Group Question
Analyse the following passage and provide appropriate answers for questions that follow.

When he was a toddler, Donald didn't seem to care whether his parents came or went. Before turning 2, he'd already memorized Psalm 23 ("The Lord is my shepherd...") and could recite the catechism from memory, but never paid attention to a fully costumed Santa Claus during the winter holidays. He soon became obsessed with watching spinning objects and would have explosive temper tantrums if he was interrupted. Worried, Donald's father sent a 33- page typed letter recounting these and other unusual behaviors to a young psychiatrist named Leo Kanner at Johns Hopkins Hospital, in Baltimore. 
The year was 1938, and Donald would later become the first American child ever diagnosed with autism. For decades afterward, it was believed that the condition was rare. Times have certainly changed. Today, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, roughly 1 in 88 children are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, or ASDs, and it's four to five times more likely to occur in boys than in girls.
The almost fivefold jump in schoolchildren diagnosed with autism between 1993 and 2003 has prompted some authorities and politicians to proclaim that we're in the midst of an "autism epidemic." Bombarded with news about autism (as I write this, Google reports that 4,470 new stories mentioned the condition in the past 24 hours), parents of babies and toddlers are understandably alarmed and confused. I've been there myself. As a pediatrician and first-time father, I followed my son Jake's growth and development with anticipation, and eagerly awaited his first smile and steps. But when he was almost 2, back in 2003, he was saying only a few words. According to a checklist known as the Denver Scale that was used at the time, he should have known more words. Naturally, my wife and I were very worried.
One reason that autism frightens mothers and fathers so deeply is because its cause is unclear. Parents also fear that a diagnosis of autism virtually guarantees a difficult life -- not only for their child, but for their entire family. But researchers are more encouraged than ever about early parental intervention, which can be enormously beneficial. "We can do so much to help children manage their challenges," explains Patricia Wright, Ph.D., M.P.H., national director of autism services for Easter Seals, which provides support for people with disabilities. "Wherever your child is now, he or she can make significant progress over time."
Simply put, autism is a defect of brain development that impairs social skills. The condition can occur on a spectrum from mild to severe. Experts still don't know the cause, but there are many theories. '"We are sure that genetics plays a role," says Parents advisor Philip Landrigan, M.D., M.Sc., a pediatrician and director of the Children's Environmental Health Center at Mount Sinai Medical Center, in New York City. In fact, a new study in Pediatrics of babies who have an older sibling with autism found that nearly 19 percent of them were diagnosed with the disorder by age 3. The link was almost three times stronger for boys: Twenty-six percent of the male infants developed autism, compared with only 9 percent of female infants.
Many scientists, including Dr. Landrigan, also suspect a direct connection between a child's exposure to certain chemicals, particularly in utero, and the risk of brain disorders including autism. Another possible cause: a parent's age. A study in Autism Research in 2010 found that while mothers have a steadily increasing risk of having a child with autism as they get older, the advanced age of the fathers only seems to contribute to that risk when the mother is younger than 30. But it's entirely possible that older parents are just more attuned to the warning signs of developmental problems in their children.
Vaccines are incorrectly believed by many to be another risk factor. A full 25 percent of parents think that some immunizations can cause autism in otherwise healthy infants, found a 2010 survey from the University of Michigan. (That may explain why nearly 10 percent of kids ages 19 to 35 months are not up to date on their immunizations.) However, at least two dozen studies in medical journals have refuted any connection between autism and vaccines.
 
 
Q. The word “catechism” means:
... more

Karam Chand answered  •  16 minutes ago
Solution: “Catechism” means 'a summary of the principles of Christian religion in the form of questions and answers, used for religious instruction”. Option 1 is correct.
Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

Group Question
A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

Hecate or Hekate (ancient Greek 'EKCuri [Hekate], "far-shooting") was a popular chthonian Greco-Roman goddess, often associated with magic, witches, ghosts, and crossroads. She is attested in poetry as early as Hesiod's Theogony. An inscription from late archaic Miletus naming her as a protector of entrances is also testimony to her presence in archaic Greek religion. Regarding the nature of her cult, it has been remarked, “She is more at home on the fringes than in the center of Greek polytheism. Intrinsically ambivalent and polymorphous, she straddles conventional boundaries and eludes definition.” She has been associated with childbirth, nurturing the young, gates and walls, doorways, crossroads, magic, lunar lore, torches and dogs. William Berg observes, “Since children are not called after spooks, it is safe to assume that Carian theophoric names involving hekat- refer to a major deity free from the dark and unsavoury ties to the underworld and to witchcraft associated with the Hecate of classical Athens.” But he cautions, “The Laginetan goddess may have had a more infernal character than scholars have been willing to assume.” In Ptolemaic Alexandria and elsewhere during the Hellenistic period, she appears as a three-faced goddess associated with ghosts, witchcraft, and curses. Today she is claimed as a goddess of witches and in the context of Hellenic Polytheistic Reconstructionism. Some neo-pagans refer to her as a “crone goddess,” though this characterization appears to conflict with her frequent characterization as a virgin in late antiquity. She closely parallels the Roman goddess Trivia.
Hecate has been characterized as a pre-Olympian chthonic goddess. She appears in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and in Hesiod's Theogony, where she is promoted strongly as a great goddess. The place of origin of her following is uncertain, but it is thought that she had popular followings in Thrace. Her most important sanctuary was Lagina, a theocratic city-state in which the goddess was served by eunuchs. Lagina, where the famous temple of Hecate drew great festal assemblies every year, lay close to the originally Macedonian colony of Stratonikeia, where she was the city's patroness. In Thrace she played a role similar to that of lesser-Hermes, namely a governess of liminal regions (particularly gates) and the wilderness, bearing little resemblance to the night-walking crone she became. Additionally, this led to her role of aiding women in childbirth and the raising of young men. 
 
 
Q. From the passage, we can conclude that:  
... more

Darshan Lal answered  •  16 minutes ago
Solution: A “chthonian” is a deity or a spirit of the underworld. Also, from William Berg’s observation, one can conclude that Hecate has “dark and unsavoury ties to the underworld and to witchcraft”. Therefore, option 1 is incorrect.
From the extract, “She is more at home on the fringes than in the center of Greek polytheism,” one can conclude that option 2 is also incorrect.
Option 3 is correct, as Hecate is defined as being “intrinsically ambivalent”, and is associated with both negative- witchcraft, curses, ghosts as well as positive things- childbirth, nurturing the young.
Option 4 is incorrect. Hecate was sometimes called the “crone goddess”. A crone is “a withered, witch-like old woman.” Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

When he was a toddler, Donald didn't seem to care whether his parents came or went. Before turning 2, he'd already memorized Psalm 23 ("The Lord is my shepherd...") and could recite the catechism from memory, but never paid attention to a fully costumed Santa Claus during the winter holidays. He soon became obsessed with watching spinning objects and would have explosive temper tantrums if he was interrupted. Worried, Donald's father sent a 33- page typed letter recounting these and other unusual behaviors to a young psychiatrist named Leo Kanner at Johns Hopkins Hospital, in Baltimore. 
The year was 1938, and Donald would later become the first American child ever diagnosed with autism. For decades afterward, it was believed that the condition was rare. Times have certainly changed. Today, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, roughly 1 in 88 children are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, or ASDs, and it's four to five times more likely to occur in boys than in girls.
The almost fivefold jump in schoolchildren diagnosed with autism between 1993 and 2003 has prompted some authorities and politicians to proclaim that we're in the midst of an "autism epidemic." Bombarded with news about autism (as I write this, Google reports that 4,470 new stories mentioned the condition in the past 24 hours), parents of babies and toddlers are understandably alarmed and confused. I've been there myself. As a pediatrician and first-time father, I followed my son Jake's growth and development with anticipation, and eagerly awaited his first smile and steps. But when he was almost 2, back in 2003, he was saying only a few words. According to a checklist known as the Denver Scale that was used at the time, he should have known more words. Naturally, my wife and I were very worried.
One reason that autism frightens mothers and fathers so deeply is because its cause is unclear. Parents also fear that a diagnosis of autism virtually guarantees a difficult life -- not only for their child, but for their entire family. But researchers are more encouraged than ever about early parental intervention, which can be enormously beneficial. "We can do so much to help children manage their challenges," explains Patricia Wright, Ph.D., M.P.H., national director of autism services for Easter Seals, which provides support for people with disabilities. "Wherever your child is now, he or she can make significant progress over time."
Simply put, autism is a defect of brain development that impairs social skills. The condition can occur on a spectrum from mild to severe. Experts still don't know the cause, but there are many theories. '"We are sure that genetics plays a role," says Parents advisor Philip Landrigan, M.D., M.Sc., a pediatrician and director of the Children's Environmental Health Center at Mount Sinai Medical Center, in New York City. In fact, a new study in Pediatrics of babies who have an older sibling with autism found that nearly 19 percent of them were diagnosed with the disorder by age 3. The link was almost three times stronger for boys: Twenty-six percent of the male infants developed autism, compared with only 9 percent of female infants.
Many scientists, including Dr. Landrigan, also suspect a direct connection between a child's exposure to certain chemicals, particularly in utero, and the risk of brain disorders including autism. Another possible cause: a parent's age. A study in Autism Research in 2010 found that while mothers have a steadily increasing risk of having a child with autism as they get older, the advanced age of the fathers only seems to contribute to that risk when the mother is younger than 30. But it's entirely possible that older parents are just more attuned to the warning signs of developmental problems in their children.
Vaccines are incorrectly believed by many to be another risk factor. A full 25 percent of parents think that some immunizations can cause autism in otherwise healthy infants, found a 2010 survey from the University of Michigan. (That may explain why nearly 10 percent of kids ages 19 to 35 months are not up to date on their immunizations.) However, at least two dozen studies in medical journals have refuted any connection between autism and vaccines.
 
 
Q. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?
... more

Balbir Singh answered  •  16 minutes ago
Solution: Donald was the first American child to be diagnosed with autism- not the first child (in the world). Eliminate option 1. The passage mentions “Bombarded with news about autism ... parents of babies and toddlers are understandably alarmed and confused.”. Option 2 is untrue. "... autism is a defect of brain development that impairs social skills” helps eliminate option 3. "... mothers have a steadily increasing risk of having a child with autism as they get older” makes it clear that option 4 is wrong.
Option 5 is correct according to the passage: “...A full 25 percent of parents think that some immunizations can cause autism ... (That may explain why nearly 10 percent of kids ages 19 to 35 months are not up to date on their immunizations.)”.
Hence, the correct answer is option 5.

Group Question
The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

China is subverting the status quo in the South and East China Seas, on its border with India, and even concerning international riparian flows - all without firing a single shot. Just as it grabbed land across the Himalayas in the 1950’s by launching furtive encroachments, China is waging stealth wars against its Asian neighbors that threaten to destabilize the entire region. The more economic power China has amassed, the greater its ambition to alter the territorial status quo has become.
Throughout China’s recent rise from poverty to relative prosperity and global economic power, the fundamentals of its statecraft and strategic doctrine have remained largely unchanged. Since the era of Mao Zedong, China has adhered to the Zhou Dynasty military strategist Sun Tzu’s counsel: “subdue the enemy without any battle” by exploiting its weaknesses and camouflaging offense as defense. “All warfare,” Sun famously said, “is based on deception.” For more than two decades after Deng Xiaoping consolidated power over the Chinese Communist Party, China pursued a “good neighbor” policy in its relations with other Asian countries, enabling it to concentrate on economic development. As China accumulated economic and strategic clout, its neighbors benefited from its rapid GDP growth, which spurred their own economies. But, at some point in the last decade, China’s leaders evidently decided that their country’s moment had finally arrived; its “peaceful rise” has since given way to a more assertive approach.
One of the first signs of this shift was China’s revival in 2006 of its long-dormant claim to Indian territory in Arunachal Pradesh. In a bid to broaden its “core interests,” China soon began to provoke territorial disputes with several of its neighbors. Last year, China formally staked a claim under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to more than 80% of the South China Sea.
From employing its strong trade position to exploiting its nearmonopoly on the global production of vital resources like rare-earth minerals, China has staked out a more domineering role in Asia. In fact, the more openly China has embraced market capitalism, the more nationalist it has become, encouraged by its leaders’ need for an alternative to Marxist dogma as a source of political legitimacy. Thus, territorial assertiveness has become intertwined with national renewal.
 
 
Q. The author’s main objective in writing this passage seems to
... more

Kulwant Singh answered  •  16 minutes ago
Solution: The author documents China’s foreign policy through the years as well as various factors that have contributed to its territorial assertiveness. Though, he mentions “China’s cultural legacy”, “Marxism” and the domineering role it has adopted, the passage remains centered on analyzing China’s attempts to further its territory. This eliminates options 1 and 3.
Option 2 is incorrect since it only talks about the shortcomings of the China's territorial assertiveness.
Option 5 is incorrect since it states that the author's objective is “to highlight China's dominance”, which cannot be deduced from the passage.
Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

China is subverting the status quo in the South and East China Seas, on its border with India, and even concerning international riparian flows - all without firing a single shot. Just as it grabbed land across the Himalayas in the 1950’s by launching furtive encroachments, China is waging stealth wars against its Asian neighbors that threaten to destabilize the entire region. The more economic power China has amassed, the greater its ambition to alter the territorial status quo has become.
Throughout China’s recent rise from poverty to relative prosperity and global economic power, the fundamentals of its statecraft and strategic doctrine have remained largely unchanged. Since the era of Mao Zedong, China has adhered to the Zhou Dynasty military strategist Sun Tzu’s counsel: “subdue the enemy without any battle” by exploiting its weaknesses and camouflaging offense as defense. “All warfare,” Sun famously said, “is based on deception.” For more than two decades after Deng Xiaoping consolidated power over the Chinese Communist Party, China pursued a “good neighbor” policy in its relations with other Asian countries, enabling it to concentrate on economic development. As China accumulated economic and strategic clout, its neighbors benefited from its rapid GDP growth, which spurred their own economies. But, at some point in the last decade, China’s leaders evidently decided that their country’s moment had finally arrived; its “peaceful rise” has since given way to a more assertive approach.
One of the first signs of this shift was China’s revival in 2006 of its long-dormant claim to Indian territory in Arunachal Pradesh. In a bid to broaden its “core interests,” China soon began to provoke territorial disputes with several of its neighbors. Last year, China formally staked a claim under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to more than 80% of the South China Sea.
From employing its strong trade position to exploiting its nearmonopoly on the global production of vital resources like rare-earth minerals, China has staked out a more domineering role in Asia. In fact, the more openly China has embraced market capitalism, the more nationalist it has become, encouraged by its leaders’ need for an alternative to Marxist dogma as a source of political legitimacy. Thus, territorial assertiveness has become intertwined with national renewal.
 
 
Q. Which of the following are likely consequences of Chinese territorial assertiveness in light of the views put forth in the passage?
A. Instability in South East Asia.
B. Rise in the Chinese nationalist sentiment.
C. Benefit to China’s clout in Asia.
D. Rapid economic development in China.
... more

Darshan Singh answered  •  16 minutes ago
Solution: Statement A has been mentioned in the passage as “China is waging stealth wars against its Asian neighbors that threaten to destabilize the entire region”.
Statement B can be inferred from the last line of the passage which states “Thus, territorial assertiveness has become intertwined with national renewal.”.
Statements C and D are out of context with respect to the passage.
Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

Q.Mark the odd man out.
  • a)
    Incontinence
  • b)
    Licentiousness
  • c)
    Sanctimoniousness
  • d)
    Carousal
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Sardool Singh answered  •  17 minutes ago
“Incontinence”, “Licentiousness” and “Carousal” all refer to extreme indulgence in drinking involving promiscuity. “Sanctimoniousness” is an excessive show of morality or holiness and is quite the opposite of the remaining three words. Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

Total number of factors of a natural number N is 45. What is the maximum number of prime numbers by which N is exactly divisible? 
    Correct answer is '3'. Can you explain this answer?

    Suresh Kumar answered  •  17 minutes ago
    Solution: If can factorize the number N into its prime factors as follows N = aw x bx x cy x dz x... where a, b, c, d are prime numbers, Then, number of factors of N = (w + 1 )(x + 1 )(y + 1 )(z + 1)...
    Here, the number of factors of N = 45 In order to maximize the number of prime factors of N, we express 45 such that it cannot be factorized any further. 45 = 3 x 3 x 5 N = a2 x b2 x c4 N can have a maximum of 3 prime factors.
    Answer: 3

    Yashoda Devi asked   •  1 hour ago

    The passage given below is followed by a questios. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
    In far-off Syria, a country lying northeast of Palestine, the land in which Jesus was born, the farmers who keep vineyards are very much troubled with foxes and bears, which destroy their crops at night. And so, to protect their vineyards, they build high stone-walls about them, and put broken bottles on the top to keep these animals out, much as some people in this country who have orchards do, in order to keep out small boys. These fences keep out the bears, because they cut themselves on the glass in trying to climb over, and they also keep out some of the foxes. But after all, when the grapes are nearly ripe, the owners of the vineyards and their men are obliged to build platforms up above the trellises, and stay there all night, in order to guard their crops. These watchers manage very well with all the other wild animals excepting the little foxes. They can see the big foxes and drive them off, but the little ones they cannot see, and so these destroy the vines. I suppose that it was an experience something like that which led one of the Bible-writers to say that the little foxes destroy the vines. It seems to me that this is very true with sins, too; it is the little sins that destroy us. When a big sin like stealing, lying or cheating comes along we can see that easily enough, and we will not let it over the fence into our lives. We drive it away, and are soon rid of it. But when the little sins come, like little foxes, we do not see them, and so they get in and destroy our character. What are some of these little foxes? I think one is pride, which makes you so conceited, because you live in a big house or have an automobile or fine clothes, that you will not speak to or play with other boys and girls who have not quite such fine things, although they may be just as bright and just as good as you. Pride is a little fox that kills the vine of brotherliness which Christ planted in our hearts. Then another little fox is sulkiness. Sulkiness makes you frown and go away in a corner. It sucks up all the sunlight there is, and makes the world very gray and dull, like a day in November. This fox kills the vine called “peace” which Christ planted.
    One more little fox is jealousy. This makes boys and girls dislike others who get higher marks than they in school, or who have more friends, or better toys. It is one of the most destructive little foxes there is, for it kills the best vine of all that Christ planted: that is, love. Be careful, then, boys and girls, of these little foxes, for they are worse than bears and big foxes, because they look so small and harmless, and slip by when you are not paying attention, but which destroy your character as readily as the others.
     
    Q.Why are the owners of the vineyards obliged to build platforms and stay there all night when they have already erected high fences? 
    ... more

    Shashi Bala asked   •  2 hours ago

    Even in our globalizing world, the question as to whether “human rights” is an essentially Western concept, which ignores the very different cultural, economic and political realities of the South, persists. Can the values of a consumer society be applied to societies with nothing to consume? At the risk of sounding frivolous: when you stop a man in traditional dress from beating his wife, are you upholding her human rights or violating his? The fact is that a number of serious objections exist to the concept of universal human rights, which its defenders need to acknowledge-honestly-if only to refute them. The first objection argues that all rights and values are defined and limited by cultural perceptions; there is no universal culture, therefore there are no universal human rights. Some philosophers object that the concept of human rights is founded on an individualistic view of man as an autonomous being whose greatest need is to be free from interference by the state, imbued, as it were, with the right to be left alone. Whereas non-Western societies often espouse a communitarian ethic that sees society as more than the sum of its individual members, and considers duties to be more important than rights.
    Then there is the usual North/South argument, with “human rights” cast as a cover for Western intervention in the developing world. Developing countries, some also argue, cannot afford human rights, since the tasks of nation-building and economic development remain unfinished; suspending or limiting human rights thus sacrifices the few to benefit the many. Others object to specific rights which they say reflect Western cultural bias, the most troublesome here being the women’s rights. How can women’s rights be universal when, in some societies, marriage is seen not as a contract between two individuals but as an alliance between lineages, and when the permissible behavior of women is central to a societys perception of familial honor? In addition, some religious leaders argue that human rights can only be acceptable if they are founded on the transcendent values of their faith and are thus sanctioned by God. There is a built-in conflict between the universality of human rights and the particularity of religious perspectives. How to respond to these objections? Concepts of justice and law, legitimacy and dignity, protection from oppressive rule and participation in community affairs are found in every society; and the challenge facing human rights advocates, rather than throw up their hands at the impossibility of universalism, is to identify the common denominators. These objections reflect a false opposition between the primacy of the individual and the paramountcy of society. Culture is too often cited as a defence against human rights by authoritarians who crush culture whenever it suits them. Besides, which country can claim to be following its pure “traditional culture”? You cannot follow the model of a “modern” nation-state cutting across tribal boundaries and conventions, then argue that tribal traditions should be applied to judge the state’s human rights conduct. There is nothing sacrosanct about culture anyway. Culture constantly evolves in any living society, responding to both internal and external stimuli, and much in every culture societies outgrow and reject. Let us concede that child marriage, female circumcision and the like are not found reprehensible by many societies; but let us also ask the victims of these practices about how they feel. Where coercion exists, rights are violated, and these violations must be condemned whatever the traditional justification. Coercion, not culture, is the test.
    As for religion, every religion embodies certain verities that are applicable to all mankind-justice, truth, mercy, compassion and men often allow God to be blamed for their own sins. As UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan put it, the problem is not with the faith, but with the faithful. As for the suspending human rights in the interests of development: authoritarianism promotes repression, not development. Development is about change, but repression prevents change. Though there may be cases where authoritarian societies had success in achieving economic growth, but Botswana, an exemplar of African democracy, has grown faster than most authoritarian states. A number of developing countries-notably India, China, Chile, Cuba, Lebanon and Panama played an active and influential part in drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The principles of human rights have been widely adopted, imitated and ratified by developing countries, so it is hardly fair to suggest they have been imposed on them. When one hears of the unsuitability or ethnocentricism of human rights, what are these human rights that someone in a developing country can do without? The right to life? Freedom from torture? The right not to be enslaved, not to be physically assaulted, not to be arbitrarily arrested, imprisoned or executed? No one actually advocates the abridgement of any of these rights. Objections to the applicability of human rights standards are all too frequently voiced by authoritarian rulers and power elites to rationalize violations that sustain them in power. Just as the Devil can quote scripture for his purpose, Third World communitarianism can be the slogan of a deracinated tyrant trained, as in the case of Pol Pot, at the Sorbonne. The authentic voices of the South know how to cry out in pain. Those are the voices that must be heeded.
     
    Q. According to the passage, which of the following is not a serious objection to the “concept of universal human rights”?
    ... more

    Ashish Singh asked   •  3 hours ago

    There were seven elective courses - El to E7 - running in a specific term in a college. Each of the 300 students enrolled had chosen just one elective from among these seven. However, before the start of the term, E7 was withdrawn as the instructor concerned had left the college. The students who had opted for E7 were allowed to join any of the remaining electives, Also, the students who had chosen other electives were given one chance to change their choice. The table below captures the movement of the students from one elective to another during this process. Movement from one elective to the same elective simply means no movement. Some numbers in the table got accidentally erased; however, it is known that these were either 0 or 1.
    Further, the following are known:
    1. Before the change process there were 6 more students in El than in E4, but after the reshuffle, the number of students in E4 was 3 more than that in El.
    2. The number of students in E2 increased by 30 after the change process.
    3. Before the change process, E4 had 2 more students than E6, while E2 had 10 more students than E3
    Q.
     
    Later, the college imposed a condition that if after the change of electives, the enrollment in any elective (other than E7) dropped to less than 20 students, all the students who had left that course will be required to re­enroll for that elective.
    Which of the following is a correct sequence of electives in decreasing order of their final enrollments?
    ... more

    AARUSHI AMLAN asked   •  3 hours ago

    Answer the following question based on the information given below.
    The old idea of recasting the welfare state by instituting an unconditional universal basic income has lately been capturing imaginations across the political spectrum. On the left, it is regarded as a simple and potentially comprehensive antidote to poverty. On the right, it is viewed as a means to demolish complex welfare bureaucracies while recognizing the need for some social transfer obligations in a way that doesn’t weaken incentives significantly. It also provides some assurance for the dreaded future when robots may replace workers in many sectors.
    The main drawback, according to critics, is that a basic income would weaken the motivation to work, particularly among the poor. Given that the value of work extends beyond income, the logic goes, this could pose a serious problem. European social democrats, for example, worry that a basic income could undermine the worker solidarity that underpins current social-insurance programs. But, in developing countries, workers in the dominant informal sector are already excluded from social-insurance programs. And no feasible basic income would be large enough, at least for now, to enable people simply to leave work behind.
    In fact, among the poorest groups, basic incomes would enhance the dignity- and solidarity-enhancing effects of work, by easing some of the pressure on people - particularly women - who are now vastly overworked. Instead of constantly fearing for their livelihoods, self-employed people, such as small-scale producers and vendors, could engage in more strategic decision-making, taking advantage of their enhanced bargaining power against traders, middlemen, creditors, and landlords.
    The final argument against basic income is that the poor will use the money to fund personally or socially detrimental activities, such as gambling and alcohol consumption. But experiences with direct cash transfers in a range of countries, including Ecuador, India, Mexico, and Uganda, have not provided much evidence of such misuse; in general, the cash is spent on worthwhile goods and services.
    Proposals for a universal basic income, fancied by utopian socialists and libertarians, may be premature in the advanced countries. But such schemes should not be dismissed in the developing world, where conditions are such that they could offer an affordable alternative to administratively unwieldy and ineffective welfare programs. Basic incomes are no panacea; but for overworked developing-country citizens living in extreme poverty, they would certainly be a relief.
    Q.
    What is the primary concern of the passage?
    ... more

    Noor Jahan asked   •  3 hours ago

    A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.
    Folklorists often interpret the fairy tale Cinderella as the competition between the stepmother and the stepdaughter for resources, which may include the need to provide a dowry. Gioachino Rossini's opera La Cenerentola makes this economic basis explicit: Don Magnifico wishes to make his own daughters' dowry larger, to attract a grander match, which is impossible if he must provide a third dowry. One common penalty for the kidnapping of an unmarried woman was that the abductor had to provide the woman's dowry. Until the late 20th century this was sometimes called wreath money, or the breach of promise. Providing dowries for poor women was regarded as a form of charity by wealthier parishioners. The custom of Christmas stockings springs from a legend of St. Nicholas, in which he threw gold in the stockings of three poor sisters, thus providing for their dowries. St. Elizabeth of Portugal and St. Martin de Porres were particularly noted for providing such dowries, and the Archconfraternity of the Annunciation, a Roman charity dedicated to providing dowries, received the entire estate of Pope Urban VII. As the French crown provided dowries for many of the women persuaded to travel to New France for marriages and settlement there, they were known as filles du roi (daughters of the king). In some parts of Europe, land dowries were common. In the County of Bentheim, for instance, parents who had no sons might give a land dowry to their new son-in- law. It was commonly given with the condition that he take the surname of his bride, in order to continue the family name. The Portuguese crown gave two cities as dowry to the British Crown in 1661 when King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland married Catherine of Braganza, a princess of Portugal. They were Mumbai (Bombay) in India and Tangier in Morocco.
     
    Q.Which of the following could be an apt title for the passage?
    ... more

    Saroj Rani asked   •  4 hours ago

    The passage given below is followed by a questios. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
    In far-off Syria, a country lying northeast of Palestine, the land in which Jesus was born, the farmers who keep vineyards are very much troubled with foxes and bears, which destroy their crops at night. And so, to protect their vineyards, they build high stone-walls about them, and put broken bottles on the top to keep these animals out, much as some people in this country who have orchards do, in order to keep out small boys. These fences keep out the bears, because they cut themselves on the glass in trying to climb over, and they also keep out some of the foxes. But after all, when the grapes are nearly ripe, the owners of the vineyards and their men are obliged to build platforms up above the trellises, and stay there all night, in order to guard their crops. These watchers manage very well with all the other wild animals excepting the little foxes. They can see the big foxes and drive them off, but the little ones they cannot see, and so these destroy the vines. I suppose that it was an experience something like that which led one of the Bible-writers to say that the little foxes destroy the vines. It seems to me that this is very true with sins, too; it is the little sins that destroy us. When a big sin like stealing, lying or cheating comes along we can see that easily enough, and we will not let it over the fence into our lives. We drive it away, and are soon rid of it. But when the little sins come, like little foxes, we do not see them, and so they get in and destroy our character. What are some of these little foxes? I think one is pride, which makes you so conceited, because you live in a big house or have an automobile or fine clothes, that you will not speak to or play with other boys and girls who have not quite such fine things, although they may be just as bright and just as good as you. Pride is a little fox that kills the vine of brotherliness which Christ planted in our hearts. Then another little fox is sulkiness. Sulkiness makes you frown and go away in a corner. It sucks up all the sunlight there is, and makes the world very gray and dull, like a day in November. This fox kills the vine called “peace” which Christ planted.
    One more little fox is jealousy. This makes boys and girls dislike others who get higher marks than they in school, or who have more friends, or better toys. It is one of the most destructive little foxes there is, for it kills the best vine of all that Christ planted: that is, love. Be careful, then, boys and girls, of these little foxes, for they are worse than bears and big foxes, because they look so small and harmless, and slip by when you are not paying attention, but which destroy your character as readily as the others.
     
    Q.The author of the passage calls jealousy as the most destructive sins of all because 
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    RIYA asked   •  4 hours ago

    Group Question
    The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
    The advent of vaccines has led to a dramatic rise in the quality of life in the 20th century. Vaccines have reduced morbidity of diphtheria, mumps, polio, and several other diseases by over 99%. In the wake of such overwhelming success, many government policies have moved to make vaccines mandatory, but many libertarians and conservatives have argued that this infringes on the individual right to his or her body. However, I believe that mandatory vaccines may in fact protect rights.
    When evaluating individual rights, the quote “The right to swing my fist ends where the other man’s nose begins” is important to consider. Does the right to choose whether or not to vaccinate harm other individuals? In the sense that you enable yourself to transmit disease to unvaccinated individuals, yes.
    The problem with this logic falls in the concept of “herd immunity”. “Herd immunity” is when such a large percentage of a population is immune to a disease that, even if one susceptible person becomes ill, the disease is unlikely to spread. For example, if 96% of a population has received a measles vaccine, when one individual gets measles, it is unlikely that they confer the disease to the other 4% of people, because the individual is surrounded by so many who are immune.
    These individuals aren’t all free riders either. Vaccines are not 100% effective, they cannot be used on people of all ages, and some people are allergic to them. These individuals did not make a conscious choice to be vulnerable to a disease, and by one person choosing not to vaccinate, their “herd immunity” is weakened, significantly increasing their risk of becoming sick.
    This has happened several times before, particularly after Andrew Wakefield’s false autism link. In 2014, a measles outbreak occurred in California, only 45% of measles cases occurred in unvaccinated individuals, and among those 12 were in infants too young to be vaccinated.
    In defending mandatory vaccines, I have been asked if this same argument could be applied to justify gun control. While the data is conflicting depending how it’s looked at, even if there is a link between gun ownership and gun violence, I don’t believe that the increased risk associated with gun ownership is not grounds considering it a right infringement. With guns, the decision that puts others in harm’s way is not the decision to purchase, but the decision to fire. Furthermore, the decision to fire is already controlled by the illegality of assault, manslaughter, and murder, while the decision not to vaccinate cannot be controlled by anything other than laws mandating it.
    Vaccines are one of the most important health advancements of the 20th century, but there are many people that they cannot directly protect. For this reason, it is critical that we prevent healthy adults from making a choice not to vaccinate.
     
    Q. What is the tone of the passage?
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    Gurdev Kaur asked   •  5 hours ago

    A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.
    Until about 1830, pizza was sold from open-air stands and out of pizza bakeries. Pizzerias keep this age-old tradition alive today. It is possible to enjoy pizza wrapped in paper and a drink sold from open-air stands outside the premises. Antica Pizzeria Port'Alba in Naples is widely regarded as the city's first pizzeria. It started producing pizzas for peddlers in 1738 but expanded to a pizza restaurant with chairs and tables in 1830. It still serves pizza from the same premises today.
    A description of pizza in Naples around 1830 is given by the French writer and food expert Alexandre Dumas, pere in his work Le Corricolo, Chapter VIII. He writes that pizza was the only food of the humble people in Naples during winter and that "in Naples pizza is flavored with oil, lard, tallow, cheese, tomato, or anchovies."
    The Neapolitans take their pizza very seriously. Purists, like the famous pizzeria “Da Michele” in Via C. Sersale (founded 1870), consider there to be only two true pizzas — the Marinara and the Margherita — and that is all they serve. These two "pure" pizzas are the ones preferred by many Italians today.
    The Marinara is the older of the two and has a topping of tomato, oregano, garlic and extra virgin olive oil. It is named “Marinara” not because it has seafood on it (it doesn't) but because it was the food prepared by "la marinara", the seaman's wife, for her sea faring husband when he returned from fishing trips in the Bay of Naples.
     
    Q.Why could the “Marinara” be easily mistaken as a seafood pizza?
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    Laxmi asked   •  5 hours ago

    Badrinath College of Engineering (BCE) was established on 1st May 1993 on the 60th birth anniversary of Mr. Prakash Badrinath with 4, 5, 3 and 2 professors in Civil, Mechanical, Electrical and Information Technology department respectively. On 1st of June 1993 one more professor joined. On every 1st June of the subsequent years up to 1996 one professor is recruited for one of the departments with the salary of Rs. 15,000 per month. So, at the end of 4 years, 4 new professors were recruited across 4 departments. Professors who joined in May 1993 were placed in different pay scales based on their experience and qualifications, with the minimum of Rs. 15,000 per month and difference between any two pay scales is in multiples of Rs. 5,000. Each department has only one head of the department and he is paid more than the others. After completion of one year of service, each professor is given an annual increment of Rs. 3,000 effective from 1st June every year. During the period from 1st May 1993 to 31st May 1996 only one professor resigned across the four departments.
    The table given below shows the annual average monthly salary of the professors of BCE for each department as on 1st June every year.
    In which period and from which department did a professor resign? (Note: 1st June, 1993 to 31st May, 1994 is considered as period 93-94.)
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    Karishana Devi asked   •  6 hours ago

    The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
    Not many Britons watch “Who Wants to be a Millionaire?” these days. The quiz show, which routinely drew more than 15m viewers in the late 1990s, now attracts fewer than 5m. While “Millionaire” is fading in the country that invented it, though, it is thriving elsewhere. This week Sushil Kumar won the top prize on the Indian version of the programme. Cote d'Ivoire is to make a series. Afghanistan is getting a second one. In all, 84 different versions of the show have been made, shown in 117 countries.
    Hollywood may create the world's best TV dramas, but Britain dominates the global trade in unscripted programmes—quiz shows, singing competitions and other forms of reality television. “Britain's Got Talent”, a format created in 2006, has mutated into 44 national versions, including “China's Got Talent” and “Das Supertalent”. There are 22 different versions of “Wife Swap” and 32 of “Masterchef. In the first half of this year, Britain supplied 43% of global entertainment formats—more than any other country.
    London crawls with programme scouts. If a show is a hit in Britain—or even if it performs unusually well in its time slot—phones start ringing in
    production companies' offices. Foreign broadcasters, hungry for proven fare, may hire the producers of a British show to make a version for them.
    Or they may buy a “bible” that tells them how to clone it for themselves.
    “The risk of putting prime-time entertainment on your schedule has been outsourced to the UK,” says Tony Cohen, chief executive of FremantleMedia, which makes “Got Talent”, “Idol” and “X Factor”.
    Like financial services, television production took off in London as a result of government action. In the early 1990s broadcasters were told to commission at least one-quarter of their programmes from independent producers. In 2004 trade regulations ensured that most rights to television shows are retained by those who make them, not those who broadcast them. Production companies began aggressively hawking their wares overseas.
    They are becoming more aggressive, in part because British broadcasters are becoming stingier. PACT, a producers' group, and Oliver & Ohlbaum, a consultancy, estimate that domestic broadcasters spent £1.51 billion ($2.4 billion) on shows from independent outfits in 2008, but only £1.36 billion in 2010. International revenues have soared from £342m to £590m in the same period. Claire Hungate, chief executive of Shed Media, says that 70- 80% of that company's profits now come from intellectual property—that is, selling formats and tapes of shows that have already been broadcast, mostly to other countries.
    Alex Mahon, president of Shine Group, points to another reason for British creativity. Many domestic television executives do not prize commercial success. The BBC is funded almost entirely by a licence fee on television­owning households. Channel 4 is funded by advertising but is publicly owned. At such outfits, success is measured largely in terms of creativity and innovation—putting on the show that everyone talks about. In practice, that means they favour short series. British television churns out a lot of ideas.
    Yet the country's status as the world's pre-eminent inventor of unscripted entertainment is not assured. Other countries have learned how to create reality television formats and are selling them hard. In early October programme buyers at MIPCOM, a huge television convention held in France, crowded into a theatre to watch clips of dozens of reality programmes. A Norwegian show followed urban single women as they toured rural villages in search of love. From India came “Crunch”, a show in which the walls of a house gradually closed in on contestants.
    Ever-shrinking commissioning budgets at home are a problem, too. The BBC, which provides a showcase for independent productions as well as creating many of its own, will trim its overall budget by 16% in real terms over the next few years. The rather tacky BBC3 will be pruned hard—not a great loss to national culture, maybe, but a problem for producers, since many shows are launched on the channel. Perhaps most dangerously for the independents, ITV, Britain's biggest free-to-air commercial broadcaster, aims to produce more of its own programming.
    Meanwhile commissioners' tastes are changing. Programmes like “Wife Swap”, which involve putting people in contrived situations (and are fairly easy to clone), are falling from favour. The vogue is for gritty, fly-on-the- wall documentaries like “One Born Every Minute” and “24 Hours in A&E”. There is a countervailing trend towards what are known as “soft-scripted” shows, which mix acting with real behaviour. “Made in Chelsea” and “The Only Way is Essex” blaze that peculiar trail.
    These trends do not greatly threaten the largest production companies. Although they are based in London, their operations are increasingly global. Several have been acquired by media conglomerates like Sony and Time Warner, making them even more so. Producers with operations in many countries have more opportunities to test new shows and refine old ones. FremantleMedia's new talent show, “Hidden Stars”, was created by the firm's Danish production arm. Britain is still the most-watched market—the crucible of reality formats. But preliminary tests may take place elsewhere.
    There is, in any case, a way round the problem of British commissioners leaning against conventional reality shows. Producers are turning documentaries and soft-scripted shows into formats, and exporting them. Shine Group's “One Born Every Minute”, which began in 2010 as a documentary about a labour ward in Southampton, has already been sold as a format to America, France, Spain and Sweden. In such cases the producers are selling sophisticated technical and editing skills rather than a brand and a formula. With soft-scripted shows, the trick is in casting.
    The companies that produce and export television formats are scattered around London, in odd places like King's Cross and Primrose Hill. They are less rich than financial-services firms and less appealing to politicians than technology companies. But they have a huge influence on how the world entertains itself. And, in a slow-moving economy, Britain will take all the national champions it can get.
    Q.
    Which of the following cannot be concluded from the passage?
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    Sweta Mohapatra asked   •  8 hours ago

    Constructivism is a new approach in education that claims humans are better able to understand the information they have constructed by themselves. According to constructivist theories, learning is a social advancement that involves language, real world situations, and interaction and collaboration among learners. The learners are considered to be central in the learning process. Learning is affected by our prejudices, experiences, the time in which we live, and both physical and mental maturity. When motivated, the learner exercises his will, determination, and action to gather selective information, convert it, formulate hypotheses, test these suppositions via applications, interactions or experiences, and to draw verifiable conclusions. Constructivism transforms today’s classrooms into a knowledge-construction site where information is absorbed and knowledge is built by the learner.
    In constructivist classrooms, unlike the conventional lecturer, the teacher is a facilitator and a guide, who plans, organizes, guides, and provides directions to the learner, who is accountable for his own learning. The teacher supports the learner by means of suggestions that arise out of ordinary activities, by challenges that inspire creativity, and with projects that allow for independent thinking and new ways of learning information. Students work in groups to approach problems and challenges in real world situations, this in turn leads to the creation of practical solutions and a diverse variety of student products.
    A Vygotskian classroom emphasizes creating one’s own concepts and making knowledge one’s property; this requires that school learning takes place in a meaningful context, alongside the learning that occurs in the real world. The Vygotskian classroom stresses assisted discovery through teacher-student and student-student interaction. Some of the cognitive strategies that group members bring into the classroom are questioning, predicting, summarizing, and clarifying.
    In a Vygotskian classroom, dynamic support and considerate guidance are provided based on the learner’s needs, but no will or force is dictated. Students are exposed to discussions, research collaborations, electronic information resources, and project groups that work on problem analysis.
    Some examples of classroom activities that might be used in a constructive classroom are as follows: Students in a political science class can use a computer simulation to decide on global issues as representatives of United Nations. A geography class studying Turkey can take a virtual trip of tourist and historical sites and parks. The journalism class may publish a newsletter with scanned photographs, excerpts from the press and charts about a recent journey to space.
     
    Q.An appropriate title for this passage would be? 
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    Sonali Gupta asked   •  8 hours ago

    Working at Bell Labs in Holmdel, New Jersey, in 1964, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson were experimenting with a supersensitive, 6 meters (20 ft) horn antenna originally built to detect radio waves bounced off echo balloon satellites. To measure these faint radio waves, they had to eliminate all recognizable interference from their receiver. They removed the effects of radar and radio broadcasting, and suppressed interference from the heat in the receiver itself by cooling it with liquid helium to -269 °C, only 4 °C above absolute zero.
    When Penzias and Wilson reduced their data they found a low, steady, mysterious noise that persisted in their receiver. This residual noise was 100 times more intense than they had expected, was evenly spread over the sky, and was present day and night. They were certain that the radiation they detected on a wavelength of 7.35 centimeters did not come from the Earth, the Sun, or our galaxy. After thoroughly checking their equipment, removing some pigeons nesting in the antenna and cleaning out the accumulated droppings, the noise remained. Both concluded that this noise was coming from outside our own galaxy although they were not aware of any radio source that would account for it.
    At that same time, Robert H. Dicke, Jim Peebles, and David Wilkinson, astrophysicists at Princeton University just 60 km (40 miles) away, were preparing to search for microwave radiation in this region of the spectrum. Dicke and his colleagues reasoned that the Big Bang must have scattered not only the matter that condensed into galaxies but also must have released a tremendous blast of radiation. With the proper instrumentation, this radiation should be detectable.
    When a friend (Bernard F. Burke, Prof, of Physics at MIT) told Penzias about a preprint paper he had seen by Jim Peebles on the possibility of finding radiation left over from an explosion that filled the universe at the beginning of its existence, Penzias and Wilson began to realize the significance of their discovery. The characteristics of the radiation detected by Penzias and Wilson fit exactly the radiation predicted by Robert H. Dicke and his colleagues at Princeton University. Penzias called Dicke at Princeton, who immediately sent him a copy of the still-unpublished Peebles paper. Penzias read the paper and called Dicke again and invited him to Bell Labs to look at the Horn Antenna and listen to the background noise. Robert Dicke, P. J. E. Peebles, P. G. Roll and D. T. Wilkinson interpreted this radiation as a signature of the Big Bang.
    To avoid potential conflict, they decided to publish their results jointly. Two notes were rushed to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. In the first, Dicke and his associates outlined the importance of cosmic background radiation as substantiation of the Big Bang Theory. In a second note, jointly signed by Penzias and Wilson titled, “A Measurement of Excess Antenna Temperature at 4080 Megacycles per Second,” they noted the existence of the residual background noise and attributed a possible explanation to that given by Dicke in his companion letter.
     
    Q.Which of the following, if transpired, wouldn’t have impeded the discovery of the cosmic background radiation? 
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    Ramesh asked   •  10 hours ago

    Group Question
    Analyse the following passage and provide an appropriate answer for the questions that follow.

    Formation of focal brand expectations is a well-accepted part of the pre-purchase choice process. However, whether these same expectations are the standard for post-choice performance evaluation has been questioned. There is very little theoretical justification for consumers using focal brand expectations to judge performance after purchase. Customer satisfaction/dissatisfaction is more likely to be determined by how well a consumer perceives that focal brand performance fulfils needs, wants, or desires.
    Importantly, there is no necessary relationship between prepurchase focal brand expectations and the performance required to meet those wants. Thus, consumers are very likely to use other kinds of performance standards in the post-purchase evaluation. Consumers are likely to rely on standards that reflect the performance a consumer believes a focal brand should provide to meet needs/wants. To distinguish these standards from the usual expectations concept, we call them "experience-based norms." These norms have two important characteristics: (1) they reflect desired performance in meeting needs/wants and (2) they are constrained by the performance consumers believe is possible as indicated by the performance of known brands. The second characteristic requires elaboration. Though consumers may imagine some abstract ideal performance that a brand should provide, they also have concrete experiences with various real brands and their performance. Because consumers are more likely to think in concrete rather than abstract terms, experience with real brands should set limits on the performance a consumer believes the focal brand should provide. Consumers may derive a norm from experience with known brands in at least two different ways. First, the norm might be the typical performance of a particular brand - e.g., a consumer's most preferred brand, a popular brand, or last-purchased brand.
    Importantly, this brand may not be the focal brand. For example, when evaluating the dining experience in a new restaurant, a consumer may apply a norm that is the typical performance of another, favourite restaurant. Interestingly, focal brand expectations may correspond to this norm, but only if the focal brand is also the brand from which the standard is derived, such as when a consumer dines in his or her favourite restaurant. In all other cases, the norm is necessarily different from expectations because the norm is derived from experience with a different brand. A second possibility is that the norm might be an average performance a consumer believes is typical of a group of similar brands — a product-based norm. This kind of norm may be reasonable when no one brand stands out in the consumer's mind and the consumer has experience with many brands. In general, the experience-based norms concept is significant because it suggests that past research may have attached unwarranted importance to focal brand expectations as the standard of performance influencing feelings of satisfaction.
    Q. The statement, “there is no necessary relationship between pre-purchase focal brand expectations and the performance required to meet those wants” implies that:
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    Yadunandan Yadav asked   •  12 hours ago

    The passage given below is followed by a question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
    Today we are faced with the harsh reality that the treatment or prevention of infectious diseases has not made quantum advances since the early successes of vaccines and antimicrobial therapies. In a sense, the world is headed backward, as once-treatable microbes become resistant to existing therapies, and new infections for which there are no effective interventions continue to arise. This situation represents a serious and imminent threat to the world.
    The emergence of a highly lethal and rapidly spreading antimicrobial- resistant infection would lead to untold numbers of deaths and unimaginable misery. The consequences could be similar in magnitude to a large-scale terrorist attack. Communities could be walled off, national borders closed, and travel could be restricted or even suspended. Health systems could disintegrate or collapse, as could economies. The possibility of such an apocalyptic scenario suggests that the threat of infectious diseases is among the most important challenges that humankind faces. It is not just a public health risk; it is a threat to national and global security. Thus, it must be met with a comprehensive and effective solution.
    The research and development required to produce new medicines or vaccines is time-consuming, often taking more than a dozen years. It is also very expensive, costing hundreds of millions of dollars for every new product. Moreover, there is no guarantee of success; indeed, for each successful product, there are as many as nine equally promising candidates that fail. Given the risks involved, it is not surprising that pharmaceutical companies are very careful in their choice of investments in new drug or vaccine programs, selecting only those that promise financial gains sufficient to cover the costs of both successes and failures and provide a reasonable return on the required investment.
    Almost every country is prepared to channel a large percentage of its GDP toward investments in national defense or security. The global threat of emerging or resistant infections must be viewed first and foremost in that context, with all countries committed to providing financing, intellectual capital, and available resources to support the discovery, development, manufacture, stockpiling, and equitable distribution of new antimicrobial agents and vaccines. Unless countries recognize the risks they face, they are unlikely to make such a commitment. It goes without saying that this would be a complicated undertaking, with many details to be worked out. But somehow we must suspend disbelief and take action now, lest we be caught off-guard against an imminent global threat. This is a battle we cannot afford to lose.
     
    Q.In the passage, which of the following is/are obstacles faced by pharmaceuticals?
    A. Bottlenecks in development and production of new medicines and vaccines
    B. Constraints in raising capital for research and development
    C. Availability of skilled workers and competent scientists to develop new medicines and vaccines 
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    Mulk Raj asked   •  12 hours ago

    The passage given below is followed by a question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
    Is anyone a born entrepreneur, a born leader or born to win? I believe everyone is born to win but you have to make winning a habit. Think of this: a quitter never wins, a winner never quits. I have been privileged to share the dream and journey of many entrepreneurs. A few traits are habits with all of them. A winner is a believer. Belief in oneself and one’s convictions — that inner voice of core strength to pursue dreams despite difficulties.
    Along the way everyone they meet gets swept up in their dreams and aspirations. This belief is rooted in a bigger purpose than self- satisfaction. Winners are great listeners. They learn continuously; they take inputs; they don’t think they have all the answers; and they are confident to have the humility to hear other points of view.
    Listening is about striving for comprehension and making oneself open to possibilities. Winners value self-development. They constantly challenge themselves and set aggressive goals and often surpass expectations. They make organisational learning a priority. Winners are unstoppable. They don’t count hurdles. They don’t brood about failures and risks. They are activators.
    They have a clear compass on why they keep trying and what they set out to achieve. Hence they have the edge to get up, dust themselves off, and set out again and again.
    Winners are decisive. They chart the course and make choices all the time while being transparent and suffused with a clarity of purpose. They are less prone to procrastination. They are resilient to change and very effective in communicating their decisions. Another word for this is nimbleness, and in these times, this quality is essential to innovate.
    Is all this too much to ask? Of late, too often, I read are we expecting too much from young entrepreneurs. Was too much expected of Alexander when he became king at 20 and set out to conquer the world? Or of Akbar who inherited the empire at the age of 14? Being a founder, building a high-velocity organisation is no doubt high-pressure, but isn’t it a choice? Isn’t competing in the Olympics different from playing cricket in your backyard?
    Over the years, I have a more nuanced take about winning itself.
    Winning doesn’t always mean being first; winning means you are doing better than you have done before.
     
    Q.Which of the following, if true, strengthens the argument in the above passage?
    A. Thomas Edison, the famous scientist, invented the light bulb only after making 1,000 unsuccessful attempts.
    B. Communication is not an identifying characteristic of a winner as there are a number of winners who have been poor communicators.
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    Avtar Kaur asked   •  12 hours ago

    The passage given below is followed by a question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
    Conventional wisdom for the future of India is that we must grow like China or Japan. That we must build large companies creating thousands of jobs and exporting goods. I believe that domestic consumption, not exports, will drive India’s growth. The economy will be services-led and not manufacturing-led like China or Japan. Small businesses will lead rather than large corporations.
    India is the largest young country in an ageing world and will continue to have a young population for the next 25 years, whereas China has started ageing. Indians will either migrate or do outsourcing work. Care providers around the world will come from India. There will be doubling of GDP growth in housing, education, health - all services. Services are labour intensive and their incremental return on capital is much faster than manufacturing and then there will be services like tourism that create jobs.
    Many economists have suggested that India should copy China, but it cannot. When China started its development journey, it had no established competition. Global overcapacity challenges India. For example, China has steel capacity of 822 million tonnes and India has 86 million tonnes. Recently, the Indian government had to protect its steel industry by introducing minimum import pricing. Normal competition without tariffs will be difficult in many sectors in Indian economy.
    India’s free market for labour combined with single market for services is the reason why services is the country’s biggest growth area. The only place where India can achieve economy of scale is in services. This is apparent in the dramatic growth of service tax.
    The set of programming interfaces built on the trifecta of government- created people’s bank account of Jan Dhan, Aadhaar no., and mobile phones - in brief JAM - enables paperless, presence-less and cashless transactions.
    Dramatic consequences will follow creating thousands of startups and billions of dollars of capitalisation. Four shifts will happen. First, banking at scale because everything a bank can do, individuals can do on a mobile phone. Second, investment at scale - people can buy a mutual fund on the phone with one click. Third, credit at scale where entrepreneurs can get a loan with just a click by aggregating their own data. And fourth, skilling at scale - as platforms happen, India will have thousands, millions of people gathering skills to operate in this new economy with great strides in reading and math literacy happening at scale.
    World trade may be shrinking and barriers may be emerging among nations, all making movement of labour difficult. India with its vast unified market, youthful labour force and growing digital platform-backed services alone is poised to build a new power economy.
     
    Q.Which of the following best describes author’s style of writing?
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    Mukesh Devi asked   •  12 hours ago

    The passage given below is followed by a question. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
    Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia. This incurable, degenerative, and terminal disease was first described by German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and was named after him. Generally it is diagnosed in people over 65 years of age, although the less-prevalent early-onset Alzheimer's can occur much earlier. The first symptoms are often mistaken as related to ageing or stress. Detailed neuropsychological testing can reveal mild cognitive difficulties up to eight years before a person fulfills the clinical criteria for diagnosis of AD. These early symptoms can affect the most complex daily living activities. The most noticeable deficit is memory loss, which shows up as difficulty in remembering recently learned facts and inability to acquire new information. Subtle problems with the executive functions of attentiveness, planning, flexibility, and abstract thinking, or impairments in semantic memory can also be symptomatic of the early stages of AD. Apathy can be observed at this stage, and remains the most persistent neuropsychiatric symptom throughout the course of the disease. The preclinical stage of the disease has also been termed mild cognitive impairment, but there is still debate on whether this term corresponds to a different diagnostic entity by itself or just a first step of the disease.

    In people with AD the increasing impairment of learning and memory eventually leads to a definitive diagnosis. In a small proportion of them, difficulties with language, executive functions, perception (agnosia), or execution of movements (apraxia) are more prominent than memory problems. AD does not affect all memory capacities equally. Older memories of the person's life (episodic memory), facts learned (semantic memory), and implicit memory are affected to a lesser degree than new facts or memories. Language problems are mainly characterised by a shrinking vocabulary and decreased word fluency, which lead to a general impoverishment of oral and written language.
    Progressive deterioration eventually hinders independence. Speech difficulties become evident due to an inability to recall vocabulary, which leads to frequent incorrect word substitutions. Reading and writing skills are also progressively lost. Complex motor sequences become less coordinated as time passes, reducing the ability to perform most normal daily living activities. During this phase, memory problems worsen, and the person may fail to recognise close relatives. Long-term memory, which was previously intact, becomes impaired and behavioural changes become more prevalent. Common neuropsychiatric manifestations are wandering, sundowning, irritability and labile affect, leading to crying, outbursts of unpremeditated aggression, or resistance to caregiving. During this last stage of AD, the patient is completely dependent upon caregivers. Language is reduced to simple phrases or even single words, eventually leading to complete loss of speech. Despite the loss of verbal language abilities, patients can often understand and return emotional signals. Finally comes death, usually caused directly by some external factor such as pressure ulcers or pneumonia, not by the disease itself.
     
    Q.According to the passage, which of the following is not true? 
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    Rona Devi asked   •  12 hours ago

    A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.
    Until about 1830, pizza was sold from open-air stands and out of pizza bakeries. Pizzerias keep this age-old tradition alive today. It is possible to enjoy pizza wrapped in paper and a drink sold from open-air stands outside the premises. Antica Pizzeria Port'Alba in Naples is widely regarded as the city's first pizzeria. It started producing pizzas for peddlers in 1738 but expanded to a pizza restaurant with chairs and tables in 1830. It still serves pizza from the same premises today.
    A description of pizza in Naples around 1830 is given by the French writer and food expert Alexandre Dumas, pere in his work Le Corricolo, Chapter VIII. He writes that pizza was the only food of the humble people in Naples during winter and that "in Naples pizza is flavored with oil, lard, tallow, cheese, tomato, or anchovies."
    The Neapolitans take their pizza very seriously. Purists, like the famous pizzeria “Da Michele” in Via C. Sersale (founded 1870), consider there to be only two true pizzas — the Marinara and the Margherita — and that is all they serve. These two "pure" pizzas are the ones preferred by many Italians today.
    The Marinara is the older of the two and has a topping of tomato, oregano, garlic and extra virgin olive oil. It is named “Marinara” not because it has seafood on it (it doesn't) but because it was the food prepared by "la marinara", the seaman's wife, for her sea faring husband when he returned from fishing trips in the Bay of Naples.
     
    Q.The passage implies that the Margherita and the Marinara are the only two “pure” pizzas: 
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    Gina Devi asked   •  12 hours ago

    Instructions
    Comprehension:
    War, natural disasters and climate change are destroying some of the world's most precious cultural sites. Google is trying to help preserve these archaeological wonders by allowing users access to 3D images of these treasures through its site. But the project is raising questions about Google's motivations and about who should own the digital copyrights.
    Some critics call it a form of "digital colonialism." When it comes to archaeological treasures, the losses have been mounting. ISIS blew up parts of the ancient city of Palmyra in Syria and an earthquake hit Bagan, an ancient city in Myanmar, damaging dozens of temples, in 2016. In the past, all archaeologists and historians had for restoration and research were photos, drawings, remnants and intuition. But that's changing. Before the earthquake at Bagan, many of the temples on the site were scanned. . . . [These] scans . . . are on Google's Arts & Culture site. The digital renditions allow viewers to virtually wander the halls of the temple, look up-close at paintings and turn the building over, to look up at its chambers. . . . [Google Arts & Culture] works with museums and other nonprofits . . . to put high-quality images online. The images of the temples in Bagan are part of a collaboration with CyArk, a nonprofit that creates the 3D scanning of historic sites. . . . Google . . . says [it] doesn't make money off this website, but it fits in with Google's mission to make the world's information available and useful.
    Critics say the collaboration could be an attempt by a large corporation to wrap itself in the sheen of culture. Ethan Watrall, an archaeologist, professor at Michigan State University and a member of the Society for American Archaeology, says he's not comfortable with the arrangement between CyArk and Google. . . . Watrall says this project is just a way for Google to promote Google. "They want to make this material accessible so people will browse it and be filled with wonder by it," he says. "But at its core, it's all about advertisements and driving traffic." Watrall says these images belong on the site of a museum or educational institution, where there is serious scholarship and a very different mission. . . . [There's] another issue for some archaeologists and art historians.
    CyArk owns the copyrights of the scans — not the countries where these sites are located. That means the countries need CyArk's permission to use these images for commercial purposes.
    Erin Thompson, a professor of art crime at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York City, says it's the latest example of a Western nation appropriating a foreign culture, a centuries-long battle. . . . CyArk says it copyrights the scans so no one can use them in an inappropriate way. The company says it works closely with authorities during the process, even training local people to help. But critics like Thompson are not persuaded. . . . She would prefer the scans to be owned by the countries and people where these sites are located.
    Q. Based on his views mentioned in the passage, one could best characterise Dr. Watrall as being:
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    Rukmani Devi asked   •  12 hours ago

    Instructions
    Read the passage carefully and answer the given questions

    The complexity of modern problems often precludes any one person from fully understanding them. Factors contributing to rising obesity levels, for example, include transportation systems and infrastructure, media, convenience foods, changing social norms, human biology and psychological factors. . . . The multidimensional or layered character of complex problems also undermines the principle of meritocracy: the idea that the ‘best person’ should be hired. There is no best person. When putting together an oncological research team, a biotech company such as Gilead or Genentech would not construct a multiple-choice test and hire the top scorers, or hire people whose resumes score highest according to some performance criteria. Instead, they would seek diversity. They would build a team of people who bring diverse knowledge bases, tools and analytic skills. . . .
    Believers in a meritocracy might grant that teams ought to be diverse but then argue that meritocratic principles should apply within each category. Thus the team should consist of the ‘best’ mathematicians, the ‘best’ oncologists, and the ‘best’ biostatisticians from within the pool. That position suffers from a similar flaw. Even with a knowledge domain, no test or criteria applied to individuals will produce the best team. Each of these domains possesses such depth and breadth, that no test can exist. Consider the field of neuroscience. Upwards of 50,000 papers were published last year covering various techniques, domains of enquiry and levels of analysis, ranging from molecules and synapses up through networks of neurons. Given that complexity, any attempt to rank a collection of neuroscientists from best to worst, as if they were competitors in the 50-metre butterfly, must fail. What could be true is that given a specific task and the composition of a particular team, one scientist would be more likely to contribute than another. Optimal hiring depends on context. Optimal teams will be diverse.
    Evidence for this claim can be seen in the way that papers and patents that combine diverse ideas tend to rank as highimpact. It can also be found in the structure of the so-called random decision forest, a state-of-the-art machine-learning algorithm. Random forests consist of ensembles of decision trees. If classifying pictures, each tree makes a vote: is that a picture of a fox or a dog? A weighted majority rules. Random forests can serve many ends. They can identify bank fraud and diseases, recommend ceiling fans and predict online dating behaviour. When building a forest, you do not select the best trees as they tend to make similar classifications. You want diversity. Programmers achieve that diversity by training each tree on different data, a technique known as bagging. They also boost the forest ‘cognitively’ by training trees on the hardest cases - those that the current forest gets wrong. This ensures even more diversity and accurate forests.
    Yet the fallacy of meritocracy persists. Corporations, non-profits, governments, universities and even preschools test, score and hire the ‘best’. This all but guarantees not creating the best team. Ranking people by common criteria produces homogeneity. . . . That’s not likely to lead to breakthroughs.
    Q. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the example of neuroscience?
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