DIRECTIONS: Read the passage and answer the questions based on it.
The magic of squatter cities is that they are improved steadily and gradually by their residents. To a planner’s eye, these cities look chaotic. I trained as a biologist and to my eye, they look organic. Squatter cities are also unexpectedly green. They have maximum density—1 million people per square mile in some areas of Mumbai—and have minimum energy and material use. People get around by foot, bicycle, rickshaw, or the universal shared taxi.
Not everything is efficient in the slums, though. In the Brazilian favelas where electricity is stolen and therefore free, people leave their lights on all day. But in most slums recycling is literally a way of life. The Dharavi slum in Mumbai has 400 recycling units and 30.000 ragpickers. Six thousand tons of rubbish are sorted every day. In 2007, the Economist reported that in Vietnam and Mozambique. “Waves of gleaners sift the sweepings of Hanoi’s streets, just as Mozambiquan children pick over the rubbish of Maputo’s main tip. Every city in Asia and Latin America has an industry based on gathering up old cardboard boxes.” . . .
In his 1985 article, Calthorpe made a statement that still jars with most people: “The city is the most environmentally benign form of human settlement. Each city dweller consumes less land, less energy, less water, and produces less pollution than his counterpart in settlements of lower densities.” “Green Manhattan” was the inflammatory title of a 2004 New Yorker article by David Owen. “By the most significant measures.” he wrote. “New York is the greenest community in the United States, and one of the greenest cities in the world . . . The key to New York’s relative environmental benignity is its extreme compactness. Placing one and a half million people on a twenty-three-square-mile island sharply reduces their opportunities to be wasteful.” He went on to note that this very compactness forces people to live in the world’s most energy-efficient apartment buildings. . . .
Urban density allows half of humanity to live on 2.8 per cent of the land. . . . Consider just the infrastructure efficiencies. According to a 2004 UN report: “The concentration of population and enterprises in urban areas greatly reduces the unit cost of piped water, sewers, drains, roads, electricity, garbage collection, transport, health care, and schools.” . . . The nationally subsidised city of Manaus in northern Brazil “answers the question” of how to stop deforestation: give people decent jobs. Then they can afford houses, and gain security. One hundred thousand people who would otherwise be deforesting the jungle around Manaus are now prospering in town making such things as mobile phones and televisions.  
Of course, fast-growing cities are far from an unmitigated good. They concentrate crime, pollution, disease and injustice as much as business, innovation, education and entertainment. . . . But if they are overall a net good for those who move there, it is because cities offer more than just jobs. They are transformative: in the slums, as well as the office towers and leafy suburbs, the progress is from hick to metropolitan to cosmopolitan . . .
(2019)
Q. Which one of the following statements would undermine the author’s stand regarding the greenness of cities?
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Dara Singh answered  •  2 hours ago
Let us understand the question. In the passage, the author talks about the greenness of cities. The question wants you to identify the option that would counter the argument in favor of greenness of the cities.
Given the choices provided, the question is easy. You may not have to read the passage to answer the question because common sense answer would be more effective here. Option (a)  is about compactness of big cities and the incidence of violent crime. This has nothing to do with the greenness of cities. So we can reject this option.
Option (b) is meaningful from the perspective of the question. It says that the high density of the cities leads to the increase of CO2 and greenhouse gases. This argument undermines the logic on the greenness of the cities. This could be our possible answer, but let us see other options as well. Option (c) is about the increasing cost of utilities. This has nothing to do with the greenness of the cities. So we can reject this option.
Option (d) is about rubbish leading to spread of diseases in slums. This has nothing to do with the greenness of the cities.
Therefore, the correct answer is option (b).

DIRECTIONS for the question: Choose the word from the options which is most Similar in meaning to the given word.
DILIGENT
  • a)
    Indefatigable
  • b)
    Apathetic
  • c)
    Chic
  • d)
    Spirited
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Om Prakash answered  •  2 hours ago
►Diligent means unflagging and hard- working. Its synonym is indefatigable, which means showing sustained enthusiastic action with unflagging vitality.
►Apathetic means showing little or no emotion or animation.
►Chic means elegant and stylish.
►Spirited means displaying animation, vigour, or liveliness.

Each of the 10 persons namely A, Q, R, Z, M, N, P, B, K and L are wearing a shirt. The colour of each shirt is one out of blue, green and red. There are ten chairs placed in a row. The chairs are consecutively numbered 1, 2, 3, 4...9 and 10 from left to right in that order. These ten persons have to sit on the chairs such that there is only one person in each chair. The number of persons wearing a green and a blue shirt is 2 and 3 respectively.
Additional Information:
1. No two persons wearing blue shirts sit on consecutively numbered chairs.
2. Among the persons wearing red shirts, exactly three persons always are sitting together while the remaining two never.
3. A person wearing a blue shirt and a person wearing a green shirt never is sitting on
consecutively numbered chairs.
4. A person wearing a green shirt cannot sit on chairs numbered 2 or 9.
5. Persons wearing red shirts are not sitting at extreme ends.
The following table provides information about the six different seating arrangements namely I, II, III, IV, V and VI of the ten persons done by Mr. Crazy. He observed that out of all the seating arrangements done by him, there is one arrangement that is not consistent with the information stated under "Additional Information".
Which of the following persons is wearing a green shirt?
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Yash Pal Singh answered  •  2 hours ago
Let the people who wear a blue, red and green shirt be denoted by b, r and g respectively. Restrictions on the seating arrangement:
1. Two b’s must not be together.
2. Three r’s must be together.
3. A ‘b’ and a ‘g’ must not be together.
4. A ‘g’ cannot sit on a chair numbered 2 or 9.
Case I: 
A person wearing a green shirt is sitting on chair numbered 1. It is only possible if another person wearing a green shirt sits on chair numbered 2, but this violates restriction number 4.
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DIRECTION for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.
A professor keeps data on students tabulated by performance and sex of the student. The data is kept on a computer disk, but unfortunately some of it is lost because of a virus. Only the following could be recovered:
Panic buttons were pressed but to no avail. An expert committee was formed, which decided that the following facts were self evident: Half the students were either excellent or good. 40% of the students were females. One third of the male students were average.
Q. What proportion of good students are male?
  • a)
    0
  • b)
    0.73
  • c)
    0.4
  • d)
    1.0
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Rajpal answered  •  2 hours ago
►Since 40% of the students were females, these constituted 32 students.
►So total number of students = 80 & total number of male students = 48.
►Now since half the students were eitherexcellent or good, (number of average students) = (number of good students + number of excellent students) = 40.
►Hence number of excellent students = 40 - 30 = 10.
►Finally since l/3rd of male. students were average, total number of male students that were average = (1/3 48) = 16 and hence total number of male students that were good = (48 - 16 - 10) = 22.
►Based on the above revelations the following table can be drawn:
Proportion of good students who are male = (22/30)  0.73.

If xy = yz = zx and xz = y2, the which of the following is correct?
  • a)
  • b)
  • c)
  • d)
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Harpal Singh answered  •  2 hours ago
xy = zx ⇒ y = z;
yz = zx ⇒ y = x
Therefore, for option 1 :
► z = 2y2 / 2y = y
⇒ z = y = z
Thus, LHS = RHS.

Read the following passage and answer the set of four questions that follow.
You have probably never heard of William Kingdon Clifford. He is not in the pantheon of great philosophers - perhaps because his life was cut short at the age of 33 - but I cannot think of anyone whose ideas are more relevant for our interconnected, AI-driven, digital age. This might seem strange given that we are talking about a Victorian Briton whose most famous philosophical work is an essay nearly 150 years ago. However, reality has caught up with Clifford. His once seemingly exaggerated claim that ‘it is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence’ is no longer hyperbole but a technical reality.
In ‘The Ethics of Belief’ (1877), Clifford gives three arguments as to why we have a moral obligation to believe responsibly, that is, to believe only what we have sufficient evidence for, and what we have diligently investigated. His first argument starts with the simple observation that our beliefs influence our actions. Everyone would agree that our behaviour is shaped by what we take to be true about the world - which is to say, by what we believe. If I believe that it is raining outside, I’ll bring an umbrella. If I believe taxis don’t take credit cards, I make sure I have some cash before jumping into one. And if I believe that stealing is wrong, then I will pay for my goods before leaving the store.
What we believe is then of tremendous practical importance. False beliefs about physical or social facts lead us into poor habits of action that in the most extreme cases could threaten our survival. If the singer R Kelly genuinely believed the words of his song ‘I Believe I Can Fly’ (1996), I can guarantee you he would not be around by now.
But it is not only our own self-preservation that is at stake here. As social animals, our agency impacts on those around us, and improper believing puts our fellow humans at risk. As Clifford warns: ‘We all suffer severely enough from the maintenance and support of false beliefs and the fatally wrong actions which they lead to …’ In short, sloppy practices of belief-formation are ethically wrong because - as social beings - when we believe something, the stakes are very high.
The most natural objection to this first argument is that while it might be true that some of our beliefs do lead to actions that can be devastating for others, in reality most of what we believe is probably inconsequential for our fellow humans. As such, claiming as Clifford did that it is wrong in all cases to believe on insufficient evidence seems like a stretch. I think critics had a point - had - but that is no longer so. In a world in which just about everyone’s beliefs are instantly shareable, at minimal cost, to a global audience, every single belief has the capacity to be truly consequential in the way Clifford imagined. If you still believe this is an exaggeration, think about how beliefs fashioned in a cave in Afghanistan lead to acts that ended lives in New York, Paris and London. Or consider how influential the ramblings pouring through your social media feeds have become in your very own daily behaviour. In the digital global village that we now inhabit, false beliefs cast a wider social net, hence Clifford’s argument might have been hyperbole when he first made it, but is no longer so today.
The second argument Clifford provides to back his claim that it is always wrong to believe on insufficient evidence is that poor practices of belief-formation turn us into careless, credulous believers. Clifford puts it nicely: ‘No real belief, however trifling and fragmentary it may seem, is ever truly insignificant; it prepares us to receive more of its like, confirms those which resembled it before, and weakens others; and so gradually it lays a stealthy train in our inmost thoughts, which may someday explode into overt action, and leave its stamp upon our character.’ Translating Clifford’s warning to our interconnected times, what he tells us is that careless believing turns us into easy prey for fake-news pedlars, conspiracy theorists and charlatans. And letting ourselves become hosts to these false beliefs is morally wrong because, as we have seen, the error cost for society can be devastating. Epistemic alertness is a much more precious virtue today than it ever was, since the need to sift through conflicting information has exponentially increased, and the risk of becoming a vessel of credulity is just a few taps of a smartphone away.
Clifford’s third and final argument as to why believing without evidence is morally wrong is that, in our capacity as communicators of belief, we have the moral responsibility not to pollute the well of collective knowledge. In Clifford’s time, the way in which our beliefs were woven into the ‘precious deposit’ of common knowledge was primarily through speech and writing. Because of this capacity to communicate, ‘our words, our phrases, our forms and processes and modes of thought’ become ‘common property’. Subverting this ‘heirloom’, as he called it, by adding false beliefs is immoral because everyone’s lives ultimately rely on this vital, shared resource.
While Clifford’s final argument rings true, it again seems exaggerated to claim that every little false belief we harbour is a moral affront to common knowledge. Yet reality, once more, is aligning with Clifford, and his words seem prophetic. Today, we truly have a global reservoir of belief into which all of our commitments are being painstakingly added: it’s called Big Data. You don’t even need to be an active netizen posting on Twitter or ranting on Facebook: more and more of what we do in the real world is being recorded and digitised, and from there algorithms can easily infer what we believe before we even express a view. In turn, this enormous pool of stored belief is used by algorithms to make decisions for and about us. And it’s the same reservoir that search engines tap into when we seek answers to our questions and acquire new beliefs. Add the wrong ingredients into the Big Data recipe, and what you’ll get is a potentially toxic output. If there was ever a time when critical thinking was a moral imperative, and credulity a calamitous sin, it is now.
Q. What is the tone of the passage?
... more

Raj Kumar answered  •  2 hours ago
In the passage, the author has analysed why evidence is necessary to believe anything. Using the theory propounded by Clifford, he has tried to shed light on the disastrous effects of believing something without evidence, especially in recent times. Therefore, the tone of the passage is analytical.
Hence, option B is the correct answer.

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage and answer the questions based on it.
The magic of squatter cities is that they are improved steadily and gradually by their residents. To a planner’s eye, these cities look chaotic. I trained as a biologist and to my eye, they look organic. Squatter cities are also unexpectedly green. They have maximum density—1 million people per square mile in some areas of Mumbai—and have minimum energy and material use. People get around by foot, bicycle, rickshaw, or the universal shared taxi.
Not everything is efficient in the slums, though. In the Brazilian favelas where electricity is stolen and therefore free, people leave their lights on all day. But in most slums recycling is literally a way of life. The Dharavi slum in Mumbai has 400 recycling units and 30.000 ragpickers. Six thousand tons of rubbish are sorted every day. In 2007, the Economist reported that in Vietnam and Mozambique. “Waves of gleaners sift the sweepings of Hanoi’s streets, just as Mozambiquan children pick over the rubbish of Maputo’s main tip. Every city in Asia and Latin America has an industry based on gathering up old cardboard boxes.” . . .
In his 1985 article, Calthorpe made a statement that still jars with most people: “The city is the most environmentally benign form of human settlement. Each city dweller consumes less land, less energy, less water, and produces less pollution than his counterpart in settlements of lower densities.” “Green Manhattan” was the inflammatory title of a 2004 New Yorker article by David Owen. “By the most significant measures.” he wrote. “New York is the greenest community in the United States, and one of the greenest cities in the world . . . The key to New York’s relative environmental benignity is its extreme compactness. . . . Placing one and a half million people on a twenty-three-square-mile island sharply reduces their opportunities to be wasteful.” He went on to note that this very compactness forces people to live in the world’s most energy-efficient apartment buildings. . . .
Urban density allows half of humanity to live on 2.8 per cent of the land. . . . Consider just the infrastructure efficiencies. According to a 2004 UN report: “The concentration of population and enterprises in urban areas greatly reduces the unit cost of piped water, sewers, drains, roads, electricity, garbage collection, transport, health care, and schools.” . . . The nationally subsidised city of Manaus in northern Brazil “answers the question” of how to stop deforestation: give people decent jobs. Then they can afford houses, and gain security. One hundred thousand people who would otherwise be deforesting the jungle around Manaus are now prospering in town making such things as mobile phones and televisions. 
Of course, fast-growing cities are far from an unmitigated good. They concentrate crime, pollution, disease and injustice as much as business, innovation, education and entertainment. . . . But if they are overall a net good for those who move there, it is because cities offer more than just jobs. They are transformative: in the slums, as well as the office towers and leafy suburbs, the progress is from hick to metropolitan to cosmopolitan . . .
(2019)
Q. From the passage it can be inferred that cities are good places to live in for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that they
... more

Ransingh answered  •  2 hours ago
The question presumes that the passage discusses cities as good places to live in. Your task is to find out the reasons author of the passage cites as advantageous and identify which among the reasons given in options has not been mentioned in the passage. This may require you to read the entire passage quickly and underline points that are in favor of cities as a good place to live in. You will find your answer in the second half of the passage from paragraph 3. Option (a)  (help prevent destruction of the environment) has been discussed extensively. For instance, the entire third paragraph beginning from “In his 1985 article....” is about environment and how how cities help prevent destruction of environment. Similarly, there are references to jobs or employment opportunities. Read the second last paragraph: “The nationally subsidised city of Manaus in northern Brazil “answers the question” of how to stop deforestation: give people decent jobs.” There is no direct reference to cultural transformation but it can be inferred from the passage from the following sentences: “They concentrate crime, pollution, disease and injustice as much as business, innovation, education and entertainment” (Last paragraph) and “They are transformative: in the slums, as well as the office towers and leafy suburbs,” (Last sentence of the last paragraph).However, option (b) is nowhere mentioned in the passage. So, this is our answer.

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage and answer the questions based on it.
The Indian government has announced an international competition to design a National War Memorial in New Delhi, to honour all of the Indian soldiers who served in the various wars and counter-insurgency campaigns from 1947 onwards. The terms of the competition also specified that the new structure would be built adjacent to the India Gate – a memorial to the Indian soldiers who died in the First World War. Between the old imperialist memorial and the proposed nationalist one, India’s contribution to the Second World War is airbrushed out of existence.
The Indian government’s conception of the war memorial was not merely absent-minded. Rather, it accurately reflected the fact that both academic history and popular memory have yet to come to terms with India’s Second World War, which continues to be seen as little more than mood music in the drama of India’s advance towards independence and partition in 1947. Further, the political trajectory of the postwar subcontinent has militated against popular remembrance of the war. With partition and the onset of the India-Pakistan rivalry, both of the new nations needed fresh stories for self-legitimisation rather than focusing on shared wartime experiences.
However, the Second World War played a crucial role in both the independence and partition of India. . . . The Indian army recruited, trained and deployed some 2.5 million men, almost 90,000 of which were killed and many more injured. Even at the time, it was recognised as the largest volunteer force in the war.
India’s material and financial contribution to the war was equally significant. India emerged as a major militaryindustrial and logistical base for Allied operations in southeast Asia and the Middle East. This led the United States to take considerable interest in the country’s future, and ensured that this was no longer the preserve of the British government.
Other wartime developments pointed in the direction of India’s independence. In a stunning reversal of its longstanding financial relationship with Britain, India finished the war as one of the largest creditors to the imperial power.
Such extraordinary mobilization for war was achieved at great human cost, with the Bengal famine the most extreme manifestation of widespread wartime deprivation. The costs on India’s home front must be counted in millions of lives.
Indians signed up to serve on the war and home fronts for a variety of reasons. . . . Many were convinced that their contribution would open the doors to India’s freedom. The political and social churn triggered by the war was evident in the massive waves of popular protest and unrest that washed over rural and urban India in the aftermath of the conflict. This turmoil was crucial in persuading the Attlee government to rid itself of the incubus of ruling India.
Seventy years on, it is time that India engaged with the complex legacies of the Second World War. Bringing the war into the ambit of the new national memorial would be a fitting – if not overdue – recognition that this was India’s War.
(2018)
Q. In the first paragraph, the author laments the fact that:
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Bansilal answered  •  2 hours ago
There is no recognition of the Indian soldiers who served in the Second World War Refer to the last sentence of the first paragraph: ‘Between the old imperialist memorial and the proposed nationalist one, India’s contribution to the Second World War is airbrushed out of existence.’ This reflects the author’s dismay and disappointment at the apathy shown to the Indian martyrs of The Second World War.

In an MNC, a combined meeting of four departments HR, Finance, Technical and Sales & Marketing was held with 2 representatives from each department. The names of all representatives were Aftab, Bishan, Catherine, Dullu, Ema, Frank, Gouri, and Harish. The meeting was held on a round table with all seats filled. Few of the points about the seating arrangement are mentioned below:
1. No 2 people from the same department sit together.
2. No 2 people from the same department sit opposite to each other.
3. Aftab was surrounded by sales & marketing representatives from both sides.
4. Gouri was an HR and was sitting on the immediate right of Dullu who was from sales & marketing.
5. The person sitting opposite to Gouri did not belong to Finance.
6. Harish is an HR who is sitting opposite to Aftab.
8. Bishan, a techie was sitting between two HRs.
9. Ema and Aftab did not belong to same department.
10. Aftab and Catherine were from same department.
Answer the following questions on the basis of the above information.
Q. What is the maximum number of people who could be uniquely identified with their department?
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Surinder Kumar answered  •  13 hours ago
HR, Finance, Technical and Sales & Marketing are represented by H, F, T and S&M respectively while Aftab, Bishan, Catherine, Dullu, Ema, Frank, Gouri, and Harish are represented by A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H respectively.
From statement 3 Aftab was surrounded by sales & marketing representatives from both sides.
from 4, Gouri was an HR and was sitting on the immediate right of Dullu who was from sales & marketing. So representative on the right of Aftab is Dullu because he has his right side free from S&M.
Also from 5, the person sitting opposite to Gouri did not belong to Finance.
and we also know from 6. Harish is an HR who is sitting opposite to Aftab.
From 8, Bishan, a techie was sitting between two HRs who are H and G.
From 9, Ema and Aftab did not belong to same department.
From 10 we know Aftab and Catherine were from same department. and there are only 2 seats left for finance guys. So they'll occupy those seats.

We know exactly 6 people with their department.
Nathu Ram Panchal asked   •  1 hour ago

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage and answer the questions based on it.
“Free of the taint of manufacture” – that phrase, in particular, is heavily loaded with the ideology of what the Victorian socialist William Morris called the “anti-scrape”, or an anti-capitalist conservationism (not conservatism) that solaced itself with the vision of a preindustrial golden age. In Britain, folk may often appear a cosy, fossilised form, but when you look more closely, the idea of folk – who has the right to sing it, dance it, invoke it, collect it, belong to it or appropriate it for political or cultural ends – has always been contested territory. In our own time, though, the word “folk” . . . has achieved the rare distinction of occupying fashionable and unfashionable status simultaneously. Just as the effusive floral prints of the radical William Morris now cover genteel sofas, so the revolutionary intentions of many folk historians and revivalists have led to music that is commonly regarded as parochial and conservative. And yet – as newspaper columns periodically rejoice – folk is hip again, influencing artists, clothing and furniture designers, celebrated at music festivals, awards ceremonies and on TV, reissued on countless record labels. Folk is a sonic “shabby chic”, containing elements of the uncanny and eerie, as well as an antique veneer, a whiff of Britain’s heathen dark ages. The very obscurity and anonymity of folk music’s origins open up space for rampant imaginative fancies. . . . [Cecil Sharp, who wrote about this subject, believed that] folk songs existed in constant transformation, a living example of an art form in a perpetual state of renewal. “One man sings a song, and then others sing it after him, changing what they do not like” is the most concise summary of his conclusions on its origins. He compared each rendition of a ballad to an acorn falling from an oak tree; every subsequent iteration sows the song anew. But there is tension in newness. In the late 1960s, purists were suspicious of folk songs recast in rock idioms. Electrification, however, comes in many forms. For the early-20th-century composers such as Vaughan Williams and Hoist, there were thunderbolts of inspiration from oriental mysticism, angular modernism and the body blow of the first world war, as well as input from the rediscovered folk tradition itself.
For the second wave of folk revivalists, such as Ewan MacColl and AL Lloyd, starting in the 40s, the vital spark was communism’s dream of a post-revolutionary New Jerusalem. For their younger successors in the 60s, who thronged the folk clubs set up by the old guard, the lyrical freedom of Dylan and the unchained melodies of psychedelia created the conditions for folkrock’s own golden age, a brief Indian summer that lasted from about 1969 to 1971. . . . Four decades on, even that progressive period has become just one more era ripe for fashionable emulation and pastiche. The idea of a folk tradition being exclusively confined to oral transmission has become a much looser, less severely guarded concept. Recorded music and television, for today’s metropolitan generation, are where the equivalent of folk memories are seeded. . . .
(2019)
Q. The author says that folk “may often appear a cosy, fossilised form” because:
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In an MNC, a combined meeting of four departments HR, Finance, Technical and Sales & Marketing was held with 2 representatives from each department. The names of all representatives were Aftab, Bishan, Catherine, Dullu, Ema, Frank, Gouri, and Harish. The meeting was held on a round table with all seats filled. Few of the points about the seating arrangement are mentioned below:
1. No 2 people from the same department sit together.
2. No 2 people from the same department sit opposite to each other.
3. Aftab was surrounded by sales & marketing representatives from both sides.
4. Gouri was an HR and was sitting on the immediate right of Dullu who was from sales & marketing.
5. The person sitting opposite to Gouri did not belong to Finance.
6. Harish is an HR who is sitting opposite to Aftab.
8. Bishan, a techie was sitting between two HRs.
9. Ema and Aftab did not belong to same department.
10. Aftab and Catherine were from same department.
Answer the following questions on the basis of the above information.
Q. Name and department of the person sitting opposite to Dullu?
... more

Bala Devi answered  •  13 hours ago
HR, Finance, Technical and Sales & Marketing are represented by H, F, T and S&M respectively while Aftab, Bishan, Catherine, Dullu, Ema, Frank, Gouri, and Harish are represented by A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H respectively.
From statement 3 Aftab was surrounded by sales & marketing representatives from both sides.
from 4, Gouri was an HR and was sitting on the immediate right of Dullu who was from sales & marketing. So representative on the right of Aftab is Dullu because he has his right side free from S&M.
Also from 5, the person sitting opposite to Gouri did not belong to Finance.
and we also know from 6. Harish is an HR who is sitting opposite to Aftab.
From 8, Bishan, a techie was sitting between two HRs who are H and G.
From 9, Ema and Aftab did not belong to same department.
From 10 we know Aftab and Catherine were from same department. and there are only 2 seats left for finance guys. So they'll occupy those seats.

 
We know exact 6 people with their departments.
And D and C are sitting opposite to each other.
Nirmala Devi asked   •  1 hour ago

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage and answer the questions based on it.
“Everybody pretty much agrees that the relationship between elephants and people has dramatically changed,” [says psychologist Gay] Bradshaw… “Where for centuries humans and elephants lived in relatively peaceful coexistence, there is now hostility and violence. Now, I use the term ‘violence’ because of the intentionality associated with it, both in the aggression of humans and, at times, the recently observed behavior of elephants.” Typically, elephant researchers have cited, as a cause of aggression, the high levels of testosterone in newly matured male elephants or the competition for land and resources between elephants and humans. But. . . Bradshaw and several colleagues argue… that today’s elephant populations are suffering from a form of chronic stress, a kind of specieswide trauma. Decades of poaching and culling and habitat loss, they claim, have so disrupted the intricate web of familial and societal relations by which young elephants have traditionally been raised in the wild, and by which established elephant herds are governed, that what we are now witnessing is nothing less than a precipitous collapse of elephant culture.
Elephants, when left to their own devices, are profoundly social creatures. Young elephants are raised within an extended, multitiered network of doting female caregivers that includes the birth mother, grandmothers, aunts and friends. These relations are maintained over a life span as long as 70 years. Studies of established herds have shown that young elephants stay within 15 feet of their mothers for nearly all of their first eight years of life, after which young females are socialized into the matriarchal network, while young males go off for a time into an all-male social group before coming back into the fold as mature adults.
This fabric of elephant society, Bradshaw and her colleagues [demonstrate], ha[s] effectively been frayed by years of habitat loss and poaching, along with systematic culling by government agencies to control elephant numbers and translocations of herds to different habitats. As a result of such social upheaval, calves are now being born to and raised by ever younger and inexperienced mothers. Young orphaned elephants, meanwhile, that have witnessed the death of a parent at the hands of poachers are coming of age in the absence of the support system that defines traditional elephant life. “The loss of elephant elders,” [says] Bradshaw . . . “and the traumatic experience of witnessing the massacres of their family, impairs normal brain and behavior development in young elephants.” What Bradshaw and her colleagues describe would seem to be an extreme form of anthropocentric conjecture if the evidence that they’ve compiled from various elephant researchers. weren’t so compelling. The elephants of decimated herds, especially orphans who’ve watched the death of their parents and elders from poaching and culling, exhibit behavior typically associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and other trauma-related disorders in humans: abnormal startle response, unpredictable asocial behavior, inattentive mothering and hyperaggression. [According to Bradshaw], “Elephants are suffering and behaving in the same ways that we recognize in ourselves as a result of violence. Except perhaps for a few specific features, brain organization and early development of elephants and humans are extremely similar.”
(2018)
Q. In paragraph 4, the phrase, “The fabric of elephant society … has[s] effectively been frayed by . . .” is:
... more

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage and answer the questions based on it.
Economists have spent most of the 20th century ignoring psychology, positive or otherwise. But today there is a great deal of emphasis on how happiness can shape global economies, or — on a smaller scale — successful business practice. This is driven, in part, by a trend in “measuring” positive emotions, mostly so they can be optimized. Neuroscientists, for example, claim to be able to locate specific emotions, such as happiness or disappointment, in particular areas of the brain. Wearable technologies, such as Spire, offer data-driven advice on how to reduce stress.
We are no longer just dealing with “happiness” in a philosophical or romantic sense — it has become something that can be monitored and measured, including by our behavior, use of social media and bodily indicators such as pulse rate and facial expressions.
There is nothing automatically sinister about this trend. But it is disquieting that the businesses and experts driving the quantification of happiness claim to have our best interests at heart, often concealing their own agendas in the process. In the workplace, happy workers are viewed as a “winwin.” Work becomes more pleasant, and employees, more productive. But this is now being pursued through the use of performance-evaluating wearable technology, such as Humanyze or Virgin Pulse, both of which monitor physical signs of stress and activity toward the goal of increasing productivity.
Cities such as Dubai, which has pledged to become the “happiest city in the world,” dream up ever-more elaborate and intrusive ways of collecting data on well-being — to the point where there is now talk of using CCTV cameras to monitor facial expressions in public spaces. New ways of detecting emotions are hitting the market all the time: One company, Beyond Verbal, aims to calculate moods conveyed in a phone conversation, potentially without the knowledge of at least one of the participants. And Facebook [has] demonstrated.. . that it could influence our emotions through tweaking our news feeds — opening the door to ever-more targeted manipulation in advertising and influence.
As the science grows more sophisticated and technologies become more intimate with our thoughts and bodies, a clear trend is emerging. Where happiness indicators were once used as a basis to reform society, challenging the obsession with money that G.D.P. measurement entrenches, they are increasingly used as a basis to transform or discipline individuals.
(2018)
Q. From the passage we can infer that the author would like economists to:
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Rukmani Devi answered  •  13 hours ago
Incorporate psychological findings into their research cautiously The author says in the 1st paragraph, ‘today there is a great deal of emphasis on how happiness can shape global economies, or — on a smaller scale — successful business practice.’ After discussing the various trends and observations in this direction, he remarks in the last paragraph that fierce pursuit of happiness goals in fact escalates stress levels. Therefore, economists may monitor and remove sources of misery to make a society happy, but they won’t get there by making this single, often fleeting emotion, the over-arching goal.’ This indicates that he would like economists to exercise caution in monitoring and using emotion indicators.
Neeraj asked   •  1 hour ago

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage and answer the questions based on it.
“Free of the taint of manufacture” – that phrase, in particular, is heavily loaded with the ideology of what the Victorian socialist William Morris called the “anti-scrape”, or an anti-capitalist conservationism (not conservatism) that solaced itself with the vision of a preindustrial golden age. In Britain, folk may often appear a cosy, fossilised form, but when you look more closely, the idea of folk – who has the right to sing it, dance it, invoke it, collect it, belong to it or appropriate it for political or cultural ends – has always been contested territory.
In our own time, though, the word “folk” . . . has achieved the rare distinction of occupying fashionable and unfashionable status simultaneously. Just as the effusive floral prints of the radical William Morris now cover genteel sofas, so the revolutionary intentions of many folk historians and revivalists have led to music that is commonly regarded as parochial and conservative. And yet – as newspaper columns periodically rejoice – folk is hip again, influencing artists, clothing and furniture designers, celebrated at music festivals, awards ceremonies and on TV, reissued on countless record labels. Folk is a sonic “shabby chic”, containing elements of the uncanny and eerie, as well as an antique veneer, a whiff of Britain’s heathen dark ages. The very obscurity and anonymity of folk music’s origins open up space for rampant imaginative fancies. . . .
[Cecil Sharp, who wrote about this subject, believed that] folk songs existed in constant transformation, a living example of an art form in a perpetual state of renewal. “One man sings a song, and then others sing it after him, changing what they do not like” is the most concise summary of his conclusions on its origins. He compared each rendition of a ballad to an acorn falling from an oak tree; every subsequent iteration sows the song anew. But there is tension in newness. In the late 1960s, purists were suspicious of folk songs recast in rock idioms. Electrification, however, comes in many forms. For the early-20th-century composers such as Vaughan Williams and Hoist, there were thunderbolts of inspiration from oriental mysticism, angular modernism and the body blow of the first world war, as well as input from the rediscovered folk tradition itself.
For the second wave of folk revivalists, such as Ewan MacColl and AL Lloyd, starting in the 40s, the vital spark was communism’s dream of a post-revolutionary New Jerusalem. For their younger successors in the 60s, who thronged the folk clubs set up by the old guard, the lyrical freedom of Dylan and the unchained melodies of psychedelia created the conditions for folkrock’s own golden age, a brief Indian summer that lasted from about 1969 to 1971. . . . Four decades on, even that progressive period has become just one more era ripe for fashionable emulation and pastiche. The idea of a folk tradition being exclusively confined to oral transmission has become a much looser, less severely guarded concept. Recorded music and television, for today’s metropolitan generation, are where the equivalent of folk memories are seeded. . . .
(2019)
Q. Which of the following statements about folk revivalism of the 1940s and 1960s cannot be inferred from the passage?
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DIRECTIONS: Read the passage and answer the questions based on it.
Economists have spent most of the 20th century ignoring psychology, positive or otherwise. But today there is a great deal of emphasis on how happiness can shape global economies, or — on a smaller scale — successful business practice. This is driven, in part, by a trend in “measuring” positive emotions, mostly so they can be optimized. Neuroscientists, for example, claim to be able to locate specific emotions, such as happiness or disappointment, in particular areas of the brain. Wearable technologies, such as Spire, offer data-driven advice on how to reduce stress.
We are no longer just dealing with “happiness” in a philosophical or romantic sense — it has become something that can be monitored and measured, including by our behavior, use of social media and bodily indicators such as pulse rate and facial expressions.
There is nothing automatically sinister about this trend. But it is disquieting that the businesses and experts driving the quantification of happiness claim to have our best interests at heart, often concealing their own agendas in the process. In the workplace, happy workers are viewed as a “winwin.” Work becomes more pleasant, and employees, more productive. But this is now being pursued through the use of performance-evaluating wearable technology, such as Humanyze or Virgin Pulse, both of which monitor physical signs of stress and activity toward the goal of increasing productivity.
Cities such as Dubai, which has pledged to become the “happiest city in the world,” dream up ever-more elaborate and intrusive ways of collecting data on well-being — to the point where there is now talk of using CCTV cameras to monitor facial expressions in public spaces. New ways of detecting emotions are hitting the market all the time: One company, Beyond Verbal, aims to calculate moods conveyed in a phone conversation, potentially without the knowledge of at least one of the participants. And Facebook [has] demonstrated.. . that it could influence our emotions through tweaking our news feeds — opening the door to ever-more targeted manipulation in advertising and influence.
As the science grows more sophisticated and technologies become more intimate with our thoughts and bodies, a clear trend is emerging. Where happiness indicators were once used as a basis to reform society, challenging the obsession with money that G.D.P. measurement entrenches, they are increasingly used as a basis to transform or discipline individuals.
(2018)
Q. According to the author, Dubai:
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Kamla answered  •  13 hours ago
Develops sophisticated technologies to monitor its inhabitants’ states of mind
Refer to paragraph 4: ‘Cities such as Dubai, dream up ever-more elaborate and intrusive ways of collecting data on well-being... New ways of detecting emotions are hitting the market all the time.’
Tara Devi asked   •  1 hour ago

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage and answer the questions based on it.
“Everybody pretty much agrees that the relationship between elephants and people has dramatically changed,” [says psychologist Gay] Bradshaw… “Where for centuries humans and elephants lived in relatively peaceful coexistence, there is now hostility and violence. Now, I use the term ‘violence’ because of the intentionality associated with it, both in the aggression of humans and, at times, the recently observed behavior of elephants.” Typically, elephant researchers have cited, as a cause of aggression, the high levels of testosterone in newly matured male elephants or the competition for land and resources between elephants and humans. But. . . Bradshaw and several colleagues argue… that today’s elephant populations are suffering from a form of chronic stress, a kind of specieswide trauma. Decades of poaching and culling and habitat loss, they claim, have so disrupted the intricate web of familial and societal relations by which young elephants have traditionally been raised in the wild, and by which established elephant herds are governed, that what we are now witnessing is nothing less than a precipitous collapse of elephant culture.
Elephants, when left to their own devices, are profoundly social creatures. Young elephants are raised within an extended, multitiered network of doting female caregivers that includes the birth mother, grandmothers, aunts and friends. These relations are maintained over a life span as long as 70 years. Studies of established herds have shown that young elephants stay within 15 feet of their mothers for nearly all of their first eight years of life, after which young females are socialized into the matriarchal network, while young males go off for a time into an all-male social group before coming back into the fold as mature adults.
This fabric of elephant society, Bradshaw and her colleagues [demonstrate], ha[s] effectively been frayed by years of habitat loss and poaching, along with systematic culling by government agencies to control elephant numbers and translocations of herds to different habitats. As a result of such social upheaval, calves are now being born to and raised by ever younger and inexperienced mothers. Young orphaned elephants, meanwhile, that have witnessed the death of a parent at the hands of poachers are coming of age in the absence of the support system that defines traditional elephant life. “The loss of elephant elders,” [says] Bradshaw . . . “and the traumatic experience of witnessing the massacres of their family, impairs normal brain and behavior development in young elephants.” What Bradshaw and her colleagues describe would seem to be an extreme form of anthropocentric conjecture if the evidence that they’ve compiled from various elephant researchers. weren’t so compelling. The elephants of decimated herds, especially orphans who’ve watched the death of their parents and elders from poaching and culling, exhibit behavior typically associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and other trauma-related disorders in humans: abnormal startle response, unpredictable asocial behavior, inattentive mothering and hyperaggression. [According to Bradshaw], “Elephants are suffering and behaving in the same ways that we recognize in ourselves as a result of violence. Except perhaps for a few specific features, brain organization and early development of elephants and humans are extremely similar.”
(2018)
Q. Which of the following statements best expresses the overall argument of this passage?
... more

Salochana Devi asked   •  1 hour ago

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage and answer the questions based on it.
“Free of the taint of manufacture” – that phrase, in particular, is heavily loaded with the ideology of what the Victorian socialist William Morris called the “anti-scrape”, or an anti-capitalist conservationism (not conservatism) that solaced itself with the vision of a preindustrial golden age. In Britain, folk may often appear a cosy, fossilised form, but when you look more closely, the idea of folk – who has the right to sing it, dance it, invoke it, collect it, belong to it or appropriate it for political or cultural ends – has always been contested territory.
In our own time, though, the word “folk” . . . has achieved the rare distinction of occupying fashionable and unfashionable status simultaneously. Just as the effusive floral prints of the radical William Morris now cover genteel sofas, so the revolutionary intentions of many folk historians and revivalists have led to music that is commonly regarded as parochial and conservative. And yet – as newspaper columns periodically rejoice – folk is hip again, influencing artists, clothing and furniture designers, celebrated at music festivals, awards ceremonies and on TV, reissued on countless record labels. Folk is a sonic “shabby chic”, containing elements of the uncanny and eerie, as well as an antique veneer, a whiff of Britain’s heathen dark ages. The very obscurity and anonymity of folk music’s origins open up space for rampant imaginative fancies. . . .
[Cecil Sharp, who wrote about this subject, believed that] folk songs existed in constant transformation, a living example of an art form in a perpetual state of renewal. “One man sings a song, and then others sing it after him, changing what they do not like” is the most concise summary of his conclusions on its origins. He compared each rendition of a ballad to an acorn falling from an oak tree; every subsequent iteration sows the song anew. But there is tension in newness. In the late 1960s, purists were suspicious of folk songs recast in rock idioms. Electrification, however, comes in many forms. For the early-20th-century composers such as Vaughan Williams and Hoist, there were thunderbolts of inspiration from oriental mysticism, angular modernism and the body blow of the first world war, as well as input from the rediscovered folk tradition itself.
For the second wave of folk revivalists, such as Ewan MacColl and AL Lloyd, starting in the 40s, the vital spark was communism’s dream of a post-revolutionary New Jerusalem. For their younger successors in the 60s, who thronged the folk clubs set up by the old guard, the lyrical freedom of Dylan and the unchained melodies of psychedelia created the conditions for folkrock’s own golden age, a brief Indian summer that lasted from about 1969 to 1971. . . . Four decades on, even that progressive period has become just one more era ripe for fashionable emulation and pastiche. The idea of a folk tradition being exclusively confined to oral transmission has become a much looser, less severely guarded concept. Recorded music and television, for today’s metropolitan generation, are where the equivalent of folk memories are seeded. . . .
(2019)
Q. The primary purpose of the reference to William Morris and his floral prints is to show:
... more

Veena Rani asked   •  1 hour ago

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage and answer the questions based on it.
“Everybody pretty much agrees that the relationship between elephants and people has dramatically changed,” [says psychologist Gay] Bradshaw… “Where for centuries humans and elephants lived in relatively peaceful coexistence, there is now hostility and violence. Now, I use the term ‘violence’ because of the intentionality associated with it, both in the aggression of humans and, at times, the recently observed behavior of elephants.” Typically, elephant researchers have cited, as a cause of aggression, the high levels of testosterone in newly matured male elephants or the competition for land and resources between elephants and humans. But. . . Bradshaw and several colleagues argue… that today’s elephant populations are suffering from a form of chronic stress, a kind of specieswide trauma. Decades of poaching and culling and habitat loss, they claim, have so disrupted the intricate web of familial and societal relations by which young elephants have traditionally been raised in the wild, and by which established elephant herds are governed, that what we are now witnessing is nothing less than a precipitous collapse of elephant culture.
Elephants, when left to their own devices, are profoundly social creatures. Young elephants are raised within an extended, multitiered network of doting female caregivers that includes the birth mother, grandmothers, aunts and friends. These relations are maintained over a life span as long as 70 years. Studies of established herds have shown that young elephants stay within 15 feet of their mothers for nearly all of their first eight years of life, after which young females are socialized into the matriarchal network, while young males go off for a time into an all-male social group before coming back into the fold as mature adults.
This fabric of elephant society, Bradshaw and her colleagues [demonstrate], ha[s] effectively been frayed by years of habitat loss and poaching, along with systematic culling by government agencies to control elephant numbers and translocations of herds to different habitats. As a result of such social upheaval, calves are now being born to and raised by ever younger and inexperienced mothers. Young orphaned elephants, meanwhile, that have witnessed the death of a parent at the hands of poachers are coming of age in the absence of the support system that defines traditional elephant life. “The loss of elephant elders,” [says] Bradshaw . . . “and the traumatic experience of witnessing the massacres of their family, impairs normal brain and behavior development in young elephants.” What Bradshaw and her colleagues describe would seem to be an extreme form of anthropocentric conjecture if the evidence that they’ve compiled from various elephant researchers. weren’t so compelling. The elephants of decimated herds, especially orphans who’ve watched the death of their parents and elders from poaching and culling, exhibit behavior typically associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and other trauma-related disorders in humans: abnormal startle response, unpredictable asocial behavior, inattentive mothering and hyperaggression. [According to Bradshaw], “Elephants are suffering and behaving in the same ways that we recognize in ourselves as a result of violence. Except perhaps for a few specific features, brain organization and early development of elephants and humans are extremely similar.”
(2018)
Q. Which of the following measures is Bradshaw most likely to support to address the problem of elephant aggression?
... more

Parveen Thapar asked   •  1 hour ago

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage and answer the questions based on it.
In the past, credit for telling the tale of Aladdin has often gone to Antoine Galland . . . the first European translator of . . . Arabian Nights [which] started as a series of translations of an incomplete manuscript of a medieval Arabic story collection. . . But, though those tales were of medieval origin, Aladdin may be a more recent invention. Scholars have not found a manuscript of the story that predates the version published in 1712 by Galland, who wrote in his diary that he first heard the tale from a Syrian storyteller from Aleppo named Hanna Diyab . . .
Despite the fantastical elements of the story, scholars now think the main character may actually be based on a real person’s real experiences. . . . Though Galland never credited Diyab in his published translations of the Arabian Nights stories, Diyab wrote something of his own: a travelogue penned in the mid18th century. In it, he recalls telling Galland the story of Aladdin [and] describes his own hard-knocks upbringing and the way he marveled at the extravagance of Versailles. The descriptions he uses were very similar to the descriptions of the lavish palace that ended up in Galland’s version of the Aladdin story. [Therefore, author Paulo Lemos] Horta believes that “Aladdin might be the young Arab Maronite from Aleppo, marveling at the jewels and riches of Versailles.” . . .
For 300 years, scholars thought that the rags-to-riches story of Aladdin might have been inspired by the plots of French fairy tales that came out around the same time, or that the story was invented in that 18th century period as a byproduct of French Orientalism, a fascination with stereotypical exotic Middle Eastern luxuries that was prevalent then. The idea that Diyab might have based it on his own life — the experiences of a Middle Eastern man encountering the French, not vice-versa — flips the script. [According to Horta,] “Diyab was ideally placed to embody the overlapping world of East and West, blending the storytelling traditions of his homeland with his youthful observations of the wonder of 18th-century France.” . . .
To the scholars who study the tale, its narrative drama isn’t the only reason storytellers keep finding reason to return to Aladdin. It reflects not only “a history of the French and the Middle East, but also [a story about] Middle Easterners coming to Paris and that speaks to our world today,” as Horta puts it. “The day Diyab told the story of Aladdin to Galland, there were riots due to food shortages during the winter and spring of 1708 to 1709, and Diyab was sensitive to those people in a way that Galland is not. When you read this diary, you see this solidarity among the Arabs who were in Paris at the time. . . . There is little in the writings of Galland that would suggest that he was capable of developing a character like Aladdin with sympathy, but Diyab’s memoir reveals a narrator adept at capturing the distinctive psychology of a young protagonist, as well as recognizing the kinds of injustices and opportunities that can transform the path of any youthful adventurer.”
(2019)
Q. Which of the following does not contribute to the passage’s claim about the authorship of Aladdin?
... more

Anguri Devi asked   •  1 hour ago

DIRECTIONS: Read the passage and answer the questions based on it.
Contemporary internet shopping conjures a perfect storm of choice anxiety. Research has consistently held that people who are presented with a few options make better, easier decisions than those presented with many. . . . Helping consumers figure out what to buy amid an endless sea of choice online has become a cottage industry unto itself. Many brands and retailers now wield marketing buzzwords such as curation, differentiation, and discovery as they attempt to sell an assortment of stuff targeted to their ideal customer. Companies find such shoppers through the data gold mine of digital advertising, which can catalog people by gender, income level, personal interests, and more. Since Americans have lost the ability to sort through the sheer volume of the consumer choices available to them, a ghost now has to be in the retail machine, whether it’s an algorithm, an influencer, or some snazzy ad tech to help a product follow you around the internet. Indeed, choice fatigue is one reason so many people gravitate toward lifestyle influencers on Instagram—the relentlessly chic young moms and perpetually vacationing 20-somethings—who present an aspirational worldview, and then recommend the products and services that help achieve it. . . . For a relatively new class of consumer-products start-ups, there’s another method entirely. Instead of making sense of a sea of existing stuff, these companies claim to disrupt stuff as Americans know it. Casper (mattresses), Glossier (makeup), Away (suitcases), and many others have sprouted up to offer consumers freedom from choice: The companies have a few aesthetically pleasing and supposedly highly functional options, usually at mid-range prices. They’re selling nice things, but maybe more importantly, they’re selling a confidence in those things, and an ability to opt out of the stuff rat race. . . .
One-thousand-dollar mattresses and $300 suitcases might solve choice anxiety for a certain tier of consumer, but the companies that sell them, along with those that attempt to massage the larger stuff economy into something navigable, are still just working within a consumer market that’s broken in systemic ways. The presence of so much stuff in America might be more valuable if it were more evenly distributed, but stuff’s creators tend to focus their energy on those who already have plenty. As options have expanded for people with disposable income, the opportunity to buy even basic things such as fresh food or quality diapers has contracted for much of America’s lower classes.
For start-ups that promise accessible simplicity, their very structure still might eventually push them toward overwhelming variety. Most of these companies are based on hundreds of millions of dollars of venture capital, the investors of which tend to expect a steep growth rate that can’t be achieved by selling one great mattress or one great sneaker. Casper has expanded into bedroom furniture and bed linens. Glossier, after years of marketing itself as no-makeup makeup that requires little skill to apply, recently launched a full line of glittering color cosmetics. There may be no way to opt out of stuff by buying into the right thing.
(2019)
Q. Which one of the following best sums up the overall purpose of the examples of Casper and Glossier in the passage?
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Raj Rani asked   •  7 hours ago

The scientific validity of schizophrenia, and its defining symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations, have been criticised. In 2006, a group of consumers and mental health professionals from the UK, under the banner of Campaign for Abolition of the Schizophrenia Label, argued for a rejection of the diagnosis of schizophrenia based on its heterogeneity and associated stigma, and called for the adoption of a biopsychosocial model. Other UK psychiatrists opposed the move arguing that the term schizophrenia is a useful, even if provisional concept.
Similarly, there is an argument that the underlying issues would be better addressed as a spectrum of conditions or as individual dimensions along which everyone varies rather than by a diagnostic category based on an arbitrary cut-off between normal and ill. This approach appears consistent with research on schizotypy, and with a relatively high prevalence of psychotic experiences, mostly nondistressing delusional beliefs, among the general public. In concordance with this observation, psychologist Edgar Jones, and psychiatrists Tony David and Nassir Ghaemi, surveying the existing literature on delusions, pointed out that the consistency and completeness of the definition of delusion have been found wanting by many; delusions are neither necessarily fixed, nor false, nor involve the presence of incontrovertible evidence.

Nancy Andreasen, a leading figure in schizophrenia research, has criticized the current DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria for sacrificing diagnostic validity for the sake of artificially improving reliability. She argues that overemphasis on psychosis in the diagnostic criteria, while improving diagnostic reliability, ignores more fundamental cognitive impairments that are harder to assess due to large variations in presentation. This view is supported by other psychiatrists. In the same vein, Ming Tsuang and colleagues argue that psychotic symptoms may be a common end-state in a variety of disorders, including schizophrenia, rather than a reflection of the specific etiology of schizophrenia, and warn that there is little basis for regarding DSM’s operational definition as the "true" construct of schizophrenia. Neuropsychologist Michael Foster Green went further in suggesting the presence of specific neurocognitive deficits may be used to construct phenotypes that are alternatives to those that are purely symptom-based. These deficits take the form of a reduction or impairment in basic psychological functions such as memory, attention, executive function and problem solving.
 
Q. What are scientists problems with delusions?
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Prem Lata asked   •  21 hours ago

Chander Singh apologises as he is a tad late when he comes to pick up this writer in his new Swift Dzire. Singh has been a driver for many years; most recently with The Imperial, a heritage hotel in Delhi. He earned a lot from tips foreign tourists doled out, but was getting tired of polishing his shoes every morning - a demand from his managers he found hassling. Instead, he wanted to work on his own terms. So a few months ago he, along with a friend, bought a car on loan and started working for San Francisco-based cab hailing company Uber. He hopes he will make Rs. 25,000 a month on average. Uber, says Singh, also tops up with Rs. 300 per trip during peak hours. At the end of the trip, from Noida to South Delhi, Singh quips: “I am trying out Uber. If this doesn't work, I will go to Ola. I am also getting calls from Meru every day.”
All marketplaces have a choke point. In the case of e-tailers, it is the consumers whose appetite for discounts leads them to flame venture capital money. In the case of on-demand taxi aggregators such as Uber, Ola Cabs and Meru Cabs, it is the drivers. Taxi aggregators typically don’t own any cabs or employ drivers; they connect customers with drivers through a tech platform, the front-end for the customer being an app. According to one estimate, 1.6 million vehicles in India are licensed to run as cabs but there are not as many quality drivers. It is quite a task for aggregators to convince drivers - used to a mom-and-pop model or radio taxis - to work with them. And those who are available, like Singh, may not remain loyal to one company.
Securing the supply side has become a slugfest among India's top three on-demand taxi companies - ANI Technologies, which runs Ola , Uber and Meru - as they pour money to capture the market. Ola and Uber, particularly, backed by global venture capitalists, are threatening to make every other taxi company in India irrelevant. Home-bred Ola has thus far raised more than $700 million. Uber has mopped up $6 billion and has committed $1 billion for India in the next nine months. Both are using their war chest to offer incentives to drivers and discounted fares to riders. Traditional radio cabs and small-time operators are struggling to match up. The existential threat has made them cry out “market monopolisation”. Companies such as Meru, Carzonrent and Mega Cabs have thrown their collective might to regulate the "unregulated" on-demand companies. Legal tussles have greeted the aggregators.
Big money is making this battle worth fighting for. According to the Association of Radio Taxi India, the taxi business in the country is growing at 20 to 25 per cent a year. The organised taxi sector accounts for just four to five per cent of the industry and totals $800 million. It is expected to grow to $7 billion by 2020.
 
Q.Which of the following is true according to the passage?
... more

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