There is a group of 100 students. They study one or more of the 3 subjects among Geography, History and English. The number of students studying English is more than the number of students studying Geography, which, in turn, is more than the number of students who study History, which in turn is more than the number of students who study exactly 2 out of the 3 subjects, which in turn, is more than the number of students who study all 3 subjects. It is known that at least one student studies all 3 subjects. 
 
 
Q. What is the maximum number of students who study only Geography?
  • a)
    33
  • b)
    47
  • c)
    50
  • d)
    48
  • e)
    37
Correct answer is option 'D'. Can you explain this answer?

Aqeedat Kaur answered  •  7 hours ago
Only english=a, only geography=b, only history=c, only english and geography=d, only geography and history=e, only history and english=f, all three to be assumed as only 1 person. 
For b to be maximum, e and d should be 0 as total number of students for geography are less than that for english. So, f=2 (e+d+f>1). As the number of students in history should be greater than students with two subjects, hence c=1. Remaining students to be distributed are 100-1-2-1=96. Students in english are a+3 and students in geography are b+1. As a result, a+2>b, therefore 96/2=48 can be assigned to both a and b. 

Instructions
Fun Sports (FS) provides training in three sports - Gilli-danda (G), Kho-Kho (K), and Ludo (L). Currently it has an enrollment of 39 students each of whom is enrolled in at least one of the three sports. The following details are known:
1. The number of students enrolled only in L is double the number of students enrolled in all the three sports.
2. There are a total of 17 students enrolled in G.
3. The number of students enrolled only in G is one less than the number of students enrolled only in L.
4. The number of students enrolled only in K is equal to the number of students who are enrolled in both K and L.
5. The maximum student enrollment is in L.
6. Ten students enrolled in G are also enrolled in at least one more sport.
Q. Due to academic pressure, students who were enrolled in all three sports were asked to withdraw from one of the three sports. After the withdrawal, the number of students enrolled in G was six less than the number of students enrolled in L, while the number of students enrolled in K went down by one. After the withdrawal, how many students were enrolled in both G and L?
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Raj Rani answered  •  7 hours ago
Let 'x' be the number of students enrolled in all three sports. Then the number of students enrolled only in L = 2x It is given that there are a total of 17 students enrolled in G. Also, ten students enrolled in G are also enrolled in at least one more sport. Hence, the number of students enrolled in only G = 17 - 10 = 7

The number of students enrolled only in G is one less than the number of students enrolled only in L. Hence, the number of students enrolled only in L = 7+1

Let us assume that 'y' students are enrolled in K and L but not G. Then, the number of students enrolled only in K = y + 4
Let us assume that 'z' be the the number of students enrolled in G and K but not L. Then, the number of students enrolled G and L bot not K = 10 - 4 - z = 6 - z

It is given that a total of 39 students in the sports.
7 + z + 4 + 6 - z + 8 + y + y + 4 = 39
⇒ y = 5

Number of students enrolled in G = 17
Number of students enrolled in K = 9 + 4 + 5 + z = 18 + z
Number of students enrolled in L = 6 - z + 4 + 5 + 8 = 23 - z
It is given that the maximum student enrollment is in L.

Therefore, we can say that z can take three values = {0, 1, 2} Hence, the number of students enrolled in K = 18 + z = {18, 19, 20} It is given that after withdrawal the number of students enrolled in K went down by one. This one student must have left sports K. Hence we can say that the remaining 3 students must have left either G or L.
Before withdraw there were a total of 24 students were enrolled in exactly 1 sports, 11 students were enrolled in exactly 2 courses and 4 students were enrolled in all three courses.
The students which were enrolled in all three sports, withdrew from one of the sports. Hence, we can say that now the number of students who were enrolled in exactly 2 courses = 11 + 4 = 15.
It is given that the number of students enrolled in G was six less than the number of students enrolled in L. Let 'a' be the number of students who were enrolled in G and K but not L. Then, the number of students who were enrolled in L and K but not G = a + 5 Consequently, we can say that the number of students enrolled in G and L but not K = 15 - (2a + 5) = 10 - 2a

Number of students enrolled in this case = a + a+5 + 9 = 14 + 2a. We can see that '14+2a' is an even number. It is given that the number of students enrolled in K went down by one. Therefore, we can say that the number of students enrolled in K earlier was an odd number.
Hence, the number of students enrolled in K = 18 + z = {18, 19, 20} We can see that only '19' is an odd number. Hence, we can say that the number of students enrolled in K after withdrawal = 18


From the diagram we can see that the number of students enrolled in both G and L = 6. Hence, option A is the correct answer.
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The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
Unfortunately, the end of the euro crisis is far in the distance. The worst could even lie ahead. This is primarily a crisis of competitiveness - the eurozone’s periphery has not been able to keep up with Germany, Europe’s economic powerhouse. The fiscal crisis and the banking crisis are in large part reflections of the competitiveness gap, even though other factors are also at play.
Before the euro, it was relatively easy for countries to deal with the divergence of competitiveness, as they could devalue their currency. Naturally, with everyone in the eurozone using the same currency, that is no longer an option. The result is that the periphery is structurally incapable of growing, which has severe budgetary, banking, and employment consequences and is the cause of acute social and political tensions. While there are positive signs in Ireland, there is a long way to go before the competitiveness problem is fixed. Other economies, particularly Italy, are well behind. The eurozone faces an extended period of stagnation. That is depressingly the best scenario that can be hoped for at this stage. It is difficult to see sources of growth when many of these countries are uncompetitive. The countries of the periphery are still struggling to borrow money and remain under enormous pressure from the markets to cut back their deficits. Consumption is low and investors are scared.
The only way to reestablish growth is to improve the competitiveness of Europe over time and to reduce the debt burden of the periphery. Both of these things are going to take a long time. For now, Europe’s crisis is a major drag on global growth. The financial crisis is largely contained within Europe, so it isn’t a disaster for the world, but it could easily explode into a bigger issue. The odds are that the euro will survive, but this is far from guaranteed. The eurozone could indeed break apart. If a country did move to exit the eurozone, the trigger would be a political crisis, not one based on a rational economic calculus. The fundamental driver of an eventual breakup would be either a reaction to endless austerity in the periphery or the bubbling-over of resentment in one of the core countries about the amount of money being used to keep the periphery afloat and the share of the burden the core is carrying. Germany is not likely to make the first move. There are strong political, historic, and economic factor - Germany is the biggest creditor and exporter to the periphery - that make it one of the last countries that will want to pull out. Greece is obviously the most at risk. The country cannot repay its debt and will require more debt forgiveness. Its government is in a terrible mess. It is the least competitive economy in the eurozone. And it lacks a good export structure that could prop up the country.
Portugal is also in bad shape, and Spain and Italy are in deep trouble. Spain’s
economy must undergo an enormous adjustment following the burst of its housing bubble, so, taking that risk into account, investors are probably correctly demanding larger yields on their loans to Spain than to Italy. But Italy is also in serious danger.
Italy’s GDP is down from where it was when the country joined the eurozone in 1999. Though Italy did not experience a housing bubble similar to Spain’s and its unemployment is not as high as other economies, the fact that the economy hasn’t grown in fourteen years coupled with a declining GDP is an indicator that things could go very wrong. The tendency is always to say that every election is crucial. And this is correct in Italy’s case. The same would hold true for any election in Europe’s periphery today because voting points to the significant policy choices that need to be made and creates enormous political tensions - and that’s where the risks ultimately lie. This election is especially important because Italy is so big. The country is trillions of euros in debt, and it’s one of the world’s largest economies. Unless Italy gets its act together, the euro is doomed and there will be a major financial crisis in Europe that could easily lead to a global financial crisis.
Italy is transitioning away from a technocratic government that made progress on the fiscal balance and on pensions but didn’t do great things to address the structural reforms needed, beginning in the labor market. It did, however, have more success than previous governments in reestablishing the country’s credibility. The question is how the new leaders will conduct economic reforms. In my view, Italy will end up with a coalition government that has little choice in practice but to persist in the economic policies already under way. Even if former prime minister Silvio Berlusconi gains the upper hand on Democratic Party leader Pier Luigi Bersani and Prime Minister Mario Monti - an unlikely outcome - the markets will quickly force the new government’s hand. There will surely be differences in tone and style, but reforms will need to continue and there will be little room for maneuver. Still, this is a very sensitive time.
The election matters even if the policies pursued are similar because Italy’s new leaders need to have international credibility in order to reassure the markets.
When assessing the performance of Europe’s leaders, it’s good to separate the way in which they’ve dealt with the current crisis from what they are doing to build an architecture that assures - to the degree possible - that the euro will survive in the long term. In terms of fighting the current crisis, politicians across Europe should be doing more. Leaders need to move forward on structural reforms in Greece, Italy,
Spain, and other countries at a faster rate. Germany should be doing more to stimulate its own economy. Building a sustainable architecture is clearly linked to the current crisis because the more progress is made, the more confidence is gained in facing the current conditions. Some of the reforms needed to fix the current crisis, including making labor markets more flexible, can help establish the necessary architecture. For the euro to survive in the long term, the countries of the eurozone need to bolster the EU’s institutional capacity to support member states. They can do so in three main ways.
First, they need to establish a banking union. In the United States, when banks in the state of Florida get into trouble they are not bailed out by the state, they receive federal support. The same is necessary in the eurozone. Some progress has been made on this by adopting a template on common supervision, but European leaders are quite far from making the big reforms that are necessary. This includes a common scheme for insuring deposits and for dealing with banks that fail.
Second, there needs to be greater fiscal unity with a large pool of money at the center. Europe doesn’t need the exact same fiscal structure as the United States, but the center must be more capable of transferring money and intervening when countries and regions are in trouble. Europe has gotten nowhere on this issue. Leaders are responding to this need with as little change as possible and as late as possible because all leaders confront different political pressures.
Third, there needs to be a true lender of last resort in the eurozone. This is where there has been the most movement in the right direction. While the European Central Bank didn’t do enough at the beginning of the crisis, it has assumed a much more positive role since Mario Draghi took over and the inevitability of change became apparent. But a lender of last resort is not the solution in and of itself. All it does is give states time to take the necessary actions, so the other key reforms cannot be overlooked. The economies in the periphery must carry out structural reforms, and the eurozone countries need to move forward on strengthening the banking and fiscal mechanisms at the center.
Q.
Identify the correct statement from the following:
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Uma Rani answered  •  7 hours ago
The second sentence of the passage contradicts option 1.
Option 2 contradicts paragraph 2.
Option 3 contradicts paragraph 3.
Only option 4 is a correct statement and is contained in paragraph 7.
Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

                                                                                     Group Question
Answer the following question based on the information given below.

In the 2006 Common Wealth games, there was participation from five different countries - USA, China, UK, Australia and Japan. From each of these five countries there were athletes participating in one of the five following events: shot put, javelin, high jump, long jump and marathon. Each participant was allowed to participate in exactly one of the five events.
Further it is known that there were at least two participants and at most ten participants from each country and the total number of participants from all the five countries put together was a perfect square.
The following information is also available:
I. The number of participants in javelin was exactly half the number of participants in each of the other events.
II. USA sent an equal number of participants in shot put, high jump and long jump.
III. The maximum number of participants sent by Japan is for the long jump event and each country sent at least one participant for the long jump and shot put events.
IV. The number of participants from China was two more than that from USA, which in turn was one more than that from UK, which in turn was one more than that from Australia which in turn was one more than that from Japan.
V. Except Japan, all the other countries sent at least one participant for the javelin event while Japan sent at least one participant in each of the remaining events.
VI. The number of participants sent by China for each of the events was different and there were no participants from China for the high jump event.
VII. The number of participants in the marathon event sent by all the other countries other than China is equal.
 
 
Q. For which event did China send the maximum number of Marks participants? 
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Saroj Devi answered  •  7 hours ago
Solution: The five different countries were USA, China, UK, Australia and Japan. The five different events were shot put, javelin, high jump, long jump and marathon.
The total number of participants was a perfect square, and the number of participants sent by each country was at least two and at most ten.
The number of participants was more than 18 and less than 50.
Let the total number of participants in javelin be x. From statement (I), the total number of participants in shot put, high jump, long jump and marathon was 2x each.
Total number of participants = 9x As the total number of participants was a perfect square, and 9 is a perfect square, x is a perfect square. As 18<9x<50, x = 4 The total number of participants was 36.
There were 4 participants in Javelin and 8 in each of the remaining events.
From statement (IV), the number of participants sent by each country was as follows: China = 10, USA = 8, UK = 7, Australia = 6, Japan = 5
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From 1948 to 1977, socialism strongly influenced the government's economic policies. Colonial plantations were dismantled, industries were nationalised and a welfare state established. While the standard of living and literacy improved significantly, the nation's economy suffered from inefficiency, slow growth and lack of foreign investment. From 1977 the UNP government began incorporating privatisation, deregulation and promotion of private enterprise. 
The GDP grew at an average annual rate of 5.5% during the early 1990s, until a drought and a deteriorating security situation lowered growth to 3.8% in 1996. The economy rebounded in 1997-2000, with average growth of 5.3%. The year of 2001 saw the first recession in the country's history, as a result of power shortages, budgetary problems, the global slowdown, and continuing civil strife.
In April 2004, there was a sharp reversal in economic policy after the government headed by Ranil Wickremesinghe of the United National Party was defeated by a coalition made up of Sri Lanka Freedom Party and the leftist-nationalist Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna called the United People's Freedom Alliance. The new government stopped the privatization of state enterprises and reforms of state utilities such as power and petroleum, and embarked on a subsidy program called the Rata Perata economic program. Its main theme was to support the rural and suburban SMEs and protect the domestic economy from external influences, such as oil prices, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.
 
Q. What can be said about the state of the Sri Lankan economy?
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Kela Devi answered  •  7 hours ago
The passage states that “The year of 2001 saw the first recession in the country's history, as a result of power shortages, budgetary problems, the global slowdown, and continuing civil strife.” Option 1 should have been 3.8% instead of 3.9%.
Option 2 is incorrect as the drought and security situation lowered growth, not caused it to plateau.
Option 3 is not substantiated in the passage.
Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

                                                                                    Group Question
Answer the following question based on the information given below.

Locomotive engines are manufactured in a factory at Rampur. The process of manufacturing an engine involves 10 different activities - Activity 1 to Activity 10. Some of these 10 activities cannot be started until other activities have been completed. For example Activity 3 cannot begin until Activity 2 has been completed and Activity 4 cannot begin until both Activities 1 and 2 are completed. The table below shows the minimum time required to complete each activity and the list of activities which must be completed before a particular activity can be started. The manufacturing process of an engine is said to be finished if at least one of activities A9 and A10 is completed.
 
 Each activity can be undertaken by only one person at a time and one person can work on only one activity at a time.
 
 
Q. By how many days does the minimum time taken by individual Y to complete Activity 8 exceed the minimum time taken by individual X to complete Activity 7? Assume that each individual separately performs all the activities required for his Activity (7 or 8) to be completed and that there is no one helping him. 
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Kaushalya Devi answered  •  7 hours ago
Solution: The time taken for each activity and the preceding activities for each activity are shown below. The number on the arrow denotes the time taken for the first activity to get over. e.g. the 6 written between A1 and A4 implies that Activity A1 requires 6 days for completion and Activity A4 can start only after that. 
Consider Individual X. Activity 7 requires activities A4, A5 and A6 to be completed. Now, A5 requires A4 and A3 to be completed (which in turn requires A2 to be completed). Similarly, A6 requires A4 and A1 to be completed. Finally, A4 requires A1 and A2 to be completed. Thus, all activities from A1 to A7 need to be complete for A7 to be completed. So, calculate the time taken by X to complete the activites A1 to A7.
Since the person can work on only one activity at a time, total time taken to complete A7 = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + A5 + A6 + A7 = 6 + 4 + 8 + 3 + 4 + 3 + 4 = 32 days.
Similarly, time taken by Y to complete A8 = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + A5 + A8 = 6 + 4 + 8 + 3 + 4 + 8 = 33 days
Required difference = 33 - 32 = 1 day Hence, option 5.

Amazing Chips Ltd., a snacks manufacturing company located in Delhi, as of now sells its products in the Delhi and NCR region only. Since the company had been doing quite well for the last three years, the management is thinking of expanding the business pan India. To ensure that the expansion plan would be profitable, the management decided to undertake a cost benefit analysis.
Which are the factors that the management must consider for their cost-benefit study?
I. Operations and Logistics Cost
II. Marketing Expense
III. Only Local Competition in the new cities
IV. Both Local and National competition
V. Working Capital
VI. New factory
VII. Human Resources
V III . Price
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Ram Murti Devi answered  •  7 hours ago
Solution: Let’s take a look at all the factors one by one - Operations and Logistics Cost - The production would need to be increased so the operations cost will need to be considered. Logistics costs come into the picture as goods are being transported all across the country. So, I is definitely a part of the study. This we can know from the options as well.Similarly, to create awareness about the product among the public, the company would need to incur additional marketing costs. So, II is also a part of the study. This we can know from the options as well.Since the company is planning to expand pan India, they will need to consider both the local competitors of each city and also the National competitors - companies that sell pan India. Hence, between III and IV, IV is the right choice.
Since the manufacturing quantity would increase, the company’s working capital requirements will also increase. They will need to consider the same in the cost-benefit analysis.
A new factory is not an immediate need for the company. In fact, they should think of it only after they’ve established themselves in a few cities. Thus, this will come at a later stage.
Human resources would have to be factored in as they may need to hire more people to do sales and marketing for them pan India; additionally they may also need to hire in other departments like operations to cater to the increasing work load. The company may need to revise their price depending on the additional expenses and taxes that will be incurred with the business expansion.
Thus, the factors that need to be considered are I, II, IV, V, VII, VIII.
Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

Manisha is a 21-year-old MBA summer intern who has just been caught stealing Rs. 1000 from the petty cash fund in your office. This was because she wanted to party over the weekend and her internship cheque was expected to be credited in her bank account on Monday, after which she intended to put the money back in the petty cash fund. The Company has a strict policy that says that anyone who steals will be dismissed. Manisha’s mother works in another department in the Company for the past 15 years and she has come to see you, in person, to beg you not to “ruin Manisha’s life”. She also points out that she has seen many other employees take incidental office supplies like pencils and notepads home. 
 
 
Q. Is the way Manisha’s mother conducted herself in this case correct?
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Kiran Sharma answered  •  7 hours ago
Solution: Options 1 correctly explains why Manisha’s mother did not conduct herself correctly in this case.Options 2 and 3 are mere rhetoric. They do not take into account the severity of the situation.Option 4 is poorly worded and option 5 should have a ‘no’ instead of a ‘yes’ response according to the reason given. Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

There are eight people Aamir, Amit, Rajni, Ajay, Abhishek, Akshay, Vishnu and Rama. Among them, there are four groups formed with two friends in each group. It is known that Aamir is not the friend of Amit or Rajni or Ajay. Abhishek is not the friend of Aamir or Ajay or Akshay. Ajay is not the friend of Aamir or Amit or Rama or Vishnu. Rama is not the friend of Abhishek or Rajni or Vishnu.
 
Q.Assume that Akshay and Rama formed a group, who among the following was with Amit?
  • a)
    Aamir 
  • b)
    Abhishek
  • c)
    Rajni
  • d)
    Vishnu
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Oritra Chakraborty answered  •  8 hours ago
After reading the question the following can be concluded: Aamir- ( can pair up with) Abhishek,Vishnu & Rama ( not Akshay, as he and Rama have formed a team..that is provided in the question) Abhishek- (can pair up with) Amit,Rajni,Vishnu,Rama. Ajay- (can pair up with) Rajni,Abhishek (but not with Akshay,as he has already teamed up) Now,if we look at the scenario,we'll observe that Amit has no ot... more

Prem Kumar asked   •  1 hour ago

The following diagrams represent the total input (in terms of hours) that a group of six students is expected to put in for their project in five subjects, namely Finance, Marketing, HR, Operations and Systems.
The four numbers inside the triangles represent the number of hours put in by four of the six students, who put in the maximum number of hours in the project in that particular subject. The percentage in the semi-circle expresses the number of hours put in by those four students for the project in that particular subject as a percentage of the total input (in hours) required for that subject..
For example, out of the total number of hours required by the project in Finance, A puts in 50 hours of work, B puts in 30 hours of work, C puts in 20 hours of work and F puts in 20 hours of work. Also A, B, C and F put in 80% of the total input required, in terms of hours. D and E together put in the remaining 20%. This percentage information for the proportion of input put in by the four students in the project in Systems has been intentionally removed.
Additional Information:
1. Number of hours of work put in by each student in each subject is a multiple of five.
2. No person puts in 0 (zero) hours of work in any subject.
3. A student whose number of hours of work for a particular subject is not mentioned did not put in the same hours as any other student whose input in terms of hours is mentioned for that subject.


 
Q. What could be the minimum number of hours of work put in by F?
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Sunder Singh asked   •  6 hours ago

Instructions
The base exchange rate of a currency X with respect to a currency Y is the number of units of currency Y which is equivalent in value to one unit of currency X. Currency exchange outlets buy currency at buying exchange rates that are lower than base exchange rates, and sell currency at selling exchange rates that are higher than base exchange rates.
A currency exchange outlet uses the local currency L to buy and sell three international currencies A, B, and C, but does not exchange one international currency directly with another. The base exchange rates of A, B and C with respect to L are in the ratio 100:120:1. The buying exchange rates of each of A, B, and C with respect to L are 5% below the corresponding base exchange rates, and their selling exchange rates are 10% above their corresponding base exchange rates. The following facts are known about the outlet on a particular day:
1. The amount of L used by the outlet to buy C equals the amount of L it received by selling C.
2. The amounts of L used by the outlet to buy A and B are in the ratio 5:3.
3. The amounts of L the outlet received from the sales of A and B are in the ratio 5:9.
4. The outlet received 88000 units of L by selling A during the day.
5. The outlet started the day with some amount of L, 2500 units of A, 4800 units of B, and 48000 units of C.
6. The outlet ended the day with some amount of L, 3300 units of A, 4800 units of B, and 51000 units of C.
Q. What was the base exchange rate of currency B with respect to currency L on that day ?
Correct answer is '240'. Can you explain this answer?

Kamlesh Kumari asked   •  10 hours ago

Legrand Casino recently purchased a slot machine; a gaming machine, which had a main unit and five sub-units, labeled as Alpha, Gamma, Beta, Theta and Omega. The main as well as each of the sub-units had five slots, labeled as Red, Blue, Grey, Black and Yellow. The game with this slotting machine involved punching the right coin in the right slot in the right sequence i.e. one after another. For example, if coin number 3 is punched into slot Blue in Gamma sub-unit and if the main unit also pushes the coin to Blue slot, then the punch is said to be a winning shot. If the coin in the sub-unit is punched into the right slot when compared to the corresponding coin in the main unit, then the player gets Rs. 1,000 as reward. On the other hand, if the slots do not match then the player loses Rs. 333. Each player gets 25 coins to play.
However, after a couple of days this slotting machine developed a peculiar problem. In the sub-units irrespective of the slot you intended to put in the coin, the sub-unit pushed the coin into the slot it wanted to every time on its own. 
To find out which slots in the sub-units had developed the snag, the technician played on all the sub-units using 25 coins in each of the sub-units.
After some kind of analysis he found that the main machine and each of the sub-units could identify right slots for 15 coins, however for the balance of 10 coins listed below, each of the sub-units assumed different positions as right slots when compared to the main unit whose allocation of slots was the benchmark for performance of other sub-units. 
On playing with these sub-units, the technician earned Rs. 17,000, Rs. 11,660, Rs. 18,330, Rs. 14,330 and Rs. 18,330 respectively from each of Alpha, Gamma, Beta, Theta and Omega. All the amount being rounded off to previous tens figure. Of the ten slots which had developed the snag, there was atleast one sub-unit which identified the right slot for exactly 9 of the 10 slots. 
The table below gives the slots identified by each of the sub-units as right slots for the 10 problematic coins. 
Q. If the correct slot for coin numbered 8 was Yellow, then what would have been the correct slot for coin number 21?
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Jai Dev asked   •  10 hours ago

Instructions
Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given

Grove snails as a whole are distributed all over Europe, but a specific variety of the snail, with a distinctive white-lipped shell, is found exclusively in Ireland and in the Pyrenees mountains that lie on the border between France and Spain.
The researchers sampled a total of 423 snail specimens from 36 sites distributed across Europe, with an emphasis on gathering large numbers of the white-lipped variety. When they sequenced genes from the mitochondrial DNA of each of these snails and used algorithms to analyze the genetic diversity between them, they found that. . . a distinct lineage (the snails with the white-lipped shells) was indeed endemic to the two very specific and distant places in question.
Explaining this is tricky. Previously, some had speculated that the strange distributions of creatures such as the whitelipped grove snails could be explained by convergent evolution—in which two populations evolve the same trait by coincidence—but the underlying genetic similarities between the two groups rules that out. Alternately, some scientists had suggested that the white-lipped variety had simply spread over the whole continent, then been wiped out everywhere besides Ireland and the Pyrenees, but the researchers say their sampling and subsequent DNA analysis eliminate that possibility too. “If the snails naturally colonized Ireland, you would expect to find some of the same genetic type in other areas of Europe, especially Britain. We just don’t find them,” Davidson, the lead author, said in a press statement.
Moreover, if they’d gradually spread across the continent, there would be some genetic variation within the white-lipped type, because evolution would introduce variety over the thousands of years it would have taken them to spread from the Pyrenees to Ireland. That variation doesn’t exist, at least in the genes sampled. This means that rather than the organism gradually expanding its range, large populations instead were somehow moved en mass to the other location within the space of a few dozen generations, ensuring a lack of genetic variety. “There is a very clear pattern, which is difficult to explain except by involving humans,” Davidson said. Humans, after all, colonized Ireland roughly 9,000 years ago, and the oldest fossil evidence of grove snails in Ireland dates to roughly the same era. Additionally, there is archaeological evidence of early sea trade between the ancient peoples of Spain and Ireland via the Atlantic and even evidence that humans routinely ate these types of snails before the advent of agriculture, as their burnt shells have been found in Stone Age trash heaps.
The simplest explanation, then? Boats. These snails may have inadvertently traveled on the floor of the small, coasthugging skiffs these early humans used for travel, or they may have been intentionally carried to Ireland by the seafarers as a food source. “The highways of the past were rivers and the ocean-as the river that flanks the Pyrenees was an ancient trade route to the Atlantic, what we’re actually seeing might be the long lasting legacy of snails that hitched a ride…as humans travelled from the South of France to Ireland 8,000 years ago,” Davidson said.
Q. In paragraph 4, the evidence that “humans routinely ate these types of snails before the advent of agriculture” can be used to conclude that:
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Ranbir Singh asked   •  15 hours ago

In the 2006 Common Wealth games, there was participation from five different countries - USA, China, UK, Australia and Japan. From each of these five countries there were athletes participating in one of the five following events: shot put, javelin, high jump, long jump and marathon. Each participant was allowed to participate in exactly one of the five events.
Further it is known that there were at least two participants and at most ten participants from each country and the total number of participants from all the five countries put together was a perfect square.
The following information is also available:
I. The number of participants in javelin was exactly half the number of participants in each of the other events.
II. USA sent an equal number of participants in shot put, high jump and long jump.
III. The maximum number of participants sent by Japan is for the long jump event and each country sent at least one participant for the long jump and shot put events.
IV. The number of participants from China was two more than that from USA, which in turn was one more than that from UK, which in turn was one more than that from Australia which in turn was one more than that from Japan.
V. Except Japan, all the other countries sent at least one participant for the javelin event while Japan sent at least one participant in each of the remaining events.
VI. The number of participants sent by China for each of the events was different and there were no participants from China for the high jump event.
VII. The number of participants in the marathon event sent by all the other countries other than China is equal.
 
 
Q. How many countries did not send even a single participant in any one event? 
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Anil Kumar asked   •  19 hours ago

Herodotus has sometimes been labeled 'The Father of Lies' due to his tendency to report fanciful information, even about himself. Much of the information that others subsequently reported about him is just as fanciful, some of it is vindictive and some of it is blatantly absurd, yet it is interesting and therefore worth reporting: Herodotus himself reported dubious information if it was interesting, sometimes adding his own opinion about its reliability. Plutarch, a Theban by birth, once composed a “great collection of slanders” against Herodotus. His account was supported by Marcellinus in his Life of Thucydides. In fact Herodotus was in the habit of seeking out information from empowered sources within communities, such as aristocrats and priests, with Periclean Athens becoming his principal source of information about events in Greece. As a result, his reports about Greek events are often coloured by Athenian bias against rival states- Thebes and Corinth in particular.
Herodotus wrote his Histories in the Ionian dialect yet he was born in Halicarnassus, originally a Dorian settlement. According to the Suda (an 11th-century encyclopaedia of Byzantium which likely took its information from traditional accounts), Herodotus learned the Ionian dialect as a boy living on the island of Samos, whither he had fled with his family from the oppressions of Lygdamis, tyrant of Halicarnassus and grandson of Artemisia I of Caria. It was conventional in Herodotus's day for authors to ‘publish’ their works by reciting them at popular festivals. According to Lucian, Herodotus took his finished work straight from Asia Minor to the Olympic Games and read the entire Histories to the assembled spectators in one sitting, receiving rapturous applause at the end of it. Herodotus's recitation at Olympia was a favourite theme among ancient writers and there is another interesting variation on the story to be found in the Suda, Photius and Tzetzes, in which a young Thucydides happened to be in the assembly with his father and burst into tears during the recital, whereupon Herodotus observed prophetically to the boy's father: “Thy son's soul yearns for knowledge”.
 
Q. Why is it surprising that Herodotus wrote his Histories in the Ionian dialect?
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Singaro Devi asked   •  19 hours ago

                                                                                      Group Question
The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
 
The management team of Eta, a footwear company implemented a massive revamping exercise after making losses for four consecutive fiscal years in which more than 250 managers and their juniors were asked to quit. Eta decided to stop further recruitment. The management offered its staff a performance based salary. In 1996, for the first time in Eta's 62-year-old history, the company signed a long-term bipartite agreement. This agreement was signed without any disruption of work. In the six-year period 1993-99, Eta had considerably brought down the staff strength of its Itanagar factory and Calcutta offices to 6,700.
In fiscal year 1996, Eta was back in the black with the company reporting net profits of Rs. 41.5 million on revenues of Rs. 5.90 billion (Rs. 5.32 billion in 1995). In fiscal year 1997, Eta further consolidated the gains with the company reporting net profits of Rs 166.9 million on revenues of Rs. 6.70 billion. A senior HR manager at the company admitted that with an upswing in Eta's fortunes, even its traditionally intransigent workers were motivated to do better. In 1997, Eta workers achieved 93% of their production targets. The management rewarded the workers with a 17% bonus, up from the 15% given in 1996. 
However, by the end of 1997, Eta still faced problems of a high-cost structure and surplus labor. In fact, the turnaround had made the unions more aggressive and demanding. Eta’s CEO had failed to strike a deal with the All India Eta Shop Managers Union (AIESMU) since the third quarter of 1997. The shop managers were insisting that Eta honour the 1990 agreement, which stipulated that the management would fill up 248 vacancies in its retail outlets. It also opposed the move to sack all the cashiers in outlets with annual sales of less than Rs 5 million, which meant elimination of 690 jobs. 
 
 
Q. In the wake of the dispute with the AIESMU, what should the reaction of the management be?
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