch of migrants entre village X = x + 3(0.2x) = 1.6x
    The total sum of the ages of the migrants just after the third batch of migrants entre village X = 0.2x x 27 + 0.2x x 26 + 0.2x x 25 = 15.6x
    The average age of the village after 3 years = (33x + 15.6x )/1.6x = 30.375 years
    Hence, option 4.

    LFC is a very popular football club that has won several domestic and international accolades since the club’s establishment in 1869. Besides having a huge fan following at home and abroad, LFC also has an extensive army of franchises and several exclusive TV deals. This is perhaps why, Kop Limited, a firm owned by two American businessmen, Billet and Cricks, has been contemplating a prospective takeover of the Football club. Billet and Cricks present their offer to LFC’s board of directors and manage to win the approval of some of the board members. However, when the news of a prospective takeover finds its way to popular media, many fans are outraged as they see this as commercial exploitation of the club’s legacy. Some of the board members too, express concern over LFC being owned by businessmen who have not been associated with the club in the past and might prioritize their own financial interests over the club’s well-being. At the same time, it would be difficult for the board to reject the offer without deliberation since they could use the funds from the takeover and this would help them improve the infrastructure and facilities for the LFC squad. The board members of LFC find themselves in a dilemma.
     
    Q. Identify the best rationale that may lead to the LFC board rejecting Kop Limited’s proposal.
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    Reshma Devi answered  •  20 hours ago
    The question requires a suitable reason which would make Kop Limited’s bid seem unnecessary to the club without denying any advantages that the liaison might bring. Option 4 alone manages to keep this balance.
    Option 1 is ruled out since LFC’s success might not necessarily be due to its ownership as much as it might be due to its players and management.
    Option 2 does not provide an adequate reason to reject Kop Limited’s bid; their lack of experience in a particular region does not necessarily make their proposal seem harmful to LFC’s interests.
    Option 3 is absurd; though, it might be true that LFC’s success can be attributed to its fans but one cannot accept a unanimous consensus from such a large number of fans. To reject a proposal on these grounds would be irrational on the board’s part.
    Option 5 can be eliminated since a takeover need not be limited to adding monetary value alone.
    Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

    Kanta Devi asked   •  1 hour ago

    Spectator comfort at the cricket venue is a rare benevolence. Intrusive security, mostly insensitive, can discourage the most faithful of spectators from coming to the stadium. Yet they throng, with an unmistakable passion to stretch their vocal chords and cheer their heroes.
    They have been doing it for years, most loyally, but have always been accorded second class treatment. Yet they throng!
    Why do they come? S. Ganesh, an avid cricket fan, does not anymore. “It is degrading,” is his acerbic response. He has been a regular at cricket venues, many times overseas, but the modern trend to make noise and indulge in jingoism does not appeal to him. It compels him to stay “indoors” and enjoy the fare on the small screen. “In mute mode,” he insists.
    Mute when indoors; vociferous at the venue. Such variance among cricket fans, or spectators, is uncommon in other sport. “In India, it is all about cacophony,” quips G.B. Lai, a veteran from Patna. He has watched “quality” cricket in Patna and Calcutta but just can't come to terms with the modern I PL (Indian Premier League) cricket fan.
    Faces painted and sentiments expressed through banners and placards, the cricket fan of today comes in all hues and shapes at the I PL games. Most reputable experts are appalled that the cricket fan at the I PL is so starkly different from the spectator at a Test match. There has been a marked transformation in the character of a cricket follower. The emphasis now is on entertainment and it explains why there is an unending surge at matches that promise a result.
    Is it erosion of cricket culture? The boisterous cricket fan, supporting Delhi Daredevils or Chennai Super Kings, has little regard for the man occupying the next seat. “They don't come to watch cricket skills. They want to shout, wave like mad, jump and dance, all mainly to be seen on the television. It can be irritating for someone who wants to follow the action seriously. Half the time you miss a clear view because of this breed of spectators who just go wild at the sight of a camera,” says Ganesh, who has watched cricket at Kotla by queuing up at 6 in the morning for a day's play at a Test.
    Cricket watching is not a pleasure anymore. “It was fun. I could carry my snacks, lunch and single malt in a hip flask,” remembers Anurag Mathur, a club cricketer. Not anymore! “I can only carry myself,” laments Praveen Kaushik, who has always bought a ticket to a cricket match in a city where acquiring a complimentary pass is a status symbol.
     
    Q.(For the match) “I can only carry myself implies:
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    A triangle ABC is such that a line from A on side BC meets BC at point P and divides it in the ratio 2 : 5 . Another line is drawn parallel to AP at a distance o f 2 units from it. This line touches BC at Q and divides it in the ratio 1:2. If B-P-Q as well as P-Q-C and Q is farther from C compared to B, what is the length of side BC?
    • a)
      42
    • b)
      38
    • c)
      34
    • d)
      32
    • e)
      Cannot be determined
    Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

    Usha Sharma answered  •  20 hours ago
    The data given in the question can be represented as shown below.
    The order of B, P, Q and C is because B-P-Q and P-Q-C.
    Based on the figure,
    BP = 2x, PC = 5x, BQ =y and QC = 2y
    BC = BP + PC = BQ + QC
    ∴ 2x + 5 x = y + 2y
    ∴3y-7x = 0 ...(i)
    Since the two lines are drawn parallel to each other, PQ = 2 units ... QB - PB = 2
    ∴ y - 2x = 2
    ∴ 3 y - 6 x = 6 ...(ii)
    Solving (i) and (ii), x = 6 and y = 14
    ∴ BC = lx = 42 units
    Hence, option 1.

    Group Question
    Answer the following question based on the information given below.
    The following graph gives the sales revenue of five companies in the years from 2000 to 2004.
    Q.
    What is th elength of the tan g en t draw n from origin (0, 0) to the circle 3x2 + 3y2+9 x + 4y + 6 = 0?
    • a)
      √2
    • b)
      1.5
    • c)
      √3
    • d)
      2
    • e)
      2.5
    Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

    Surjit Kaur answered  •  20 hours ago
    Theequationofthecirclecanbewrittenas:
    Expressitas(x-a)2+(y-b)2=r2where(a,b)aretheco-ordinatesofthecentreandristheradiusofthecircle.
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    Zile Singh asked   •  1 hour ago

                                                                                          Group Question
    Read the following situation and choose the best possible alternative.

    Manisha is a 21-year-old MBA summer intern who has just been caught stealing Rs. 1000 from the petty cash fund in your office. This was because she wanted to party over the weekend and her internship cheque was expected to be credited in her bank account on Monday, after which she intended to put the money back in the petty cash fund. The Company has a strict policy that says that anyone who steals will be dismissed. Manisha’s mother works in another department in the Company for the past 15 years and she has come to see you, in person, to beg you not to “ruin Manisha’s life”. She also points out that she has seen many other employees take incidental office supplies like pencils and notepads home. 
     
     
    Q. Which of the following is going to be your decision? 
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    Yadnyesh Chaudhari asked   •  2 hours ago

    Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one. As anyone who has ever spent any time with children knows, every single human being is born creative; every human being is innately endowed with the ability to combine and recombine data, perceptions, materials and ideas, and devise new ways of thinking and doing. What fosters creativity? More than anything else: the presence of other creative people. The big myth is that creativity is the province of great individual geniuses. In fact creativity is a social process. Our biggest creative breakthroughs come when people learn from, compete with, and collaborate with other people.
    Cities are the true fonts of creativity... With their diverse populations, dense social networks, and public spaces where people can meet spontaneously and serendipitously, they spark and catalyze new ideas. With their infrastructure for finance, organization and trade, they allow those ideas to be swiftly actualized.
    As for what staunches creativity, that's easy, if ironic. It's the very institutions that we build to manage, exploit and perpetuate the fruits of creativity — our big bureaucracies, and sad to say, too many of our schools. Creativity is disruptive; schools and organizations are regimented, standardized and stultifying.
    The education expert Sir Ken Robinson points to a 1968 study reporting on a group of 1,600 children who were tested over time for their ability to think in out-of-the-box ways. When the children were between 3 and 5 years old, 98 percent achieved positive scores. When they were 8 to 10, only 32 percent passed the same test, and only 10 percent at 13 to 15. When 280,000 25-year-olds took the test, just 2 percent passed. By the time we are adults, our creativity has been wrung out of us.
    I once asked the great urbanist Jane Jacobs what makes some places more creative than others. She said, essentially, that the question was an easy one. All cities, she said, were filled with creative people; that's our default state as people. But some cities had more than their shares of leaders, people and institutions that blocked out that creativity. She called them "squelchers."
    Creativity (or the lack of it) follows the same general contours of the great socio-economic divide - our rising inequality - that plagues us. According to my own estimates, roughly a third of us across the United States, and perhaps as much as half of us in our most creative cities - are able to do work which engages our creative faculties to some extent, whether as artists, musicians, writers, techies, innovators, entrepreneurs, doctors, lawyers, journalists or educators - those of us who work with our minds. That leaves a group that I term "the other 66 percent," who toil in low-wage rote and rotten jobs — if they have jobs at all — in which their creativity is subjugated, ignored or wasted.
    Creativity itself is not in danger. It's flourishing is all around us - in science and technology, arts and culture, in our rapidly revitalizing cities. But we still have a long way to go if we want to build a truly creative society that supports and rewards the creativity of each and every one of us.
    Q.
    In the author's view, cities promote human creativity for all the following reasons EXCEPT that they​
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    Web Sprint asked   •  4 hours ago

    Read the infonnation provided and answer thequestions which follow.
    Five MBA studentS - Aman. Manish, Rohit, Sandeep and Vinay, specializing in sales and marketing got nal campus placement in ve different companies - Asian Paints, Dabur, Hindustan Unilever, ITC and L' Oreal.(though not necessarily in the same order). Their initial Job assignment has been xed in ve different cities - Bhopal, Chenna Delhi, Mumba·i and Patna (in any order). They are avid book readers, but like different themes - business and management, classic ction, historical ction, mystery ction and non-ction (again in any order). Further the following additional information are provided: ·
    (a)Vinay got placed in Asian Paints.
    (b)Aman is not placed in Hindustan Unilever.
    (c)Manish's job location isnot in Chennai and hedoes not like books on mystery fiction.
    (d)Sandeep got placed at Delhi, while Vinay is not placed at Mwnbai.
    (e)Aman likes reading books on historical ction and is placed either at Chennai or Patna and the student who got placed in ITC does not lilce mystery ction and his job posting . is in theother city amongst Chennai or Patna.
    (f) The student who got placed in L'Oreal likes reading non-ction books and is not posted at Mumbai.
    (g)The student who likes reading classic ction, is posted at Bhopal.
    Q.Who among the following is posted in Patna?
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    Dharambir Singh asked   •  9 hours ago

    The passage given below is followed by a question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
    Conventional wisdom for the future of India is that we must grow like China or Japan. That we must build large companies creating thousands of jobs and exporting goods. I believe that domestic consumption, not exports, will drive India’s growth. The economy will be services-led and not manufacturing-led like China or Japan. Small businesses will lead rather than large corporations.
    India is the largest young country in an ageing world and will continue to have a young population for the next 25 years, whereas China has started ageing. Indians will either migrate or do outsourcing work. Care providers around the world will come from India. There will be doubling of GDP growth in housing, education, health - all services. Services are labour intensive and their incremental return on capital is much faster than manufacturing and then there will be services like tourism that create jobs.
    Many economists have suggested that India should copy China, but it cannot. When China started its development journey, it had no established competition. Global overcapacity challenges India. For example, China has steel capacity of 822 million tonnes and India has 86 million tonnes. Recently, the Indian government had to protect its steel industry by introducing minimum import pricing. Normal competition without tariffs will be difficult in many sectors in Indian economy.
    India’s free market for labour combined with single market for services is the reason why services is the country’s biggest growth area. The only place where India can achieve economy of scale is in services. This is apparent in the dramatic growth of service tax.
    The set of programming interfaces built on the trifecta of government- created people’s bank account of Jan Dhan, Aadhaar no., and mobile phones - in brief JAM - enables paperless, presence-less and cashless transactions.
    Dramatic consequences will follow creating thousands of startups and billions of dollars of capitalisation. Four shifts will happen. First, banking at scale because everything a bank can do, individuals can do on a mobile phone. Second, investment at scale - people can buy a mutual fund on the phone with one click. Third, credit at scale where entrepreneurs can get a loan with just a click by aggregating their own data. And fourth, skilling at scale - as platforms happen, India will have thousands, millions of people gathering skills to operate in this new economy with great strides in reading and math literacy happening at scale.
    World trade may be shrinking and barriers may be emerging among nations, all making movement of labour difficult. India with its vast unified market, youthful labour force and growing digital platform-backed services alone is poised to build a new power economy.
     
    Q.From which source the passage has been taken possibly? 
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    Yash Pal asked   •  10 hours ago

    The passage given below is followed by a question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
    Today we are faced with the harsh reality that the treatment or prevention of infectious diseases has not made quantum advances since the early successes of vaccines and antimicrobial therapies. In a sense, the world is headed backward, as once-treatable microbes become resistant to existing therapies, and new infections for which there are no effective interventions continue to arise. This situation represents a serious and imminent threat to the world.
    The emergence of a highly lethal and rapidly spreading antimicrobial- resistant infection would lead to untold numbers of deaths and unimaginable misery. The consequences could be similar in magnitude to a large-scale terrorist attack. Communities could be walled off, national borders closed, and travel could be restricted or even suspended. Health systems could disintegrate or collapse, as could economies. The possibility of such an apocalyptic scenario suggests that the threat of infectious diseases is among the most important challenges that humankind faces. It is not just a public health risk; it is a threat to national and global security. Thus, it must be met with a comprehensive and effective solution.
    The research and development required to produce new medicines or vaccines is time-consuming, often taking more than a dozen years. It is also very expensive, costing hundreds of millions of dollars for every new product. Moreover, there is no guarantee of success; indeed, for each successful product, there are as many as nine equally promising candidates that fail. Given the risks involved, it is not surprising that pharmaceutical companies are very careful in their choice of investments in new drug or vaccine programs, selecting only those that promise financial gains sufficient to cover the costs of both successes and failures and provide a reasonable return on the required investment.
    Almost every country is prepared to channel a large percentage of its GDP toward investments in national defense or security. The global threat of emerging or resistant infections must be viewed first and foremost in that context, with all countries committed to providing financing, intellectual capital, and available resources to support the discovery, development, manufacture, stockpiling, and equitable distribution of new antimicrobial agents and vaccines. Unless countries recognize the risks they face, they are unlikely to make such a commitment. It goes without saying that this would be a complicated undertaking, with many details to be worked out. But somehow we must suspend disbelief and take action now, lest we be caught off-guard against an imminent global threat. This is a battle we cannot afford to lose.
     
    Q.Which of the following cannot be inferred from the passage?
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    Om Prakash asked   •  11 hours ago

    Five sentences are given below labeled (1), (2), (3), (4) and (5). Of these, four sentences need to be arranged in a logical order to form a coherent paragraph/passage. Pick out the sentence that does not fit the sequence.
    1. Many are hesitant that they won't be able to fully adjust, and so wonder if it might be possible to stay with an Amish family for a week or two, just to try out the lifestyle.
    2. The Amish don't have any spiritual attachment to a geographical location, the way Jews have to Jerusalem or Mormons to Salt Lake City; this spot, along with Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, is probably the closest they come to an idea of God’s Country.
    3. Many say they’ve wanted to become Amish for “as long as [they] could remember,” though most of them say they have only seen Amish people on a few occasions, and don’t know much, if anything at all, about Amish theology.
    4. Some talk about wanting to find an Amish partner, others, about the fear they won’t be accepted into the community because they are single parents, or divorced, or have tattoos or once dabbled in drugs.
    5. Although a few commenters say they’ve taken the initiative to make their own lives more Plain- given up television, say, or started to dress more modestly-most of them appear to be banking on integration into the community to transform them, like alcoholics who decide to wait until detox before examining the deeper motivations behind their drinking.
      Correct answer is '2'. Can you explain this answer?

      Ankita Agrawal asked   •  11 hours ago

      This month, 600 women gathered under a huge blue-and-yellow- striped tent in Baripada, a small city in Odisha, a state in India’s east. They were among India’s most neglected people. Widowed, abandoned or divorced, many had ended up living like servants in the households of their fathers, brothers or in-laws.
      But on March 5th, 2016, each woman clutched a single light-green sheet of paper that would change her life: a patta, or title to a small plot of land.
      The women were among 1,800 getting pattas that day across the district. The documents were hard-won. The battle for women’s land rights in India pits progressive law against oppressive culture — and the culture has largely prevailed. But the pattas show that small victories for law are also possible.
      Agriculture in India is a woman’s occupation. More than three- quarters of Indian women make their living as farmers — a far higher percentage than men, who seek nonfarm jobs. Yet less than 13 percent of land is owned by women. A study financed by the World Bank found that women own only 3.3 percent of the land in Odisha.
      The consequences are enormous. Without title, female farmers acting on their own don’t have access to credit, subsidies, government programs for seeds, irrigation or fertilizer. They cannot get loans and do not invest to improve their yields. They live in fear that someone more powerful — which is everyone — can kick them off their land.
      When women’s incomes suffer, so do their children. More than 40 percent of all children under the age of 5 in India are malnourished. And India’s agricultural productivity is needlessly diminished.
      Landlessness also raises the risk of domestic violence, said Bina Agarwal, a longtime professor at the Institute of Economic Growth at the University of Delhi, and now a professor of development economics and environment at the University of Manchester in Britain. In 1994, Agarwal wrote “A Field of One’s Own,” arguing that landlessness is the single most important factor in the second-class citizenship of women in India. The book became the founding document of the women’s land-rights movement. “If a woman owns land, the husband would know that the woman has an alternative place to go. It hugely increases women’s bargaining power within marriage,” she said. “She knows she has an exit option that’s credible.” Agarwal said that women owned a higher percentage of the land in places where local culture permitted a woman to bring her husband into her family, marry a cousin, or marry inside her village and stay there. That way, a daughter’s land stays in the family, or at least nearby.
       
      Q.The “pattas” are a symbol of: 
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      Mahender Singh asked   •  16 hours ago

      The passage given below is followed by a questios. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
      In far-off Syria, a country lying northeast of Palestine, the land in which Jesus was born, the farmers who keep vineyards are very much troubled with foxes and bears, which destroy their crops at night. And so, to protect their vineyards, they build high stone-walls about them, and put broken bottles on the top to keep these animals out, much as some people in this country who have orchards do, in order to keep out small boys. These fences keep out the bears, because they cut themselves on the glass in trying to climb over, and they also keep out some of the foxes. But after all, when the grapes are nearly ripe, the owners of the vineyards and their men are obliged to build platforms up above the trellises, and stay there all night, in order to guard their crops. These watchers manage very well with all the other wild animals excepting the little foxes. They can see the big foxes and drive them off, but the little ones they cannot see, and so these destroy the vines. I suppose that it was an experience something like that which led one of the Bible-writers to say that the little foxes destroy the vines. It seems to me that this is very true with sins, too; it is the little sins that destroy us. When a big sin like stealing, lying or cheating comes along we can see that easily enough, and we will not let it over the fence into our lives. We drive it away, and are soon rid of it. But when the little sins come, like little foxes, we do not see them, and so they get in and destroy our character. What are some of these little foxes? I think one is pride, which makes you so conceited, because you live in a big house or have an automobile or fine clothes, that you will not speak to or play with other boys and girls who have not quite such fine things, although they may be just as bright and just as good as you. Pride is a little fox that kills the vine of brotherliness which Christ planted in our hearts. Then another little fox is sulkiness. Sulkiness makes you frown and go away in a corner. It sucks up all the sunlight there is, and makes the world very gray and dull, like a day in November. This fox kills the vine called “peace” which Christ planted.
      One more little fox is jealousy. This makes boys and girls dislike others who get higher marks than they in school, or who have more friends, or better toys. It is one of the most destructive little foxes there is, for it kills the best vine of all that Christ planted: that is, love. Be careful, then, boys and girls, of these little foxes, for they are worse than bears and big foxes, because they look so small and harmless, and slip by when you are not paying attention, but which destroy your character as readily as the others.
       
      Q.The author has compared little foxes to small sins because: 
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      Bahadur Singh asked   •  19 hours ago

      In a certain training institute which had exactly 200 students, each student was given exactly one question from one among the following categories: Reasoning, Mathematics, Grammar, Interpretation and Comprehension.
      Chart 1 gives the distribution of questions among the students.
      However, since the students were not happy with the type of questions each one had received, they exchanged their questions with other students in such a way that none of them had a question of the same category as they had earlier.
      Chart 2 shows the distribution of number of students who initially had questions from Reasoning category and exchanged their questions across students of various categories.
      Further, exactly 8 students who originally had questions on Interpretation now have questions on Reasoning with them. Also 8 students who initially had questions on comprehension now have questions on Interpretation category.
      Also out of the students who initially had questions on Grammar, 3 students now have questions on Reasoning and 16 have questions on Mathematics category.
       
      If out of the students who initially had questions on Mathematics with them, the number of students who now have questions on Comprehension is the maximum possible; then out of the students who now have questions on Grammar category what is the maximum possible number of students who initially had questions on Comprehension category?
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      Zile Singh asked   •  19 hours ago

      The passage given below is followed by a question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
      Today we are faced with the harsh reality that the treatment or prevention of infectious diseases has not made quantum advances since the early successes of vaccines and antimicrobial therapies. In a sense, the world is headed backward, as once-treatable microbes become resistant to existing therapies, and new infections for which there are no effective interventions continue to arise. This situation represents a serious and imminent threat to the world.
      The emergence of a highly lethal and rapidly spreading antimicrobial- resistant infection would lead to untold numbers of deaths and unimaginable misery. The consequences could be similar in magnitude to a large-scale terrorist attack. Communities could be walled off, national borders closed, and travel could be restricted or even suspended. Health systems could disintegrate or collapse, as could economies. The possibility of such an apocalyptic scenario suggests that the threat of infectious diseases is among the most important challenges that humankind faces. It is not just a public health risk; it is a threat to national and global security. Thus, it must be met with a comprehensive and effective solution.
      The research and development required to produce new medicines or vaccines is time-consuming, often taking more than a dozen years. It is also very expensive, costing hundreds of millions of dollars for every new product. Moreover, there is no guarantee of success; indeed, for each successful product, there are as many as nine equally promising candidates that fail. Given the risks involved, it is not surprising that pharmaceutical companies are very careful in their choice of investments in new drug or vaccine programs, selecting only those that promise financial gains sufficient to cover the costs of both successes and failures and provide a reasonable return on the required investment.
      Almost every country is prepared to channel a large percentage of its GDP toward investments in national defense or security. The global threat of emerging or resistant infections must be viewed first and foremost in that context, with all countries committed to providing financing, intellectual capital, and available resources to support the discovery, development, manufacture, stockpiling, and equitable distribution of new antimicrobial agents and vaccines. Unless countries recognize the risks they face, they are unlikely to make such a commitment. It goes without saying that this would be a complicated undertaking, with many details to be worked out. But somehow we must suspend disbelief and take action now, lest we be caught off-guard against an imminent global threat. This is a battle we cannot afford to lose.
       
      Q.What is the passage about?
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      Rajender Singh asked   •  19 hours ago

      A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.
      Folklorists often interpret the fairy tale Cinderella as the competition between the stepmother and the stepdaughter for resources, which may include the need to provide a dowry. Gioachino Rossini's opera La Cenerentola makes this economic basis explicit: Don Magnifico wishes to make his own daughters' dowry larger, to attract a grander match, which is impossible if he must provide a third dowry. One common penalty for the kidnapping of an unmarried woman was that the abductor had to provide the woman's dowry. Until the late 20th century this was sometimes called wreath money, or the breach of promise. Providing dowries for poor women was regarded as a form of charity by wealthier parishioners. The custom of Christmas stockings springs from a legend of St. Nicholas, in which he threw gold in the stockings of three poor sisters, thus providing for their dowries. St. Elizabeth of Portugal and St. Martin de Porres were particularly noted for providing such dowries, and the Archconfraternity of the Annunciation, a Roman charity dedicated to providing dowries, received the entire estate of Pope Urban VII. As the French crown provided dowries for many of the women persuaded to travel to New France for marriages and settlement there, they were known as filles du roi (daughters of the king). In some parts of Europe, land dowries were common. In the County of Bentheim, for instance, parents who had no sons might give a land dowry to their new son-in- law. It was commonly given with the condition that he take the surname of his bride, in order to continue the family name. The Portuguese crown gave two cities as dowry to the British Crown in 1661 when King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland married Catherine of Braganza, a princess of Portugal. They were Mumbai (Bombay) in India and Tangier in Morocco.
       
      Q.Which of the following can be stated about Don Magnifico from the passage?
      A. He is a miserly man who keeps his money close to his heart.
      B. He hates his daughters and simply wants to many them off.
      C. He has a social status equivalent to a king that requires him to pay a high dowry for his daughters.
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      Jyoti Prakash asked   •  19 hours ago

      The passage given below is followed by a questios. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
      In far-off Syria, a country lying northeast of Palestine, the land in which Jesus was born, the farmers who keep vineyards are very much troubled with foxes and bears, which destroy their crops at night. And so, to protect their vineyards, they build high stone-walls about them, and put broken bottles on the top to keep these animals out, much as some people in this country who have orchards do, in order to keep out small boys. These fences keep out the bears, because they cut themselves on the glass in trying to climb over, and they also keep out some of the foxes. But after all, when the grapes are nearly ripe, the owners of the vineyards and their men are obliged to build platforms up above the trellises, and stay there all night, in order to guard their crops. These watchers manage very well with all the other wild animals excepting the little foxes. They can see the big foxes and drive them off, but the little ones they cannot see, and so these destroy the vines. I suppose that it was an experience something like that which led one of the Bible-writers to say that the little foxes destroy the vines. It seems to me that this is very true with sins, too; it is the little sins that destroy us. When a big sin like stealing, lying or cheating comes along we can see that easily enough, and we will not let it over the fence into our lives. We drive it away, and are soon rid of it. But when the little sins come, like little foxes, we do not see them, and so they get in and destroy our character. What are some of these little foxes? I think one is pride, which makes you so conceited, because you live in a big house or have an automobile or fine clothes, that you will not speak to or play with other boys and girls who have not quite such fine things, although they may be just as bright and just as good as you. Pride is a little fox that kills the vine of brotherliness which Christ planted in our hearts. Then another little fox is sulkiness. Sulkiness makes you frown and go away in a corner. It sucks up all the sunlight there is, and makes the world very gray and dull, like a day in November. This fox kills the vine called “peace” which Christ planted.
      One more little fox is jealousy. This makes boys and girls dislike others who get higher marks than they in school, or who have more friends, or better toys. It is one of the most destructive little foxes there is, for it kills the best vine of all that Christ planted: that is, love. Be careful, then, boys and girls, of these little foxes, for they are worse than bears and big foxes, because they look so small and harmless, and slip by when you are not paying attention, but which destroy your character as readily as the others.
       
      Q.Which of the following cannot be inferred from the passage?
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      Umed Singh asked   •  19 hours ago

      The passage given below is followed by a question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
      Is anyone a born entrepreneur, a born leader or born to win? I believe everyone is born to win but you have to make winning a habit. Think of this: a quitter never wins, a winner never quits. I have been privileged to share the dream and journey of many entrepreneurs. A few traits are habits with all of them. A winner is a believer. Belief in oneself and one’s convictions — that inner voice of core strength to pursue dreams despite difficulties.
      Along the way everyone they meet gets swept up in their dreams and aspirations. This belief is rooted in a bigger purpose than self- satisfaction. Winners are great listeners. They learn continuously; they take inputs; they don’t think they have all the answers; and they are confident to have the humility to hear other points of view.
      Listening is about striving for comprehension and making oneself open to possibilities. Winners value self-development. They constantly challenge themselves and set aggressive goals and often surpass expectations. They make organisational learning a priority. Winners are unstoppable. They don’t count hurdles. They don’t brood about failures and risks. They are activators.
      They have a clear compass on why they keep trying and what they set out to achieve. Hence they have the edge to get up, dust themselves off, and set out again and again.
      Winners are decisive. They chart the course and make choices all the time while being transparent and suffused with a clarity of purpose. They are less prone to procrastination. They are resilient to change and very effective in communicating their decisions. Another word for this is nimbleness, and in these times, this quality is essential to innovate.
      Is all this too much to ask? Of late, too often, I read are we expecting too much from young entrepreneurs. Was too much expected of Alexander when he became king at 20 and set out to conquer the world? Or of Akbar who inherited the empire at the age of 14? Being a founder, building a high-velocity organisation is no doubt high-pressure, but isn’t it a choice? Isn’t competing in the Olympics different from playing cricket in your backyard?
      Over the years, I have a more nuanced take about winning itself.
      Winning doesn’t always mean being first; winning means you are doing better than you have done before.
       
      Q.Which of the following, if true, weakens the argument in the above passage?
      A. One has to be bom a winner and winning cannot be taught or learned.
      B. Losers are no different than winners apart from the fact that they are short on luck.
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      Gina Devi asked   •  19 hours ago

      Instructions
      Comprehension:
      War, natural disasters and climate change are destroying some of the world's most precious cultural sites. Google is trying to help preserve these archaeological wonders by allowing users access to 3D images of these treasures through its site. But the project is raising questions about Google's motivations and about who should own the digital copyrights.
      Some critics call it a form of "digital colonialism." When it comes to archaeological treasures, the losses have been mounting. ISIS blew up parts of the ancient city of Palmyra in Syria and an earthquake hit Bagan, an ancient city in Myanmar, damaging dozens of temples, in 2016. In the past, all archaeologists and historians had for restoration and research were photos, drawings, remnants and intuition. But that's changing. Before the earthquake at Bagan, many of the temples on the site were scanned. . . . [These] scans . . . are on Google's Arts & Culture site. The digital renditions allow viewers to virtually wander the halls of the temple, look up-close at paintings and turn the building over, to look up at its chambers. . . . [Google Arts & Culture] works with museums and other nonprofits . . . to put high-quality images online. The images of the temples in Bagan are part of a collaboration with CyArk, a nonprofit that creates the 3D scanning of historic sites. . . . Google . . . says [it] doesn't make money off this website, but it fits in with Google's mission to make the world's information available and useful.
      Critics say the collaboration could be an attempt by a large corporation to wrap itself in the sheen of culture. Ethan Watrall, an archaeologist, professor at Michigan State University and a member of the Society for American Archaeology, says he's not comfortable with the arrangement between CyArk and Google. . . . Watrall says this project is just a way for Google to promote Google. "They want to make this material accessible so people will browse it and be filled with wonder by it," he says. "But at its core, it's all about advertisements and driving traffic." Watrall says these images belong on the site of a museum or educational institution, where there is serious scholarship and a very different mission. . . . [There's] another issue for some archaeologists and art historians.
      CyArk owns the copyrights of the scans — not the countries where these sites are located. That means the countries need CyArk's permission to use these images for commercial purposes.
      Erin Thompson, a professor of art crime at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York City, says it's the latest example of a Western nation appropriating a foreign culture, a centuries-long battle. . . . CyArk says it copyrights the scans so no one can use them in an inappropriate way. The company says it works closely with authorities during the process, even training local people to help. But critics like Thompson are not persuaded. . . . She would prefer the scans to be owned by the countries and people where these sites are located.
      Q. Based on his views mentioned in the passage, one could best characterise Dr. Watrall as being:
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      Rukmani Devi asked   •  19 hours ago

      Instructions
      Read the passage carefully and answer the given questions

      The complexity of modern problems often precludes any one person from fully understanding them. Factors contributing to rising obesity levels, for example, include transportation systems and infrastructure, media, convenience foods, changing social norms, human biology and psychological factors. . . . The multidimensional or layered character of complex problems also undermines the principle of meritocracy: the idea that the ‘best person’ should be hired. There is no best person. When putting together an oncological research team, a biotech company such as Gilead or Genentech would not construct a multiple-choice test and hire the top scorers, or hire people whose resumes score highest according to some performance criteria. Instead, they would seek diversity. They would build a team of people who bring diverse knowledge bases, tools and analytic skills. . . .
      Believers in a meritocracy might grant that teams ought to be diverse but then argue that meritocratic principles should apply within each category. Thus the team should consist of the ‘best’ mathematicians, the ‘best’ oncologists, and the ‘best’ biostatisticians from within the pool. That position suffers from a similar flaw. Even with a knowledge domain, no test or criteria applied to individuals will produce the best team. Each of these domains possesses such depth and breadth, that no test can exist. Consider the field of neuroscience. Upwards of 50,000 papers were published last year covering various techniques, domains of enquiry and levels of analysis, ranging from molecules and synapses up through networks of neurons. Given that complexity, any attempt to rank a collection of neuroscientists from best to worst, as if they were competitors in the 50-metre butterfly, must fail. What could be true is that given a specific task and the composition of a particular team, one scientist would be more likely to contribute than another. Optimal hiring depends on context. Optimal teams will be diverse.
      Evidence for this claim can be seen in the way that papers and patents that combine diverse ideas tend to rank as highimpact. It can also be found in the structure of the so-called random decision forest, a state-of-the-art machine-learning algorithm. Random forests consist of ensembles of decision trees. If classifying pictures, each tree makes a vote: is that a picture of a fox or a dog? A weighted majority rules. Random forests can serve many ends. They can identify bank fraud and diseases, recommend ceiling fans and predict online dating behaviour. When building a forest, you do not select the best trees as they tend to make similar classifications. You want diversity. Programmers achieve that diversity by training each tree on different data, a technique known as bagging. They also boost the forest ‘cognitively’ by training trees on the hardest cases - those that the current forest gets wrong. This ensures even more diversity and accurate forests.
      Yet the fallacy of meritocracy persists. Corporations, non-profits, governments, universities and even preschools test, score and hire the ‘best’. This all but guarantees not creating the best team. Ranking people by common criteria produces homogeneity. . . . That’s not likely to lead to breakthroughs.
      Q. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the example of neuroscience?
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