A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.
To people with autism and Asperger syndrome the world can appear chaotic with no clear boundaries, order or meaning. These disorders can vary from very mild, where the person can function almost as well as anyone else around them, to so severe that they are completely unable to take part in normal society. People with autism are usually more severely disabled, while those with Asperger syndrome tend to be more able, although this isn’t always so.
Because of the range of severity and symptoms the conditions are collectively known as autistic spectrum disorders. People with Asperger syndrome are usually more mildly affected than those with autism. In fact, many people with milder symptoms are never diagnosed at all, and some argue that Asperger syndrome is simply a variation of normal rather than a medical condition or disorder. Even so, many do find that it gives them particular problems getting on in the world and they may become aware they are different from others. This can result in isolation, confusion, depression and other difficulties, all of which could be defined as ‘disease’.
Some children with Asperger syndrome manage in mainstream schools especially if extra support is available. However, even when children cope well academically, they may have problems socialising and are likely to suffer teasing or bullying. More severely affected children need the specialist help provided by schools for children with learning disabilities. With the right sort of support and encouragement, many with Asperger syndrome can lead a relatively normal life. Helping them develop some insight into the condition is an important step towards adjusting to, or at least coping with, the way the rest of the world works.
Some do very well, especially in an environment or job where they can use their particular talents. Autism tends to produce more severe symptoms. For example, a child with autism may fail to develop normal speech and as many as 75 per cent of people with autism have accompanying learning disabilities. Seizures are also a common problem, affecting between 15 and 30 per cent of those with autism. Conversely, autistic children are sometimes found to have an exceptional skill, such as an aptitude for drawing, mathematics, or playing a musical instrument.
Which of the following questions most appropriately introduces the passage?
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Mam Chand answered  •  5 hours ago
The passage briefly and factually introduces autism and Asperger syndrome to the reader. It also mentions some of the differences between the two syndromes.
The gist of the passage is not limited to 'whether children affected by autism and Asperger syndrome can lead normal lives'. The scope of the passage is much more. Therefore, option 1 is eliminated.
Option 2 mentions the ‘symptoms’ of autism and Asperger syndromes. This has been mentioned very briefly in the passage and does not form the crux of the passage.
While differences between autism and Asperger syndromes have been mentioned in the passage, the focus of the passage is on explaining the two syndromes- including their similarities as well. Therefore, option 3 can be eliminated.
Option 4 captures the gist of the passage perfectly and is the most suitable introduction to the passage.
Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

Answer the following question based on the information given below.
Parents have been raising children since the beginning of the human race. But raising children is not the same as 'parenting'. The word itself entered the dictionary only in the 1950s, and did not become a part of the popular vocabulary till the 1970s.
Initially, the word was used to refer to what parents did, but over the years, especially today, the word has become completely normative. "'To parent' is a goal-directed verb; it describes a job, a kind of work. The goal is to somehow turn your child into a better or happier or more successful adult," writes Dr Alison Gopnik in The Wall Street Journal.
The idea that 'parenting' involves tips, tricks and techniques that enable people to become better fathers and mothers has become widespread, not just in the US, but around the world. The idea is so ubiquitous that the very idea of questioning it seems heretical. But the whole concept of 'parenting' is fundamentally misguided, says Gopnik.
For millennia, raising a child did not just involve the parents. There were grandfathers and grandmothers, uncles, aunts, cousins, siblings, friends and neighbours. "For most of human history, we lived in these extended family groups. This meant that we learned how to take care of children by practicing with our own little sisters and baby cousins and by watching many other people take care of children," writes Gopnik. But these groups no longer exist in large parts of the world. They've been scattered, dislocated, and communicate via the internet. "Today, most middle-class parents spend years taking classes and pursuing careers before they have children. It's not surprising, then, that going to school and working are modern parents' models for taking care of children: You go to school and work with a goal in mind, and you can be taught to do better at school and work," she writes.
Working to achieve a good outcome is a good idea for businessmen or writers, but making a child a 'product' or an 'outcome' does no justice to either the parent or the child, says Gopnik. In fact, there is no evidence to show that the small differences in 'parenting' techniques that many parents obsess over make any difference to the child's adulthood. "The most important rewards of being a parent aren't your children's grades and trophies--or even their graduations and weddings. They come from the moment-by- moment physical and psychological joy of being with this particular child, and in that child's moment-by-moment joy in being with you," writes Gopnik.
If that means valuing 'being a parent' over 'parenting', it sounds like a good advice.
According to the passage, which of the following could be a primary cause for parenthood becoming a goal-directed activity?
A. Parents not being able to devote significant amount of time to their newborns.
B. Many people spending significant amount of time in work and education before becoming parents.
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Mahender Singh answered  •  5 hours ago
Statement A is incorrect as the passage does not say anything about the parents being unable to devote time but that the parents are pursuing the modern model of parenting which is goal-directed.
Statement B is one of the main causes discussed in the passage in relation to parenthood becoming a goal-directed activity.
Hence the correct answer is 2.

Keshav asked   •  4 minutes ago

The problem of induction may also be formulated as the question of the validity or the truth of universal statements which are based on experience, such as the hypotheses and theoretical systems of the empirical sciences. For many people believe that the truth of these universal statements is ‘known by experience’; yet it is clear that an account of an experience-of an observation or the result of an experiment-can in the first place be only a singular statement and not a universal one. Accordingly, people who say of a universal statement that we know its truth from experience usually mean that the truth of this universal statement can somehow be reduced to the truth of singular ones, and that these singular ones are known by experience to be true; which amounts to saying that the universal statement is based on inductive inference. Thus, to ask whether there are natural laws known to be true appears to be only another way of asking whether inductive inferences are logically justified.
Yet if we want to find a way of justifying inductive inferences, we must first of all try to establish a principle of induction. A principle of induction would be a statement with the help of which we could put inductive inferences into a logically acceptable form. In the eyes of the upholders of inductive logic, a principle of induction is of supreme importance for scientific method. This principle, says Reichenbach, determines the truth of scientific theories. To eliminate it from science would mean nothing less than to deprive science of the power to decide the truth or falsity of its theories. Without it, clearly, science would no longer have the right to distinguish its theories from the fanciful and arbitrary creations of the poet’s mind.
Q. If you were to interview the author, what would be your follow-up question to him/her?
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Group Question Answer the following question based on the information given below.
The chart below shows the income and expenditure (in Rs. crores) of a firm for four successive quarters in an year.
A circle of maximum area is cut out from a square cardboard of side a cm. The cardboard left is thrown away. Now, a right angled triangle is cut out from the circle such that all three vertices of the triangle lie on the circumference of the circle and touch the sides of the square. Again the cardboard left is thrown away. What is the ratio of the area of the triangular cardboard to the area of the cardboard that is thrown away?
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Amrit Kumar answered  •  5 hours ago
The given data can be represented as shown below:
Let the area of the square, circle and triangle be S, C and T respectively.
Area o f cardboard thrown away when the circle is cut = A - C
And, area o f cardboard thrown away when the triangle is cut = C - T
∴ Total area o f cardboard thrown away = A - C + C - T = A - T
Area of square =A = a2 sq.cm
Since all three vertices of the right triangle lie on the circle, the hypotenuse of the triangle is the same as the diameter of the circle (which in turn is the same as the side of the square i.e. a cm).
If the centre of the circle is joined to the third vertex of the triangle, it becomes the height of the triangle (as shown in the figure). The hypotenuse becomes the base of the triangle.
∴  Area of triangle =
∴ Required ratio = 
Hence, option 4.

Group Question
A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.
From 1948 to 1977, socialism strongly influenced the government's economic policies. Colonial plantations were dismantled, industries were nationalised and a welfare state established. While the standard of living and literacy improved significantly, the nation's economy suffered from inefficiency, slow growth and lack of foreign investment. From 1977 the UNP government began incorporating privatisation, deregulation and promotion of private enterprise. 
The GDP grew at an average annual rate of 5.5% during the early 1990s, until a drought and a deteriorating security situation lowered growth to 3.8% in 1996. The economy rebounded in 1997-2000, with average growth of 5.3%. The year of 2001 saw the first recession in the country's history, as a result of power shortages, budgetary problems, the global slowdown, and continuing civil strife.
In April 2004, there was a sharp reversal in economic policy after the government headed by Ranil Wickremesinghe of the United National Party was defeated by a coalition made up of Sri Lanka Freedom Party and the leftist-nationalist Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna called the United People's Freedom Alliance. The new government stopped the privatization of state enterprises and reforms of state utilities such as power and petroleum, and embarked on a subsidy program called the Rata Perata economic program. Its main theme was to support the rural and suburban SMEs and protect the domestic economy from external influences, such as oil prices, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.
Q. Which of the following is not an effect of the adoption of socialist policies by the Sri Lankan economy?
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Foola Ram answered  •  5 hours ago
The passage states that the standard of living improved with the adoption of socialist policies. “From 1948 to 1977....welfare state established. While the standard of living and literacy improved significantly......” Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

Heartburn, also known as acid reflux, is a painful and burning sensation in the esophagus, just behind the breastbone, usually associated with regurgitation of gastric acid. The pain often rises in the chest and may radiate to the neck, throat, or angle of the jaw.
Despite its name, heartburn actually has nothing to do with the heart; it is so called because of a burning sensation near to where the heart is located - although some heart problems may give rise to a similar burning sensation. The pain associated with acid reflux is due to the presence of acid in the esophagus. Acid is produced in the stomach as an aid to digestion and is not intended to be present in the esophagus. The presence of acid in the esophagus eats away at the lining of the esophagus and causes pain. Acid reflux does not occur because there is too much acid created by the stomach, but because the muscular barrier or valve between the esophagus and the stomach opens prematurely allowing acid, bile and other stomach contents into the esophagus. The name of this muscular barrier is the Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES). When the LES doesn't stay closed or when it opens at the wrong time, reflux can occur.
In many cases, acid reflux medications known as PPI's (proton pump inhibitors such as Nexium, Prilosec, etc) work well enough at reducing acid levels that the pain goes away. Unfortunately PPI's don't help reinforce the LES and in some cases surgery may be required. 38% of PPI users experience break-through pain while taking PPI's. The LES is also sometimes referred to as the cardiac sphincter, referring to a part of the stomach referred to as the cardia and not, as might be thought, to the heart, lending some additional confusion to the term "heartburn".
Q. Which of the following is an effect of PPIs?
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Kulwant Singh answered  •  5 hours ago
According to the passage, “In many cases, acid reflux medications known as PPI's (proton pump inhibitors such as Nexium, Prilosec, etc) work well enough at reducing acid levels that the pain goes away” Since acidity is caused by acid in the esophagus - “Unlike the stomach's lining, which can tolerate very high concentrations of acid, the presence of acid in the esophagus eats away at the lining of the esophagus and causes pain.” Option 1 is wrong because “PPI's don't help reinforce the LES.”
Option 2 is wrong as we know only that “38% of PPI users experience break-through pain while taking PPI's.” We don’t know where that pain is.
Option 4 is wrong as there is no proof.
Hence, the correct answer is 3.

Answer the question based on the passage below.
Railways, the great monolith often christened as the economic lifeline of the nation, is in for a major overhaul. It's an organization that carries over 20 million passengers a day and over thousand million tonnes of freight a year.
It has been doing so since so many years, but, it has almost reached its limits in its present shape and structure, and that's where the nub lies. There's no longer time to beat about the bush, rather it's time to call a spade a spade and revamp the rail structure.
Q.Which of the following strengthens the claim made by the author in the passage?
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Sunita answered  •  5 hours ago
The central claim of the author is that the railways have reached a point of saturation with their current level of performance and need to be urgently revamped. Only option 3 strengthens this explanation.
Option 1 is irrelevant to the argument of the author, which focusses on the condition of services provided by the railways and not on the revenue. Eliminate option 1.
Option 2 brings in the aspect of “a higher cost” which is not supported by the passage. Additionally, we do not know what kind of a cost is being mentioned.
Option 4 talks about a periodic overhaul, while the passage focuses on a complete revamp of the current system. Eliminate option 4.
Option 5 states corruption as the cause to revamp railways, which is an unrelated issue as far as this passage is concerned.
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

Zile Singh asked   •  1 hour ago

Group Question
The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
'And why am I under arrest?’ he then asked. ‘That’s something we’re not allowed to tell you. Go into your room and wait there’”. The story of Joseph K. described in Kafka’s novel The Trial may indeed appear to many as a terrible nightmare or description of a truly wicked legal system. Yet, it becomes even more shocking and unbelievable when one is told that far from being just a creation of a writer’s imagination, such situations have recently taken place in a contemporary democratic state. Based on secret evidence presented in closed proceedings, a number of people “reasonably suspected of terrorism” have been repeatedly deprived of their liberty without any knowledge of the case or evidence against them. This was the effect of the control orders regime introduced in the United Kingdom as part of the so-called ‘war on terror’.
Fortunately, it has been claimed by various commentators, this has all changed after the AF ruling. Imposing an obligation to disclose an ‘irreducible minimum’ of information to the suspect as well as questioning the fairness of the detention regime, the decision has been seen as effectively reprimanding the Government for failing to respect human rights. However, amid these appraisals the reality appears to be bleak as legal practitioners have regularly argued the limited practical impact of the decision. So far, the Government has resisted any reform, hiding behind the AF decision and claiming that a sufficient level of procedural fairness has been provided. The author argues, however, that neither the presence of secret advocates (SA) nor the provision of a ‘gist’ of the case will ever be enough to fully secure Art. 6 ECHR compliance. The lack of clarity surrounding the definition of an ‘irreducible minimum’ and the systemic problems of the SA procedure make it very likely that breaches of due process will continue.
Q. Which of the following is least true according to the passage?
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Mahender Singh asked   •  1 hour ago

Answer the following question based on the information given below.
Indra Nooyi, the boss of PepsiCo, wants her firm to be “seen as one of the defining companies of the first half of the 21st century”, a “model of how to conduct business in the modern world.” More specifically, she argues that Pepsi, which makes crisps (potato chips) and other fatty, salty snacks as well as sugary drinks, should be part of the solution, not the cause, of “one of the world’s biggest public-health challenges, a challenge fundamentally linked to our industry: obesity.” To that end, on March 22nd she unveiled a series of targets to improve the healthiness of Pepsi’s wares. By 2015 the firm aims to reduce the salt in some of its biggest brands by 25%; by 2020, it hopes to reduce the amount of added sugar in its drinks by 25% and the amount of saturated fat in certain snacks by 15%.

Q. Which of the following, if true, casts serious doubts on Ms. Nooyi’s intentions?
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Gautam Kumar asked   •  1 hour ago

Answer the following question based on the information given below.Animals can habituate to environmental disturbances. What’s more, they can get very good at telling the difference between stimuli that are relevant to them, and those that aren’t. Tree frogs can tell the difference between vibration caused by a predator and vibration caused by rain, even though these cues are extremely similar. Similarly, caterpillars living on leaves can tell the difference between vibrations caused by other caterpillars, predators, wind and rain.Spiders build webs on human-built structures such as pipelines, fences, road signs and wire rods, all of which are made out of materials not present in their evolutionary history. This means that they will absorb vibrations from the environment differently to a more natural place a spider might build its web, for example a plant. If these human-built objects are anywhere near humans (which they are likely to be) they are also probably affected by human noise. For example, a spider that has built a web near a road will be subject to the vibration caused by cars driving by. This matters particularly to spiders because they use vibration so much in guiding their behaviour. Indeed, you can even imagine the web to be an extension of the spider itself, such that the vibrations on the very outside of the web travel down to the spider situated in the centre and tell it whether it’s being ‘touched’ by prey, a mate, wind or rain.
 Select the odd man out from the given alternatives.
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Aarohi asked   •  1 hour ago

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.
Revolutions are extreme changes in a country that can have far- reaching effects for its neighbors. For this reason, many countries pay close attention to revolutions as they play out to decide whether or not to assist or impede revolutionary progress to protect their own interests. Predicting the course of such events therefore becomes essential to determining foreign policy towards areas in turmoil. Scholars largely agree that revolutions tend to play out in similar ways. However, revolutionary theorists are still at odds over how successful revolutionary states form. Some historians such as Theda Skocpol argue that social revolutions are a product of socioeconomic and political conditions and therefore are predictable in at-risk countries. Others, like Greg McCarthy claim that this view fails to take into account social class and the struggle resulting from socioeconomic differences, factors that have been driving forces in revolutions instigated by the lower class, as in France and Russia. I contend that, although the preceding government and society are significant in causing a revolution and creating revolutionaries, the ideological mindset of the revolutionary group is itself a major factor in determining the outcome of the revolution.
There may be some objections to the idea of generalizing the outcomes of revolutions beyond individual cases. Logic seems to dictate that every country has different political and socioeconomic conditions, all of which impact how a given revolution plays out.
However, social revolution is a specific form of upheaval in the national political and social structure that can emerge from religious and economic motivations. These events are, according to Skocpol “basic transformations of a society’s state and class structures; and they are accompanied and in part carried through by class-based revolts from below”. Such upheavals involve not only political and governmental shifts, but also socioeconomic changes.
By gathering intelligence about revolutionary groups at the forefront of upheaval in a nation, we can deduce their ideologies. From their ideology, revolutionary tendencies can be applied to predict possible actions that may be taken during a revolution. For example, a communist group is likely to create a bureaucratic government based on the lower class, which could be effective at quick mass- mobilization in times of war. Using this sort of analysis, with emphasis on the structural and ideological distinctions of various revolutions, general trends for other revolutionary varieties, such as Islamic revolutions in the Middle East, can be found and refined.
This information could be used to determine whether or not intervention is necessary for national security and if so, what sort. A country with an interest in oil in a region, for example, would not be keen on allowing communists to seize power, as the new regime would likely not be receptive to private investors. During a revolution led by religious zealots, onlookers may be less likely to deem intervention worth the trouble if such revolutionaries tend to create large, destructive armies. The guidelines when applied to more revolutions, could provide a way to better predict the formation of governments in the critical stage of revolution.
What can be concluded from the statement- “By gathering intelligence about revolutionary groups at the forefront of upheaval in a nation, we can deduce their ideologies."
A. Revolutions have certain pattern to them
B. Ideologies have certain patterns to them
C. Revolutionary groups cause upheavals in a nation
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MEGNA DAS asked   •  1 hour ago

A certain Twenty 20 cricket tournament is about to start and there are 7 media sponsors A, B, C, D, E, F and G for it. They have the advertisement rights of 50%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 5%, 5% and 10% respectively for each of the match. A typical cricket match has 2 innings each of 20 overs. The telecasting channel has the following rules in terms of advertisements.
1. The advertisements have to be telecasted according to a company’s advertisement rights as mentioned above. For example, out of total advertisement timing, A should not hold more than 50%.
2. There should be a commercial break at the end of every over.
3. There should be 2 advertisements telecasted in each of these breaks.
4. A break cannot exceed a time frame of 90 seconds but slotting of advertisements should be done in such a way so as to use the maximum of time frame.
5. Both the advertisements telecasted in the break cannot be of the same company.
Following table shows the advertisement from each of the sponsor together with its time frame. For example, company A has 2 advertisements; one is of 30 seconds while other is of 60 seconds.
The table also shows the competitor of the company. For example, companies A, B and C are competitors of each other.
The telecasting channel wants to impress the sponsors by telecasting their longest advertisement keeping in mind the above rules. On a clash of timings, the telecasting channel can telecast either of the advertisements to satisfy the rules.
For all the questions below, assume that both the innings lasted for 20 overs each.
Q. Find the maximum number of advertisements of 30 seconds advertisements telecasted. (Consider that entire advertisement time is utilized)
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Nisarg asked   •  2 hours ago

Have you noticed how environmental campaigners almost inevitably say that not only is global warming happening and bad, but also that what we are seeing is even worse than expected? This is odd, because any reasonable understanding of how science proceeds would expect that, as we refine our knowledge, we find that things are sometimes worse and sometimes better than we expected, and that the most likely distribution would be about 50-50. Environmental campaigners, however, almost invariably see it as 100-0. If we are regularly being surprised in just one direction, if our models get blindsided by an ever-worsening reality, that does not bode well for our scientific approach. Indeed, one can argue that if the models constantly get something wrong, it is probably because the models are wrong. And if we cannot trust our models, we cannot know what policy action to take if we want to make a difference. Yet, if new facts constantly show us that the consequences of climate change are getting worse and worse, high-minded arguments about the scientific method might not carry much weight. Certainly, this seems to be the prevailing bet in the spin on global warming. It is, again, worse than we thought, and, despite our failing models, we will gamble on knowing just what to do: cut CO2 emissions dramatically. But it is simply not correct that climate data are systematically worse than expected; in many respects, they are spot on, or even better than expected. That we hear otherwise is an indication of the media’s addiction to worst-case stories, but that makes a poor foundation for smart policies.
The most obvious point about global warming is that the planet is heating up. It has warmed about 1°C (1.8°F) over the past century, and is predicted by the United Nations’ climate panel (IPCC) to warm between 1.6-3.8°C (2.9-6.8°F) during this century, mainly owing to increased CO2 . An average o f all 38 available standard runs from the IPCC shows that models expect a temperature increase in this decade of about 0.2°C. But this is not at all what we have seen. And this is true for all surface temperature measures, and even more so for both satellite measures. Temperatures in this decade have not been worse than expected; in fact, they have not even been increasing. They have actually decreased by between 0.01 and 0.1 °C per decade. On the most important indicator of global warming, temperature development, we ought to hear that the data are actually much better than expected. Likewise, and arguably much more importantly, the heat content of the world’s oceans has been dropping for the past four years where we have measurements. Whereas energy in terms of temperature can disappear relatively easily from the light atmosphere, it is unclear where the heat from global warming should have gone - and certainly this is again much better than expected. We hear constantly about how the Arctic sea ice is disappearing faster than expected, and this is true. But most serious scientists also allow that global warming is only part of the explanation. Another part is that the so-called Arctic Oscillation of wind patterns over the Arctic Ocean is now in a state that it does not allow build-up of old ice, but immediately flushes most ice into the North Atlantic. More importantly, we rarely hear that the Antarctic sea ice is not only not declining, but is above average for the past year. IPCC models would expect declining sea ice in both hemispheres, but, whereas the Arctic is doing worse than expected, Antarctica is doing better.
Ironically, the Associated Press, along with many other news outlets, told us in 2007 that the “Arctic is screaming”, and that the Northwest Passage was open “for the first time in recorded history”. Yet the BBC reported in 2000 that the fabled Northwest Passage was already without ice. We are constantly inundated with stories of how sea levels will rise, and how one study after another finds that it will be much worse than what the IPCC predicts. But most models find results within the IPCC range of a sea-level increase of 18 to 59 centimeters (7-23 inches) this century. This is of course why the thousands of IPCC scientists projected that range. Yet studies claiming one meter or more obviously make for better headlines. Since 1992, we have had satellites measuring the rise in global sea levels, and they have shown a stable increase of 3.2 millimeters per year (1/8 of an inch) - spot on compared to the IPCC projection. Moreover, over the last two years, sea levels have not increased at all - actually, they show a slight drop . Should we not be told that this is much better than expected? Hurricanes were the stock image of A1 Gore’s famous film on climate change, and certainly the United States was battered in 2004 and 2005, leading to wild claims of ever stronger and costlier storms in the future. But in the two years since, the costs have been well below average, virtually disappearing in 2006. That is definitely better than expected. Gore quoted MIT hurricane researcher Kerry Emmanuel to support an alleged scientific consensus that global warming is making hurricanes much more damaging. But Emmanuel has now published a new study showing that even in a dramatically warming world, hurricane frequency and intensity may not substantially rise during the next two centuries. That conclusion did not get much exposure in the media. Of course, not all things are less bad than we thought. But one-sided exaggeration is not the way forward. We urgently need balance if we are to make sensible choices.
Q. Based on the passage, what can be said about the author's style?
A Descriptive
B Analytical
C Argumentative
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Ram Pati asked   •  2 hours ago

Pierre Boulez was the last survivor of the generation of composers who defined the European Avant-garde after World War II. Through his activities as a conductor and musical educator, his influence on musical life on both sides of the Atlantic has been incalculable. In the 1950s and early 60s, his activities as a fierce polemicist railing against the musical establishment and its traditions, dismissing opera as an outmoded art form, went hand in hand with his greatest productivity as a composer. Boulez’s ever-increasing activities as a conductor from the 1960s onwards coincided with a distinct falling off in his activities as a composer. Though the sonic world he created acquired a whole dimension with the use of techniques developed at the Paris research institute he founded, at the behest of the French government his new work suffered and tended to appear less frequently. Whether interpreting the music of the past had become a welcome surrogate for his dwindling creativity, or merely took up too much of the time he had previously spent
composing, is hard to say. But the story of the second half of Boulez’s career as a composer will remain a tantalising litany of unrealised projects.
It took a long time in public perception for the uncompromising radical to morph into the hugely revered figure later. When I first met him in the mid-1970s, some of that forbidding earlier aura remained, but his warmth and humour were immediately disarming. As he mellowed further, he also began to conduct music by a number of composers he would surely have dismissed out of hand in his early years. That inevitably required some quiet revisionism. However, he never kept himself from giving out candid statements. Looking at the music scenario in the 80’s Boulez said "If you want a kind of supermarket aesthetic, do that, nobody will be against it, but everybody will eventually forget it because each generation will create its own supermarket music”. The last time we met, in 2011, it was a surprise to hear him enthuse about the works of the Polish composer Szymanowski and to hear him claim that it was music he had admired since he first heard it as a schoolboy in 1942. It got me thinking of a question I wasn’t sure I should ask him.
Like everything he conducted, it was the precision of his performances that was so revealing, and which illuminated a range of 20th-century music in a way that few conductors before him had ever approached. And while a handful of Boulez’s own works will endure, it is his achievement as a conductor and educator in moving the music of our time and of the immediate past into the mainstream that is likely to be his legacy.
Q. The author mentions a question he wanted to ask Boulez. What is that question most likely to be?
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MEGNA DAS asked   •  2 hours ago

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
Dogs are able to follow human pointing gestures to find hidden food, and they can indicate successfully to their owners by their own pointing actions where a hidden toy is located. Under certain circumstances, dogs understand that a human who cannot see them (because, for example, she is blindfolded) is less likely to respond to begging with a tasty treat than a person whose vision is not obscured.
Dogs are also more likely to obey a command to leave something desirable alone if their master stays in the room than if he steps out. And yet attempts to view canine smarts as cut from the same cloth as human intelligence gloss over a lot of the details about how dogs and humans operate. We have found that people remain somewhat mysterious to dogs for the first five months of life, and dogs at our local pound lag considerably behind house dogs when it comes to understanding human beings.
Recent research by Alexandra Horowitz at Barnard College in New York accentuates the “talking past each other” that sometimes goes on between humans and dogs. Horowitz asked owners to forbid their dogs to take a biscuit and then briefly leave the room. When the owners returned, some were told that their dogs had been naughty and eaten the forbidden food.
Others were told their dog had been good and left the biscuit alone. If the dog had misbehaved, the owner was given a moment to berate his pet for its misdeed. The owners were then asked whether their dog looked guilty. The twist in the tale was that only half of the owners were correctly informed.
When Horowitz asked each owner whether his dog looked guilty, she could consider whether the owner’s report of “guilty looks” actually had to do with the facts of the matter - whether the dog had taken the forbidden treat - or whether it reflected nothing more than whether the owner had chastised his hound. The results showed clearly that “guilty looks” came about because the dog was being scolded. This does not mean that we should not chastise our dogs (or praise them). All it means is that, if we want to live harmoniously with another species in our most intimate places, we must recognize that some of the time our preferred modes of reasoning are not theirs. We must try to understand dogs on their own terms, and help them to understand us
According to the passage, all of the following statements about the relationship between man and dogs are true EXCEPT:
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Santosh Rani asked   •  3 hours ago

The tangled web of international organizations that constitutes global governance has become so remote and ineffective that few count on it to deliver results anymore. Now, after decades of turf wars and self-marginalization, international organizations must rally around an increasingly pressing global priority: sustainable urbanization. The world is undergoing an unprecedented and irreversible wave of urbanization, with the share of the global population living in cities set to reach 60% by 2030. But rapid urbanization is driving up industrial fossil-fuel consumption and household water consumption, and is increasing demand for food in areas where arable land is scarce. In short, the current urbanization trajectory is not sustainable. But existing efforts to alter the situation remain woefully inadequate.
Moreover, international development players - including UN agencies, NGOs, corporate citizenship programs, and other charitable organizations - rarely coordinate their activities, even though their interventions are increasingly concentrated in densely populated cities. Given that promoting sustainable urbanization and improving coordination would bolster progress in other priority areas (including women’s rights, climate change, youth unemployment, and literacy), sustainable urbanization must become a bureaucratic priority. And it must be complemented by a technological disruption, with investments channeled toward developing and distributing innovations that would make cities more livable, efficient, and sustainable. In fact, many useful innovations, such as energy-generating building materials and zero-emissions transportation, already exist; they simply need to be made accessible to those who need them most.The future impact of global governance rests on forging new alignments that facilitate the flow of vital knowledge and technologies from an increasingly diverse array of sources to urban populations worldwide. The tools needed to make urban life more sustainable are no longer flowing only from North to South and West to East. China has taken the lead in exporting solar photovoltaic cells, while clean-tech parks are arising even in the Arab world.
With new, innovative solutions appearing every day, the real challenge lies in bringing them to scale - and that requires international cooperation. But the “smartest” cities are not necessarily the most technologically advanced. Rather, they are the places where technology and public policy support citizens’ welfare and aspirations. This crucial fact will guide discussion at the New Cities Foundation’s second annual summit in June - the theme of which is “The Human City” - and should be at the heart of sustainable urbanization initiatives. Making sustainable urbanization a strategic priority might be the only way to overcome the interrelated crises of jobless growth, youth unemployment, and income inequality. While some factory jobs can be outsourced or automated, robots cannot yet retrofit buildings, install solar PV cells on rooftops, or construct vertical farms.
Q. What is the tone of the passage?
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Santra Devi asked   •  3 hours ago

Answer the following question based on the information given below.
In a reputed coffee house in Connought Place, Delhi, five friends met up for a school reunion. Their names are Amit, Vishal, Raghu, Priya and Shalini. They ordered a fruit punch, a cold coffee, a mango smoothie, a cappuccino and a grand latte, not necessarily in the same order. The prices of the drinks are Rs. 46, Rs. 54, Rs. 63, Rs. 75 and Rs. 85; again not necessarily in the same order. The waiter who took their order was new at work. He brought their drinks and arranged them in a line on the table. Amused, the friends asked him to pass them their correct drinks. They offered him some help and told that they would give him some hints to identify the order. Based on the information given below, could you help the confused waiter?
(All placement orders given below are from the perspective of the waiter and you can take them as right to left)
I.   The first item in the line was the one costing Rs. 54.
II.  Priya’s drink was placed at such a position that it had atleast one drink kept on either side of it.
III. Shalini’s drink was the one that costed Rs. 63.
IV.The friend who had ordered the cheapest drink, which incidentally was placed at the fourth place in the row, had ordered a cold coffee.
V.  Amit had ordered the drink that was placed in the middle of the row, which costed Rs. 75.
VI.Raghu frowned when the waiter tried to slip him the fruit punch, and told him that it was not his.
VII.    The grand latte was costlier than all but one.
VIII.    The drink kept on the fifth place in the row was the costliest drink and was a fruit punch.
Read the given statement and conclusions and choose the correct answer. Statement:
“Dev will play football if and only if it doesn’t rain and the grass on the field is not wet”.
I.    If it rains and the grass on the field is wet, Dev will not play football
II.    If Dev plays football, then the grass is not wet and it does not rain.
III.    If the grass is not wet and it does not rain, then Dev plays football.
IV.    Dev does not play football if it rains or the grass is wet.
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Bishan Singh asked   •  3 hours ago

Eighty per cent of humanity’s ability goes into war. If this 80% ability went into farming, went into gardens, went into factories, this earth would become a paradise. The dream that our seers and prophets used to see, that of a heaven in the sky, can now be materialised on earth. There is no obstacle except our old habit of fighting.
The poorest of poor nations are also engaged in an effort to make atom bombs. They are dying of starvation but they want to make atom bombs. Underneath, this same idea moves even a country like India. We may starve but our glory must be preserved.
I don’t believe in countries. If I am listened to, then I will say that India should be the first country to renounce nationalism. It would be good if the country of Krishna, Buddha, Patanjali and Gorakh renounces nationalism and says, ‘we are an international area’. India should become an area of the United Nations assembly. It should be said that we are the first nation that entrusts itself to the United Nations - you take custody. Someone must start it - and if it is started there is no need for wars. These wars will continue as long as there are borders. These borders must go.
It can be said that I am a traitor in the context of following one country but I am not a traitor to humanity. Actually all your lovers of nations are traitors to humanity. The very meaning of patriotism is ‘treason towards humanity’. Love of nation means dividing into parts. You have seen, haven’t you, that a person who is patriotic towards his region becomes an enemy of the nation. And one who is patriotic towards his district becomes an enemy of the region. I am not an enemy of the nation; my view is international. This whole earth is one. I want to abandon the small for the vast. But your so-called patriots, these nationalists, will not allow it to happen.
Previously, it was okay if wars went on happening because they were fought with bows and arrows; there was no harm. Now, the war is a total war. Now it is suicide of all mankind. Now every place can become a Hiroshima - any day, at any moment. Nationalism is a great sin. It is due to this nationalism that all the problems exist in the world. I am not a nationalist. I want to break all boundaries. Whoever on this earth who has received a small glimpse of the truth has no boundaries. They do not belong to any country, any community, any class, any sect, any caste. They belong to all, and all belong to them.
Q. Which of the following, if true, weakens the argument put forth in the passage? 
1. India’s attempts to become an international area are thwarted by its religious diversity
2. Human civilization is a story of change and only change.
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Yadnyesh Chaudhari asked   •  3 hours ago

Creativity is at once our most precious resource and our most inexhaustible one. As anyone who has ever spent any time with children knows, every single human being is born creative; every human being is innately endowed with the ability to combine and recombine data, perceptions, materials and ideas, and devise new ways of thinking and doing. What fosters creativity? More than anything else: the presence of other creative people. The big myth is that creativity is the province of great individual geniuses. In fact creativity is a social process. Our biggest creative breakthroughs come when people learn from, compete with, and collaborate with other people.
Cities are the true fonts of creativity... With their diverse populations, dense social networks, and public spaces where people can meet spontaneously and serendipitously, they spark and catalyze new ideas. With their infrastructure for finance, organization and trade, they allow those ideas to be swiftly actualized.
As for what staunches creativity, that's easy, if ironic. It's the very institutions that we build to manage, exploit and perpetuate the fruits of creativity — our big bureaucracies, and sad to say, too many of our schools. Creativity is disruptive; schools and organizations are regimented, standardized and stultifying.
The education expert Sir Ken Robinson points to a 1968 study reporting on a group of 1,600 children who were tested over time for their ability to think in out-of-the-box ways. When the children were between 3 and 5 years old, 98 percent achieved positive scores. When they were 8 to 10, only 32 percent passed the same test, and only 10 percent at 13 to 15. When 280,000 25-year-olds took the test, just 2 percent passed. By the time we are adults, our creativity has been wrung out of us.
I once asked the great urbanist Jane Jacobs what makes some places more creative than others. She said, essentially, that the question was an easy one. All cities, she said, were filled with creative people; that's our default state as people. But some cities had more than their shares of leaders, people and institutions that blocked out that creativity. She called them "squelchers."
Creativity (or the lack of it) follows the same general contours of the great socio-economic divide - our rising inequality - that plagues us. According to my own estimates, roughly a third of us across the United States, and perhaps as much as half of us in our most creative cities - are able to do work which engages our creative faculties to some extent, whether as artists, musicians, writers, techies, innovators, entrepreneurs, doctors, lawyers, journalists or educators - those of us who work with our minds. That leaves a group that I term "the other 66 percent," who toil in low-wage rote and rotten jobs — if they have jobs at all — in which their creativity is subjugated, ignored or wasted.
Creativity itself is not in danger. It's flourishing is all around us - in science and technology, arts and culture, in our rapidly revitalizing cities. But we still have a long way to go if we want to build a truly creative society that supports and rewards the creativity of each and every one of us.
In the author's view, cities promote human creativity for all the following reasons EXCEPT that they​
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Karan Kalawadiya asked   •  4 hours ago

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.
The theory of island biogeography was experimentally tested by E.O. Wilson and his student Daniel Simberloff in the mangrove islands in the Florida Keys. Species richness on several small mangroves islands were surveyed. The islands were fumigated with methyl bromide to clear their arthropod communities. Following fumigation the immigration of species onto the islands was monitored. Within a year, the islands had been recolonised. Islands closer to the mainland recovered faster and larger islands had more species at equilibrium as predicted by the Theory of Island Biogeography. The theory proposes that the number of species found on an undisturbed island is determined by: immigration, emigration and extinction. Immigration and emigration are affected by the distance of an island from a source of colonists. Usually this source is the mainland, but it can also be other islands. Islands that are more isolated are less likely to receive immigrants than islands that are less isolated.
The rate of extinction once a species manages to colonize an island is affected by island size. Larger islands contain larger habitat areas and opportunities for more different varieties of habitat. Larger habitat size reduces the probability of extinction due to chance events. Habitat heterogeneity increases the number of 5 species that will be successful after immigration.Over time, the countervailing forces of extinction and immigration result in an equilibrium level of species richness. Within a few years of the publishing of the theory its application to the field of conservation biology had been realised and was being vigorously debated in ecological circles. The realisation that reserves and national parks formed islands inside human-altered landscapes, and that these reserves could lose species as they 'relaxed towards equilibrium' caused a great deal of concern. This is particularly true when conserving larger species which tend to have larger ranges.
In the years after the publication of Wilson and Simberloff s papers ecologists had found more examples of the species-area relationship, and conservation planning was taking the view that the one large reserve could hold more species than several smaller reserves, and that larger reserves should be the norm in reserve design. Island biogeography theory also led to the development of habitat corridors as a conservation tool to increase connectivity between habitat islands. Habitat corridors can increase the movement of species between parks and reserves and therefore increase the number of species that can be supported.
From the following words taken from the passage, determine the word  which is the closest to being an antonym of “Colonise”.
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Nokhi Ram asked   •  4 hours ago

Sugata Mitra did an odd experiment. He placed a PC inside a wall behind a plastic shield in a New Dehli slum. Connected to the internet, with a mouse to manipulate it, Mitra simply powered it up and left it behind. “I left it to the wolves, knowing that it would be smashed, opened up and and sold,” Mitra says. “I left it, just to see what would happen.”
When Mitra came back after two months he found the kids playing games and browsing the Internet. One kid sauntered up to Mitra and said, “We could use a better mouse and a faster processor.” And there was a small complaint. “You’ve given us a machine that only works in English, so we had to teach ourselves English.”
Via what became known as the Hole in the Wall experiment, Mitra recognized for the first time the concept of self-learning. Mitra spread his concept of self-learning to hundreds of elementary schools across India, then to the United Kingdom, Australia, Hong Kong, Southeast Asia and Latin America.
In England, Mitra recruited an army of retired teachers, all women, whom he dubbed the “granny cloud.” The grannies connected to Mitra’s schools via Skype, and when the kids were assembled in groups of four to six, the grannies asked questions like “Can anything be less than zero?” “Will robots be conscious one day?” and “How do my eyes know to cry when I am sad?” Then they sat back and let the kids do the learning, injecting themselves only to offer the kind of encouragement that only grannies can. What Mitra saw was that the Granny cloud kids’ English improved, their Science scores soared. By most measures they were learning more and more quickly, and doing it mostly on their own.
What Mitra envisions are “schools in the cloud,” classes of 24 students in actual brick-and-mortar spaces managed in person by his volunteer grannies. The grannies ask the questions, offer the encouragement, everything else happens remotely, the lights, heating, and locks are all manipulated via the cloud. For now Mitra envisions that these cloud schools will function as a supplement to the daily education the kids already get - operating on the weekends and before and after school. They’ll offer English language learning initially, he says. “I’ll present it as a safe cyber cafe for children where they can learn good English,” Mitra says. “For now I cannot afford to say that this is a replacement for school.”
But just give him time.
“If it works, then we have an alternative that I can tell you with confidence will level the playing field,” Mitra says. “And leveling the playing field is what’s missing in this world.”
Q. What was Sugata Mitra expecting out of his odd experiment?
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Shiv Kumar Khanna asked   •  4 hours ago

Answer the following question based on the information given below.
In a reputed coffee house in Connought Place, Delhi, five friends met up for a school reunion. Their names are Amit, Vishal, Raghu, Priya and Shalini. They ordered a fruit punch, a cold coffee, a mango smoothie, a cappuccino and a grand latte, not necessarily in the same order. The prices of the drinks are Rs. 46, Rs. 54, Rs. 63, Rs. 75 and Rs. 85; again not necessarily in the same order. The waiter who took their order was new at work. He brought their drinks and arranged them in a line on the table. Amused, the friends asked him to pass them their correct drinks. They offered him some help and told that they would give him some hints to identify the order. Based on the information given below, could you help the confused waiter?
(All placement orders given below are from the perspective of the waiter and you can take them as right to left)
I.   The first item in the line was the one costing Rs. 54.
II.  Priya’s drink was placed at such a position that it had atleast one drink kept on either side of it.
III. Shalini’s drink was the one that costed Rs. 63.
IV.The friend who had ordered the cheapest drink, which incidentally was placed at the fourth place in the row, had ordered a cold coffee.
V.  Amit had ordered the drink that was placed in the middle of the row, which costed Rs. 75.
VI.Raghu frowned when the waiter tried to slip him the fruit punch, and told him that it was not his.
VII.    The grand latte was costlier than all but one.
VIII.    The drink kept on the fifth place in the row was the costliest drink and was a fruit punch.
Which of the following additional piece(s) of information, if true, facilitate the identification of the drinks that costed Rs. 63 and Rs. 54 respectively?
A.     The cost of the mango smoothie was more than that of the cappuccino.
B.     Mango smoothie was placed at one of the extreme ends of the row.
C.     Cappuccino was cheaper than all other drinks but one.
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Isha Mishra asked   •  5 hours ago

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.
With many other souls as his companions Er had come across an awesome place with four openings, two into and out of the sky and two into and out of the earth. Judges sat between these openings and ordered the souls which path to follow: the good were guided into the path in the sky, the immoral were directed below. But when Er approached the judges he was told to remain, listening and observing in order to report his experience to humankind.
Meanwhile from the other opening in the sky, clean souls floated down, recounting beautiful sights and wondrous feelings. Others, returning from the earth, appeared dirty, haggard and tired, crying in despair when recounting their awful experience, as each was required to pay a tenfold penalty for all the wicked deeds committed when alive. There were some, however, that could not be released from the underground. Murderers, tyrants and other non-political criminals were doomed to remain by the exit of the underground, unable to escape. After seven days in the meadow the souls and Er were required to travel further. After four days they reached a place where they could see a rainbow shaft of light brighter than any they had seen before. After another day's travel they reached it. This was the spindle of Necessity which represents the cosmos. Several women, including Lady Necessity, her daughters and the Sirens were present. The souls were then organized into rows and were each given a lottery token apart from Er. Then of their lottery tokens, they were required to come forward in order and choose their next life. Er recalled the first to choose a new soul, a man who had not known the terrors of the underground, but had been rewarded in the sky, hastily chose a powerful dictatorship. Upon further inspection he realized that, among other atrocities, he was destined to eat his own children. Er observed that this was often the case of those who had been through the path in the sky, whereas those who had been punished often chose a better life. Many preferred a life different from their previous experience. Animals chose human lives while humans often chose the apparently easier lives of animals.
After this each soul was assigned a deity to help them through their life. They passed under the throne of Lady Necessity, and then traveled to the Plain of Oblivion, where the River of Forgetfulness (River Lethe) flowed. Each soul was required to drink some of the water, in varying quantities, apart from Er. As they drank, each soul forgot everything. As they lay down at night to sleep each soul was lifted up into the night in various directions for rebirth, completing their journey. Er remembered nothing of the journey back to his body. He opened his eyes to find himself lying on the funeral pyre, early in the morning, and able to recall his journey through the afterlife.
Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate pair of words from the given options. The_________ was not in its__________ .
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Poonam asked   •  6 hours ago

Answer the following question based on the information given below. Six friends - Ajay, Bharti, Charu, Dushyant, Esha and Farhaan - are working on a research project in groups of two, as a part of their college curriculum. Their research areas include Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology. Table 1 summarizes the different research areas of all project groups, while Table 2 summarizes the marks obtained in the respective projects by each member of these very groups. Table 3 provides the maximum marks allotted to each project of a particular research area, and the number of credits awarded to each member of a group that scores above 60% in that project. A student is not awarded any credit if he/she scores 50% or less in a project and 3 credits if he/she scores between 50% and 60%. If a student drops a particular project, he/she is allowed to join another group and work on that group’s project. In such a case, he/she gets credits as per the group’s result in that new project. If a students drops a project, his/her partner can still complete the project. The number of members in a group cannot exceed 3.
  Which among the following actions helps Bharti increase her number of 1 credits, when all projects are completed?Marks
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Tarun Dahiya asked   •  6 hours ago

A leading management institute recently absorbed a batch of 80 students for its two-year PGP course in management.
The criteria for selection were as follows:
I.     The candidate should have taken exactly one of the CAT or XAT examinations.
II.     The candidate must have :
a. Secured atleast 96 percentile in the examination he or she had written. OR
b. Secured a rank among the top 10 students in his or her university examination (university topper).
III.   The candidate must either be a fresher or have work experience of more than 3 years.
Further information on the students the Institute had absorbed is as follows:
IV.   There were 45 students who had secured a rank among the top 10 students in their university examination. Of this, 33.3 % were freshers while 66.66% had appeared for CAT.
     V. 30 students had taken the XAT examination, of which 15 were freshers.
VI. Of the students who had work experience greater than 3 years, 15 students were university toppers (i.e. in the top 10) and these students had also secured 96 or more percentile in the examination they had taken.
VII. There were 20 students who had taken the CAT examination, had secured a rank among the top 10 students in their university examination, and also had work experience of more than 3 years.
VIII. There were a total of 40 students who had work experience of more than 3 years.
IX.  No fresher satisfied both the criteria mentioned in (II) above.
What percent of the total students absorbed by the Institute were University 3 toppers who had also secured more than 96 percentile in the XAT?
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Aarav Kapoor asked   •  7 hours ago

Answer the following question based on the information given below.
Eight representatives - A to H - one from each of the eight international test playing nations are invited by the ICC for an event where strategies to encourage different countries to take up cricket are to be discussed. All eight nations have a different ICC test ranking from 1 to 8 and every representative has scored a different number of centuries in international cricket. These representatives are staying in a hotel on the same floor but in eight different rooms. There are only eight rooms on the floor. There are four rooms in each row. There is a corridor such that one row is to the left of the corridor and the other is to its right. The Indian and Pakistani representatives stay in room numbers 401 and 408, not necessarily in the same order. Rooms adjacent to each other are numbered consecutively, such that rooms 403 and 406 are opposite each other.
The addition of the test rank of India and Australia is the same as the rank of Sri Lanka. Also, the addition of India’s and New Zealand’s rank is equal to West Indies’ rank. The addition of ranks of Pakistan and New Zealand is the same as that of West Indies and Sri Lanka.
B is from West Indies. C is not from Pakistan, Sri Lanka or England. G is from New Zealand. D is neither from England nor from Sri Lanka.
The ranks of India, New Zealand, West Indies, and England are prime numbers. A, the representative from India, has scored 100 centuries. This is the maximum number of centuries scored by any representative.
Australia’s rank as well as the number of centuries scored by the Australian representative is a perfect square. Sri Lanka’s rank is twice England’s rank. The number of centuries scored by the Australian is a perfect cube.
The Australian is opposite room number 404 and there is only one room adjacent to his room. The South African stays in room number 407 and neither the Indian nor the Australian is his neighbor. The West Indian and the New Zealander stay opposite each other.
The number of centuries scored by the Pakistani, Englishman, South African, Sri Lankan, and Australian are consecutive numbers in decreasing order. With 32 centuries, the New Zealander has scored the least number of centuries.
H represents South Africa, which holds the top most spot in the test rankings. F is not from Sri Lanka
If the Sri Lankan representative stays in room 404, where does the Englishman stay?
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