Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
India is the world’s largest user of groundwater and, since the 1980s, its groundwater levels have been dropping. The severity of the problem is particularly acute in the northwest, where levels have plunged from 8m below ground to 16m, so that water needs to be pumped from even greater depths. Worse yet, much of this is non-renewable since recharge rates are less than extraction rates and replenishing this resource can take thousands of years.
Moreover, the future of monsoon rainfall remains uncertain; while some climate models predict an increase, others forecast a weakening monsoon, although changes in monsoon variability are already underway and will continue into the future. Historical records show the number of dry spells and the intensity of wet spells have risen over the past 50 years. As climate change alters the monsoon, the large stresses on India’s groundwater resources may increase.
Diverting water to drier areas, for example, can encourage demand for water-intensive crops and further expand irrigation — leading to more stress on the physical system, the environment, and the people it supports. Understanding how and why people use water, therefore, is an important priority. Given the complex dynamics of both human agricultural and economic decisions, not to mention physical water and crop systems, what will India’s groundwater future look like?
To answer this question, an integrated approach can shed light on the role that adaptation responses and policy measures can play.
This brings us back to the policy proposal: could a $120-billion river-linking project help? Our model suggests that it all depends on how this project is carried out. But in simulations without new large reservoirs along canals, water transfers alone will alleviate very little non-renewable groundwater demand; without storage, water transfers in the wet season will not be available for dry-season irrigation. Historically, constructions of large water-holding dams and reservoirs have been contentious in India. While the exact plans for dam construction under the river-linking project have not yet been made public, it is clear that without a large increase in reservoir capacity, the proposed project will not alleviate groundwater stress.
In addition, India needs better policies that directly help small-holders and labourers to adapt and adjust to risks associated with groundwater depletion and a more variable future climate. This is no small task. But for a resource that will shape the course of India’s economic, social, and political future.
Q. What do you infer from the first and second paragraph?
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Nipuns Institute answered  •  7 hours ago
  • Option A is correct.
  • Option B is not mentioned.
  • Option C does not say that if monsoon are unchanged, stress on ground water would reduce. Recharge rates are less than extraction rates and replenishing this resource can take thousands of years.
  • Option D is clearly given in beginning lines, hence cannot be inferred.

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the following information and choose the best alternative:
In the last five years, the face of the mobile phone industry has totally transformed. From an industry that was finding its feet in the global set-up, it has gone on to grow into a mainstay of the global financial world. In the world of mobile phones, Bokia was the leading phone manufacturer generating the highest revenues for more than a decade, and in the last two years, it has lost that position to Bamsung. Bokia, who entered the field of mobile phones in 2002, grew handsomely during a decade in which its sales touched figures of 10 million handsets annually in the year 2010. To go with these sales, it had an operating margin of 20% and generated revenue of 4.1 billion dollars. A lot of people, including major financial institutions, saw Bokia as an amazing investment opportunity and decided to invest in the company. The shares of Bokia soared in all these years and the company generated a lot of positive attention.
But somewhere along the line, this fairy tale has not quite gone down the expected road. Though Bokia has managed to increase its sales to 13 million handsets in last two years, and its revenues have gone up to 4.6 billion dollars, it operating margins have reduced to 4% and in terms of profitability, it has been beaten hands-down by Bamsung. To add to that, Bamsung seems to be dominating the high profit market of touch phones, and Bokia stills seems to selling mobile phones of the previous generation. The stock markets have not taken kindly to these events, and the Bokia stock price has tumbled by more than 20% in the last two years, and the shareholders are not happy with the current scenario.
You represent Holdman Machs, the main investor for Bokia, and hold a 16% stake in the company. You have called a shareholder meet where in you have asked the current CEO to explain his position.
Q. In a direct meeting the CEO of Bokia, you as a representative of Holdman Machs are bound to raise some of the following questions:
I. How do justify the increase in numbers and drop in profitability?
II. What are factors that contributed to decrease in profitability?
III. Why are you, as the CEO, not taking responsibility and resigning from your post?
IV. Have you made any significant organizational changes that have impacted our profits in the last two years?
V. How does Bokia compete with Bamsung in the near future?
VI. What was the finance department doing when our profitability fell?
Identify the most likely questions to be put to the CEO.
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Talent Skill Learning answered  •  7 hours ago
►In the given situation, the representative is bound to ask questions which have a direct impact on the situation.
►He is bound to ask questions relating to the management of the company, and whether any changes might have been made that lead to the current situation.
►Also, the angle of competing with Bamsung is a pretty important one and the representative is meant to be concerned about competition for sure.
►Statements III and VI are simply opinions and not logical questions that will be posed to the CEO.
►Focus on the questions related to the situation rather than personal attacks on the CEO or the other employees of the company.

DIRECTIONS for questions: The passage given below is accompanied by a set of six questions. Choose the best answer to each question.
Gastronomy is the science of pain. Professional cooks belong to a secret society whose ancient rituals derive from the principles of stoicism in the face of humiliation, injury, fatigue, and the threat of illness, while being confined for most of their waking hours in hot, airless spaces, and ruled by despotic leaders.
A good deal has changed since Orwell’s memoir of the months he spent as a dishwasher. Gas ranges and exhaust fans have gone a long way toward increasing the life span of the working culinarian. Nowadays, most aspiring cooks come into the business because they want to: they have chosen this life, studied for it. Today’s top chefs are like star athletes. They bounce from kitchen to kitchen – free agents in search of more money, more acclaim.
I love the sheer weirdness of the kitchen life: the dreamers, the crackpots, the refugees, and the sociopaths with whom I continue to work; the ever-present smells of roasting bones, searing fish, and simmering liquids; the noise and clatter, the hiss and spray, the flames, the smoke, and the steam. Admittedly, it’s a life that grinds you down. Most of us who live and operate in the culinary underworld are in some fundamental way dysfunctional. We’ve all chosen to turn our backs on the nine-to-five, on ever having a Friday or Saturday night off, on ever having a normal relationship with a non-cook.
Being a chef is a lot like being an air-traffic controller: you are constantly dealing with the threat of disaster. You’ve got to be Mom and Dad, drill sergeant, detective, psychiatrist, and priest to a crew of opportunistic, mercenary hooligans, whom you must protect from the nefarious and often foolish strategies of owners. Year after year, cooks contend with bouncing pay checks, irate purveyors, desperate owners looking for the masterstroke that will cure their restaurant’s ills.
In America, the professional kitchen is the last refuge of the misfit. It’s a place for people with bad pasts to find a new family.
It’s a haven for foreigners – Ecuadorians, Mexicans, Chinese, Senegalese, Egyptians, Poles. I’ve been a chef in New York for more than ten years, and, for the decade before that, a dishwasher, a prep drone, a line cook, and a sous-chef. I came into the business when cooks still smoked on the line and wore headbands. A few years ago, I wasn’t surprised to hear rumours of a study of the nation’s prison population which reportedly found that the leading civilian occupation among inmates before they were put behind bars was “cook.” As most of us in the restaurant business know, there is a powerful strain of criminality in the industry, ranging from the dope-dealing busboy with beeper and cell phone to the restaurant owner who has two sets of accounting books. In fact, it was the unsavoury side of professional cooking that attracted me to it in the first place. In the early seventies, I dropped out of college and transferred to the Culinary Institute of America. I wanted it all: the cuts and burns on hands and wrists, the ghoulish kitchen humour, the free food, the pilfered booze, the camaraderie that flourished within rigid order and nerve-shattering chaos. I would climb the chain of command from mal carne (meaning “bad meat,” or “new guy”) to chefdom – doing whatever it took until I ran my own kitchen and had my own crew of cutthroats, the culinary equivalent of “The Wild Bunch.”
Q. Which of the following possibly explains the relationship the author seemed to have shared with ‘his crew’?
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Aadhar Academy answered  •  7 hours ago
From this, 7 wanted it all: the cuts and bums on hands and wrists, the ghoulish kitchen humour, the free food, the pilfered booze, the camaraderie that flourished within rigid order and nerve-shattering chaos. I would climb the chain of command from mal carne (meaning “bad meat," or “new guy’) to chefdom - doing whatever it took until I ran my own kitchen and hard my own crew of cutthroats, the culinary equivalent of "The Wild Bunch” it is obvious that the author had a ... more

What will be the unit digit when 4545
  • a)
    5
  • b)
    0
  • c)
    1
  • d)
    9
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Bakliwal Institute answered  •  7 hours ago
Here the last digit is depend upon the 5
The cyclicity of 5 is 1 so there is no need to divide the power with 1
because whatever is the power of 5 the last digit will remains 5 so the last
digit of 4545 will be 5 .
51 = 5
52 = 25
5= 125

Analyse the following caselet and answer the questions that follow:
The City of Yashmund is served by licensed taxis operating on officially sanctioned metered rates and driven by licensed drivers who do not own the taxis hut pay a monthly rent to the taxi-owners. Shaliesh Nair, the mayor ofYashmund, perceived that most of these taxis do not offer sufficient comfort and safety to passengers.
The mayor wants to involve the car owners in finding a solution to the problem of comfort and safety. He is concerned that the customers may not be willing to pay more for safety.
Q. Which of the options below is MOST LIKELY to convince the owners?
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Mn M Wonder Series answered  •  7 hours ago
The customers are likely to pay more for comfort and not for safety. Taxi owners can be motivated to provide more comfort by allowing them to charge more, but only strong penalties would prevent safety violations. Only D addresses both safety and comfort concerns and therefore is the right answer. Option B and E focus on comfort but ignore safety (violation of traffic rule is only one aspect of safety rule). Moreover, Option E penalizes safety rule breakers by only denying the use of comfort related privilege. Penalty should be more with safety rule violation. Option C does not penalize safety violation. Moreover, the taxi owners may not require a secondloan. Option A is wrong since customers are not willing to pay more for safety.

Solve the following question and fill the answer.
Of 500 candidates who were interviewed for admission, 106 got offers from at least one of three colleges, X, Y and Z. The number of candidates who got offers from colleges X only, Y only and Z only were in the ratio 1 : 3 : 4. The number of candidates who got offers from colleges X and Z only, X and Y only and Y and Z only were in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3. Twice as many candidates received offers from college Y only as received offers from all three colleges. Of the candidates who got offers from college Z, half received offers from at least one other college.
Q. How many more candidates received offers from exactly one college than received offers from at least two colleges?(numerical value)
  • a)
    22
  • b)
    34
  • c)
    40
  • d)
    52
Correct answer is '22'. Can you explain this answer?

Deepti Jindal answered  •  7 hours ago
Suppose the number of candidates getting offers from colleges X only, Y only and Z only are 2a, 6a and 8a respectively and the number of candidates getting calls from colleges X and Z only, X and Y only and Y and Z only are b, 2b and 3b.
Consider the following Venn diagram.
The number of candidates getting calls from all 3 colleges will be 3a. Since half the number of candidates who got calls from college Z also got calls from at least one other college, we know that the number of candidates who got calls from college Z only is half the number of candidates who got calls from college Z. So, 8a = 3a + 4b, which gives us 5a = 4b. The total number of candidates is 19a + 6b = 106. Solving these expressions simultaneously, we get a = 4 and b = 5. Substituting these values, we get the following Venn diagram.
The number of candidates who received calls from exactly one college is 8 + 24 + 32 = 64. The number of candidates who received calls from at least two colleges is 106 – 64 = 42. Thus, 64 – 42 = 22 more candidates received calls from exactly one college as received calls from at least two colleges.

You are given an n×n square matrix to be filled with numerals so that no two adjacent cells have the same numeral. Two cells are called adjacent if they touch each other horizontally, vertically or diagonally. So a cell in one of the four corners has three cells adjacent to it, and a cell in the first or last row or column which is not in the corner has five cells adjacent to it. Any other cell has eight cells adjacent to it.
Q. What is the minimum number of different numerals needed to fill a 3×3 square matrix?
Correct answer is '4'. Can you explain this answer?

Krishan Kumar answered  •  7 hours ago
Let us use 1 to denote the first number that we fill. We have to fill as many squares with 1 as possible. If we start with the top-left square, we can fill 4 squares with the number 1.
Now, we can fill number 2 only in 2 of the 5 squares available.
The 3 squares available now are adjacent to each other. Therefore, we will require at least 2 numbers to fill these squares.
We need a minimum of 4 numbers to fill a 3x3 square matrix such that no 2 adjacent cells contain the same number. Therefore, 4 is the correct answer.
Madhu Bala asked   •  1 hour ago

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the following information and choose the best alternative:
In the last five years, the face of the mobile phone industry has totally transformed. From an industry that was finding its feet in the global set-up, it has gone on to grow into a mainstay of the global financial world. In the world of mobile phones, Bokia was the leading phone manufacturer generating the highest revenues for more than a decade, and in the last two years, it has lost that position to Bamsung. Bokia, who entered the field of mobile phones in 2002, grew handsomely during a decade in which its sales touched figures of 10 million handsets annually in the year 2010. To go with these sales, it had an operating margin of 20% and generated revenue of 4.1 billion dollars. A lot of people, including major financial institutions, saw Bokia as an amazing investment opportunity and decided to invest in the company. The shares of Bokia soared in all these years and the company generated a lot of positive attention.
But somewhere along the line, this fairy tale has not quite gone down the expected road. Though Bokia has managed to increase its sales to 13 million handsets in last two years, and its revenues have gone up to 4.6 billion dollars, it operating margins have reduced to 4% and in terms of profitability, it has been beaten hands-down by Bamsung. To add to that, Bamsung seems to be dominating the high profit market of touch phones, and Bokia stills seems to selling mobile phones of the previous generation. The stock markets have not taken kindly to these events, and the Bokia stock price has tumbled by more than 20% in the last two years, and the shareholders are not happy with the current scenario.
You represent Holdman Machs, the main investor for Bokia, and hold a 16% stake in the company. You have called a shareholder meet where in you have asked the current CEO to explain his position.
Q. With respect to the Bokia situation, the biggest concern that you have as a representative for Holdman Machs:
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Des Raj asked   •  2 hours ago

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
We are beginning to witness a paradox at the heart of capitalism, one that has propelled it to greatness but is now threatening its future: The inherent dynamism of competitive markets is bringing costs so far down that many goods and services are becoming nearly free, abundant, and no longer subject to market forces. While economists have always welcomed a reduction in marginal cost, they never anticipated the possibility of a technological revolution that might bring those costs to near zero.
Industry watchers acknowledge the creeping reality of a zero-marginal-cost economy, but argue that free products and services will entice a sufficient number of consumers to purchase higher-end goods and specialized services, ensuring large enough profit margins to allow the capitalist market to continue to grow. But the number of people willing to pay for additional premium goods and services is limited.
The unresolved question is, how will this economy of the future function when millions of people can make and share goods and services nearly free? The answer lies in the civil society, which consists of non-profit organizations that attend to the things in life we make and share as a community. What makes this social commons more relevant today is that we are constructing an Internet of Things infrastructure that optimizes collaboration, universal access and inclusion, all of which are critical to the creation of social capital and the ushering in of a sharing economy.
This zero marginal cost phenomenon is having the highest impact on the labor market, where workerless factories and offices, virtual retailing and automated logistics and transport networks are becoming more prevalent. Not surprisingly, the new employment opportunities lie in the collaborative commons in fields that tend to be nonprofit and strengthen social infrastructure. Many economists argue that the nonprofit sector is not a self-sufficient economic force but rather a parasite, dependent on government entitlements and private philanthropy. Quite the contrary. A recent study revealed that approximately 50 percent of the aggregate revenue of the nonprofit sectors of 34 countries comes from fees, while government support accounts for 36 percent of the revenues and private philanthropy for 14 percent.
As for the capitalist system, it is likely to remain with us far into the future, albeit in a more streamlined role, primarily as an aggregator of network services and solutions, allowing it to thrive as a powerful niche player in the coming era. We are, however, entering a world partly beyond markets, where we are learning how to live together in an increasingly interdependent, collaborative, global commons.
Q. What forecast does the author of the passage have for the capitalist economy?
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Shivangi Singh asked   •  3 hours ago

Instructions: The passage given below is followed by a question. Choose the most appropriate answer.
In the past, credit for telling the tale of Aladdin has often gone to Antoine Galland, the first European translator of Arabian Nights [which] started as a series of translations of an incomplete manuscript of a medieval Arabic story collection. But, though those tales were of medieval origin, Aladdin may be a more recent invention. Scholars have not found a manuscript of the story that predates the version published in 1712 by Galland, who wrote in his diary that he first heard the tale from a Syrian storyteller from Aleppo named Hanna Diyab.
Despite the fantastical elements of the story, scholars now think the main character may actually be based on a real person’s real experiences. Though Galland never credited Diyab in his published translations of the Arabian Nights stories, Diyab wrote something of his own: a travelogue penned in the mid-18th century. In it, he recalls telling Galland the story of Aladdin [and] describes his own hard-knocks upbringing and the way he marvelled at the extravagance of Versailles. The descriptions he uses were very similar to the descriptions of the lavish palace that ended up in Galland’s version of the Aladdin story. [Therefore, author Paulo Lemos] Horta believes that “Aladdin might be the young Arab Maronite from Aleppo, marvelling at the jewels and riches of Versailles.”
For 300 years, scholars thought that the rags-to-riches story of Aladdin might have been inspired by the plots of French fairy tales that came out around the same time, or that the story was invented in that 18th century period as a byproduct of French Orientalism, a fascination with stereotypical exotic Middle Eastern luxuries that were prevalent then. The idea that Diyab might have based it on his own life — the experiences of a Middle Eastern man encountering the French, not vice-versa — flips the script. [According to Horta,] “Diyab was ideally placed to embody the overlapping world of East and West, blending the storytelling traditions of his homeland with his youthful observations of the wonder of 18th-century France.”
To the scholars who study the tale, its narrative drama isn’t the only reason storytellers keep finding a reason to return to Aladdin. It reflects not only “a history of the French and the Middle East, but also [a story about] Middle Easterners coming to Paris and that speaks to our world today,” as Horta puts it. “The day Diyab told the story of Aladdin to Galland, there were riots due to food shortages during the winter and spring of 1708 to 1709, and Diyab was sensitive to those people in a way that Galland is not. When you read this diary, you see this solidarity among the Arabs who were in Paris at the time. There is little in the writings of Galland that would suggest that he was capable of developing a character like Aladdin with sympathy, but Diyab’s memoir reveals a narrator adept at capturing the distinctive psychology of a young protagonist, as well as recognizing the kinds of injustices and opportunities that can transform the path of any youthful adventurer.”
Q. Which of the following is the primary reason for why storytellers are still fascinated by the story of Aladdin?
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Beant Kaur asked   •  4 hours ago

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
If Indian exporters say the biggest exports they do are within India, it would be only half in jest. It would be a tongue-in-cheek commentary on the red tape that has long plagued the sector, which requires them to ship tonnes of documents such as letter of credit, copy of proof of advance payment, print-out of application form, foreign inward remittance certificate, etc. to government offices, accompanied by numerous visits. Taken together, these documents would total a whopping 25,000 pages every month, never mind that they ultimately gather dust in storerooms.
In the first week of January, the government decided to rid exporters and itself of this system. Director general of foreign trade (DGFT) Anup K Pujari, who issued the notification, sees the end to submission of documents a New Year gift to exporters, particularly those in the business of commodities such as cotton yarn, nonbasmati rice, wheat, sugar and the like. "We are trusting our exporters. If a cotton yarn exporter, for example, gives us details of his export online, we won't press for any proof," he says.
The idea behind doing away with document submission is to make exports hassle-free, according to Pujari. To be sure, it is not a one-off step. Pujari's department had earlier enabled exporters to electronically avail a bank realization certificate (BRC), which is essential to receive refunds from the government under various schemes. This not only ended a visit to the bank branch, it was also 25% cheaper. Thanks to e-BRC, the government claims that exporters are saving about Rs 2,000 crore annually.
These reforms are godsend for exporters. But many hassles remain. The list is actually pretty long — for instance, there are multiple bottlenecks in custom clearance and delays in receiving refunds. But for many exporters, the real monster is customs, the government agency tasked with collecting duties on foreign trade. Exporters turn nervous wrecks as the bill of entry undergoes scrutiny by clerks, appraising officers, assistant commissioners, preventive officers and so on. A two-day sick leave by a customs officer may delay the shipment and result in huge losses to an exporter, particularly in a non-EDI (electronic data interchange) or manual port.
OP Hisaria, senior vice-president of Reliance Industries (RIL), says the introduction of e-BRC has not only removed the drudgery from the process but also reduced transaction cost and time. But he is quick to add that removing hassles in exports and simplification of processes is a continuous process. The exports of India's largest private enterprise, owned by billionaire MukeshAmbani, are worth $44 billion a year and constitute over 14% of India's total exports. Reliance has made various recommendations to the government to make exports easy, Hisaria adds, without disclosing the details of the company's wish-list. For RIL and other export majors, shifting to electronic mode of BRCs is a game-changer in itself. "Obtaining physical BRCs from more than 15 banks that we deal with for 18,000 shipping bills per year was tedious and time-consuming," says Hisaria.
That said, the reforms in recent times can at best be termed baby steps. India has not yet moved to a regime where trust, and not suspicion, is the hallmark of the country's export policy. Add to that the multiple government agencies and departments that play some role or the other, exporters live in constant trepidation, even dread. KT Chacko, former DGFT and former head of Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, says the government should not suspect that all exporters are wrongdoers. "Once we have such a mechanism, 95% of exporters who believe in self-compliance will benefit. But it should be made clear that deviations from rules will be dealt with a heavy hand, maybe even cancellation of export licences," he says.
Q. The author of the passage highlights that:
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Shobha Rani asked   •  7 hours ago

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it. 
The idea of demarcating certain areas within the country as special economic zones to promote investment and growth is not new. A large country unable to provide the kind of facilities and environment that can attract foreign investment throughout the country often finds it feasible and attractive to carve up some of its areas where such facilities can be provided. The laws and procedures for setting up new industries are waived to make the area business-friendly with developed infrastructure and a one-window interaction with government. In addition, huge tax benefits are promised to lure investors. China's experience shows that if chalked out and implemented with care such a policy can accelerate the flow of capital and technology from abroad and thereby speed up growth.
However. SEZs may not be the best option in all situations to clear the bottlenecks in growth. India's experience with export processing zones (EPZs) bears this out. They have failed in India for the simple reason that the factors that made the SEZs successful in China have been absent here.
In India, as in China, EPZs were thought of as a way of providing an escape route from the stranglehold of control that prevailed over the Indian economy. But even while promising to ease the rigours of controls, Indian policy-makers could not give up their penchant for micromanaging from the centre and undoing the promised relaxations with all kinds of qualifications and "guidelines".
Over last two decades India has evolved into a market economy and much of governmental control has disappeared, but the flow of foreign direct investment has not reached anywhere near the levels of China. Besides, infrastructure building has fallen far short of what is required. Even after three years of the enactment of the Electricity Act (2003), private investment in electricity generation is still a trickle with the states refusing to give up the monopoly of their electricity boards in the matter of purchase of the power generated. While swearing by growth, governments at both the centre and the states cite the fiscal responsibility laws to plead their helplessness in making the required investments to improve infrastructure.
Given this situation, the SEZs have apparently been thought of as a simple way out. In its enthusiasm for SEZs the commerce ministry forgot two critical lessons of the Chinese experience, viz., that an SEZ must be of an adequate size to provide opportunities for reaping the benefit of large-scale operations and their number should be few. Every industry or economic activity worth its name is now seeking SEZ status. Proposals are now being floated to invite foreign educational institutions to come to India with promises of SEZ treatment! The finance ministry apprehends a loss of nearly Rs. 1,75,000 crore in direct taxes, customs duties and excise duties over the next five years.
Q. The author's arguments suggest the following conclusions, except
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Rajkapoor asked   •  7 hours ago

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
When you visit your doctor you enter a world of queues and disjointed processes. Why? Because your doctor and health care planner think about health care from the standpoint of organization charts, functional expertise, and "efficiency." Each of the centers of expertise in the health care system —the specialist physician, the single-purpose diagnostic tool, the centralized laboratory—is extremely expensive. Therefore, efficiency demands that it be completely utilized.
To get full utilization, it's necessary to route you around from specialist to machine to laboratory and to over schedule the specialists, machines, and labs to make sure they are always fully occupied. Elaborate computerized information systems are needed to make sure you find your place in the right line and to get your records from central storage to the point of diagnosis or treatment.
How would things work if the medical system embraced lean thinking? First, the patient would be placed in the foreground, with time and comfort included as key performance measures of the system. These can only be addressed by flowing the patient through the system.
Next, the medical system would rethink its departmental structure and reorganize much of its expertise into multi skilled teams. The idea would be very simple: When the patient enters the system, via a multi skilled, co-located team, she or he receives steady attention and treatment until the problem is solved.
To do this, the skills of nurses and doctors would need to be broadened so that a smaller team of more broadly skilled people can solve most patient problems. At the same time, the tools of medicine—machines, labs, and record-keeping units—would need to be rethought and "right-sized" so that they are smaller, more flexible, and faster, with a full complement of tools dedicated to every treatment team.
Finally, the "patient" would need to be actively involved in the process and up-skilled—made a member of the team—so that many problems can be solved through prevention or addressed from home without need to physically visit the medical team, and so that visits can be better predicted. Over time, it will surely be possible to transfer some of the equipment to the home as well, through teleconferencing, remote sensing, and even a home laboratory, the same way most of us now have a complete complement of office equipment in our home offices.
What would happen if lean thinking was introduced as a fundamental principle of health care? The time and steps needed to solve a problem should fall dramatically. The quality of care should improve because less information would be lost in handoffs to the next specialist, fewer mistakes would be made, less elaborate information tracking and scheduling systems would be needed, and less backtracking and rework would be required. The cost of each "cure" and of the total system could fall substantially.
Excerpted from page numbers 289-290 of ‘Lean Thinking’ by Womack and Jones
Q. Based on a reading of this article, what prediction can we make about the technology of the homes of the future?
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Babu Ram asked   •  7 hours ago

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
Citizens of the United States are quite taken with the vocabulary of liberal democracy, with words such as ‘freedom’ and ‘democracy’, which conjure key democratic values and distance the nation from the Old World taint of oligarchy and aristocracy. It is much less clear, however, that Americans are guided by democratic ideals. Or that ideology and propaganda play a crucial role in concealing the large gap between rhetoric and reality.
In truth, the Old World systems have proved extremely difficult to shrug off. In their 2014 paper, Martin Gilens and Benjamin Page argue that, as in an oligarchy, ordinary US citizens have no ‘substantial power over policy decisions [and] little or no independent influence on policy at all’.
Moreover, the US regularly subscribes to a form of managerial aristocracy. In the current presidential race, Hillary Clinton advertises her managerial expertise via the language of policy, while Donald Trump parades his via the language of business. Neither language is democratic. Neither invites self-governance.
Why is there no outcry about these oligarchical and aristocratic methods? Is it because plutocrats have power over the mechanisms of representation and repression? Is it, in short, about power? In my view, power can’t explain why voters are so enthusiastically voting for the very people who promise the least democratic outcomes. Nor are Americans knowingly rejecting democratic ideals. Instead, I see an anti-democratic ideology at work, inverting the meaning of democratic vocabulary and transforming it into propaganda.
Consider the example of mass incarceration in the US. Black Americans make up around 13 per cent of the population, but around 40 per cent of country’s ballooning prison population. Even if we assume, falsely, that black American crime rates justify this disparity, why is the state so punitive? Shouldn’t citizens instead be motivated to address the underlying socio-economic conditions that lead to such dramatic differences in behaviour between equals?
In The New Jim Crow (2010), Michelle Alexander argues that a national rhetoric of law and order has long justified mass incarceration. President Richard Nixon used it to crack down on black Americans under the cover of an epidemic of heroin use; this continued in the 1980s, as a merciless ‘war on drugs’ whose victims were all too often black men. In the US, the ideology of anti-black racism takes the view that blacks are violent and lazy, thereby masking the misapplication of the ideals of law and order.
Compare the ‘war on drugs’ to the current heroin crisis among middle-class white Americans, which has led to a national discussion of the socio-economic distress facing this class. Law and order doesn’t come into it. ‘The new face of heroin’ is new because, unlike the old face, it calls out for an empathetic response, rather than a punitive one.
But what is the flawed ideology masking the misapplication of democratic ideals? Let’s bring it out by exploring the most cherished US democratic ideal, the ideal of freedom – popularly embodied in attacks on ‘big government’. Voters are repeatedly told that ‘big government’ is the primary source of coercion that limits freedom, which it certainly sometimes does, as the Patriot Act reminds us. But corporations also limit civic freedom in significant ways.
For example, corporations are leading direct attacks on the freedom to collectively bargain. Via outsourcing, free trade agreements allow corporations to move jobs to countries where labour is cheap; meanwhile, as a result of pressure from the conservative non-profit Citizens United, corporations can fund political candidates, thereby increasing corporate control of government. The weaker a government is, the more power corporations have over it.
Voters concerned about government – as opposed to corporate – constraints on freedom are under the grip of what I will call a free market ideology. According to that ideology, the world of capital is by its nature free. All other substantial freedoms, including political freedom and personal freedom, are made possible by the freedom of markets.
Why do citizens who cherish freedom as an ideal vote to constrain their own freedoms by increasing the power of corporations? It’s because free market ideology masks the ways in which corporations deploy undemocratic modes of coercion. When a corporation bans employees from expressing, outside of work, opinions it disapproves of, this is seen as a legitimate protection of its economic interests. If workers have to sign non-disclosure contracts that silence them after they are employed elsewhere, it’s accepted as the cost of doing business.
The contradictions here are telling. If our most basic freedoms are self-expression and choiceful action, then corporations frequently limit our most basic freedoms. In liberal democratic theory, it is government that is regarded as the protector of such rights. But it’s precisely because government is attacked in the name of freedom that corporations have vastly greater power to constrain and shape it.
Q. A suitable title for the passage is:
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Kamla asked   •  8 hours ago

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
Whatever forces may govern human life, if they are to be recognized by man, must betray them in human experience. There is unfortunately no school of modern philosophy to which a critique of human progress can well be attached. Progress in science or religion, no less than in morals and art, is a dramatic episode in man's career, a welcome variation in his habit and state of mind; although this variation may often regard or propitiate things external, adjustment to which may be important for his welfare. The importance of these external things, as well as their existence, he can establish only by the function and utility which recognition of them may have in his life. What themes would prevail in such an examination of heart? 
A philosopher could hardly have a higher ambition than to make himself a mouth-piece for the memory and judgment of his race. Yet the most casual consideration of affairs already involves an attempt to do the same thing. Reflection is pregnant from the beginning with all the principles of synthesis and valuation needed in the most comprehensive criticism. So soon as man ceases to be wholly immersed in sense, he looks before and after, he regrets and desires; and the moments in which prospect or retrospect takes place constitute the reflective or representative part of his life, in contrast to the unmitigated flux of sensations in which nothing ulterior is regarded.
Representation, however, can hardly remain idle and merely speculative. To the ideal function of envisaging the absent, memory and reflection will add the practical function of modifying the future. Vital impulse, however, when it is modified by reflection and veers in sympathy with judgments pronounced on the past, is properly called reason. Man's rational life consists in those moments in which reflection not only occurs but proves efficacious. What is absent then works in the present, and values are imputed where they cannot be felt. Such representation is so far from being merely speculative that its presence alone can raise bodily change to the dignity of action.
The limits of reflection mark those of concerted and rational action; they circumscribe the field of cumulative experience, or, what is the same thing, of profitable living. Thus if we use that life of reason in operations, then Life of Reason  will then be a name for that part of experience which perceives and pursues ideals all conduct so controlled and all sense so interpreted as to perfect natural happiness. Without reason, as without memory, there might still be pleasures and pains in existence. To increase those pleasures and reduce those pains would be to introduce an improvement into the sentient world, as if a devil suddenly died in hell or in heaven a new angel were created. In human progress, therefore, reason is not a casual instrument, having its sole value in its service to sense; such a betterment in sentience would not be progress unless it were a progress in reason, and the increasing pleasure revealed some object that could please; for without a picture of the situation from which a heightened vitality might flow, the improvement could be neither remembered nor measured nor desired.
To recount man's rational moments would be to take an inventory of all his goods; for he is not himself (as we say with unconscious accuracy) in the others. If he ever appropriates them in recollection or prophecy, it is only on the ground of some physical relation which they may have to his being. Reason and humanity begin with the union of instinct and ideation, when instinct becomes enlightened, establishes values in its objects, and is turned from a process into an art, while at the same time consciousness becomes practical and cognitive, beginning to contain some symbol or record of the co-ordinate realities among which it arises. All reflection would then be applicable in action and all action fruitful in happiness. Though this be an ideal, yet everyone gives it from time to time a partial embodiment when he practises useful arts, when his passions happily lead him to enlightenment, or when his fancy breeds visions pertinent to his ultimate good.
Excerpted from 'The life of  Reason'' by George Santayana
Q. What is the importance of Reflection as per the context of the passage?
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Santra Devi asked   •  8 hours ago

Read the passage and answer the question based on it. 
Civilization is a continuous movement—hence there is a gradual transition from the Oriental civilization to the Western. The former finally merges into the latter. Although the line of demarcation is not clearly drawn, some striking differences are apparent when the two are placed in juxtaposition. Perhaps the most evident contrast is observed in the gradual freedom of the mind from the influences of tradition and religious superstition. Connected with this, also, is the struggle for freedom from despotism in government. It has been observed how the ancient civilizations were characterized by the despotism of priests and kings. It was the early privilege of European life to gradually break away from this form of human degradation and establish individual rights and individual development. Kings and princes, indeed, ruled in the Western world, but they learned to do so with a fuller recognition of the rights of the governed. There came to be recognized, also, free discussion as the right of people in the processes of government. It is admitted that the despotic governments of the Old World existed for the few and neglected the many. While despotism was not wanting in European civilization, the struggle to be free from it was the ruling spirit of the age. The history of Europe centres around this struggle to be free from despotism and traditional learning, and to develop freedom of thought and action.
Among Oriental people the idea of progress was wanting in their philosophy. True, they had some notion of changes that take place in the conditions of political and social life, and in individual accomplishments, yet there was nothing hopeful in their presentation of the theory of life or in their practices of religion; and the few philosophers who recognized changes that were taking place saw not in them a persistent progress and growth. Their eyes were turned toward the past. Their thoughts centred on traditions and things that were fixed. Life was reduced to a dull, monotonous round by the great masses of the people. If at any time a ray of light penetrated the gloom, it was turned to illuminate the accumulated philosophies of the past. On the other hand, in European civilization we find the idea of progress becoming more and more predominant. The early Greeks and Romans were bound to a certain extent by the authority of tradition on one side and the fixity of purpose on the other. At times there was little that was hopeful in their philosophy, for they, too, recognized the decline in the affairs of men. But through trial and error, new discoveries of truth were made which persisted until the revival of learning in the Middle Ages, at the time of the formation of new nations, when the ideas of progress became fully recognized in the minds of the thoughtful, and subsequently in the full triumph of Western civilization came the recognition of the possibility of continuous progress.
Another great distinction in the development of European civilization was the recognition of humanity. In ancient times humanitarian spirit appeared not in the heart of man nor in the philosophy of government. Even the old tribal government was for the few. The national government was for selected citizens only. Specific gods, a special religion, the privilege of rights and duties were available to a few, while all others were deprived of them. This invoked a selfishness in practical life and developed a selfish system even among the leaders of ancient culture. The broad principle of the rights of an individual because he was human was not taken into serious consideration even among the more thoughtful. If he was friendly to the recognized god he was permitted to exist. If he was an enemy, he was to be crushed. On the other hand, the triumph of Western civilization is the recognition of the value of a human being and his right to engage in all human associations for which he is fitted. While the Greeks came into contact with the older civilizations of Egypt and Asia, and were influenced by their thought and custom, they brought a vigorous new life which gradually dominated and mastered the Oriental influences. They had sufficient vigor and independence to break with tradition, wherever it seemed necessary to accomplish their purpose of life.
Q. The author would agree with the statement that:
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Baby asked   •  9 hours ago

Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.
Worst Price, a leading retailer, was running a special sales promotion at its outlet in which, for every 1000 rupees that a customer spent on buying any items at the shop, the customer would get 1 reward point. The marketing department classified the total number of customers into seven different sections – G1, G2, G3,G4, G5, G6, G7 according to their respective number of reward point. The following pie chart gives the percentage wise break up of the number of customers classified into each of these seven sections. In the pie chart, the values given in the brackets alongside each section give the minimum and maximum number of reward point got by any customer classified into that section.
To encourage customers to spend more at their outlets the management decided to give cash return to some of the customers from among whose who had at least 18 reward points. While deciding the cash return the management decided to classify the customers with different reward points into different groups-P to U- according to their number of reward points , as given in the table below:
The number of customers selected for receiving a cash return were different for different groups However, within each group, the management selected an equal number of customers with each of the different number of reward points classified into that group. For example, in group P, of the total number of customers selected for receiving a cash return, the number of customers with 18 reward points is same as that with 19 reward points, which, in turn, is same as that with 20 reward points.
The percentage wise distribution of the total value of the cash returns offered by the management to the customers belonging to the different groups is given in the following graph:

Total amount paid as cash return Rs. 300000
Q. What was the total amount paid as cash return to customers with 37 credits or more?
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Satywan Singh asked   •  17 hours ago

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
DISMAL may not be the most desirable of modifiers, but economists love it when people call their discipline a science. They consider themselves the most rigorous of social scientists. Yet whereas their peers in the natural sciences can edit genes and spot new planets, economists cannot reliably predict, let alone prevent, recessions or other economic events. Indeed, some claim that economics is based not so much on empirical observation and rational analysis as on ideology.
In October Russell Roberts, a research fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution, tweeted that if told an economist's view on one issue, he could confidently predict his or her position on any number of other questions. Prominent bloggers on economics have since furiously defended the profession, citing cases when economists changed their minds in response to new facts, rather than hewing stubbornly to dogma. Adam Ozimek, an economist at Moody's Analytics, pointed to Narayana Kocherlakota, president of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis from 2009 to 2015, who flipped from hawkishness to dovishness when reality failed to affirm his warnings of a looming surge in inflation. Tyler Cowen, an economist at George Mason, published a list of issues on which his opinion has shifted (he is no longer sure that income from capital is best left untaxed). Paul Krugman, an economist and New York Times columnist, chimed in. He changed his view on the minimum wage after research found that increases up to a certain point reduced employment only marginally (this newspaper had a similar change of heart).
Economists, to be fair, are constrained in ways that many scientists are not. They cannot brew up endless recessions in test tubes to work out what causes what, for instance. Yet the same restriction applies to many hard sciences, too: geologists did not need to recreate the Earth in the lab to get a handle on plate tectonics. The essence of science is agreeing on a shared approach for generating widely accepted knowledge. Science, wrote Paul Romer, an economist, in a paper published last year, leads to broad consensus. Politics does not.
Nor, it seems, does economics. In a paper on macroeconomics published in 2006, Gregory Mankiw of Harvard University declared: 'A new consensus has emerged about the best way to understand economic fluctuations.' But after the financial crisis prompted a wrenching recession, disagreement about the causes and cures raged. 'Schlock economics' was how Robert Lucas, a Nobel-prize-winning economist, described Barack Obama's plan for a big stimulus to revive the American economy. Mr Krugman, another Nobel-winner, reckoned Mr Lucas and his sort were responsible for a 'dark age of macroeconomics'.
As Mr Roberts suggested, economists tend to fall into rival camps defined by distinct beliefs. Anthony Randazzo of the Reason Foundation, a libertarian think-tank, and Jonathan Haidt of New York University recently asked a group of academic economists both moral questions (is it fairer to divide resources equally, or according to effort?) and questions about economics. They found a high correlation between the economists' views on ethics and on economics. The correlation was not limited to matters of debate" how much governments should intervene to reduce inequality, say" but also encompassed more empirical questions, such as how fiscal austerity affects economies on the ropes. Another study found that, in supposedly empirical research, right-leaning economists discerned more economically damaging effects from increases in taxes than left-leaning ones.
That is worrying. Yet is it unusual, compared with other fields? Gunnar Myrdal, yet another Nobel-winning economist, once argued that scientists of all sorts rely on preconceptions. "Questions must be asked before answers can be given," he quipped. A survey conducted in 2003 among practitioners of six social sciences found that economics was no more political than the other fields, just more finely balanced ideologically: left-leaning economists outnumbered right-leaning ones by three to one, compared with a ratio of 30:1 in anthropology.
Q. Economics is closer to:
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Reshma Devi asked   •  18 hours ago

Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
When Lee Nelson first began researching autoimmune disorders in the 1980s, the prevailing assumption was that conditions such as arthritis and lupus tend to show up more commonly in women because they are linked to female sex hormones. But to Nelson, this explanation did not make sense. If hormones were the culprit, one would expect these afflictions to peak during a woman’s prime reproductive years, when instead they typically appear later in life.
One day in 1994, a colleague specializing in prenatal diagnosis called her up to say that a blood sample from a female technician in his lab was found to contain male DNA a full year after the birth of her son. ‘It set off a light bulb,’ Nelson told me. ‘I wondered what the consequences might be of harbouring these lingering cells.’ Since the developing foetus is genetically half-foreign to the mother, Nelson set out to investigate whether it could be that pregnancy poses a long-term challenge to women’s health.
Evidence that cells travel from the developing foetus into the mother dates back to 1893, when the German pathologist Georg Schmorl found signs of these genetic remnants in women who had died of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorder. Autopsies revealed ‘giant’ and ‘very particular’ cells in the lungs, which he theorised had been transported as foreign bodies, originating in the placenta.
Within weeks of conception, cells from both mother and foetus traffic back and forth across the placenta, resulting in one becoming a part of the other. And the foetus need not come to full term to leave its lasting imprint on the mother: a woman who had a miscarriage or terminated a pregnancy will still harbour foetal cells. With each successive conception, the mother’s reservoir of foreign material grows deeper and more complex, with further opportunities to transfer cells from older siblings to younger children, or even across multiple generations.
Far from drifting at random, human and animal studies have found foetal origin cells in the mother’s bloodstream, skin and all major organs, even showing up as part of the beating heart. This passage means that women carry at least three unique cell populations in their bodies – their own, their mother’s, and their child’s – creating what biologists term a microchimera, named for the Greek fire-breathing monster with the head of a lion, the body of a goat, and the tail of a serpent.
Researchers realised in the 1990s that it also occurs during organ transplantation, where the genetic match between donor and recipient determines whether the body accepts or rejects the grafted tissue, or if it triggers disease. The body’s default tendency to reject foreign material begs the question of how, and why, microchimeric cells picked up during pregnancy linger on indefinitely. No one fully understands why these ‘interlopers’, as Nelson calls them, are tolerated for decades. One explanation is that they are stem or stem-like cells that are absorbed into the different features of the body’s internal landscape, able to bypass immune defences because they are half-identical to the mother’s own cell population. Another is that pregnancy itself changes the immune identity of the mother, altering the composition of what some researchers have dubbed the ‘microchiome’, making her more tolerant of foreign cells.
Most of the research focuses on the Y chromosome as a marker for foetal microchimerism. This does not mean that sons, rather than daughters, uniquely affect their mother’s bodies, but rather reflects an ease of measurement: the Y chromosome stands out among a woman’s XX genes. And there is nothing to suggest that the presence of male cells in women’s brains wields a particular influence. Nonetheless, the findings gesture toward an array of questions about what it means for one individual to play host to the cellular material of another.
Q. Nelson questions which of the following prevailing assumptions
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