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1
1
Internetworking
2
4.1 Simple Internetworking (IP)
4.1.1 What is an Internework
4.1.2 Service Model
4.1.3 Global Address
4.1.4 Datagram Forwarding in IP
4.1.5 Address Translation (ARP)
4.1.6 Host Configuration (DHCP)
4.1.7 Error Reporting (ICMP)
4.1.8 Virtual Networks and Tunnels
Page 2


1
1
Internetworking
2
4.1 Simple Internetworking (IP)
4.1.1 What is an Internework
4.1.2 Service Model
4.1.3 Global Address
4.1.4 Datagram Forwarding in IP
4.1.5 Address Translation (ARP)
4.1.6 Host Configuration (DHCP)
4.1.7 Error Reporting (ICMP)
4.1.8 Virtual Networks and Tunnels
2
3
4.1.1 What is an Internework
o Concatenation of networks
R2
R1
H4
H5
H3 H2 H1
Network 2 (Ethernet)
Network 1 (Ethernet)
H6
Network 4
(point-to-point)
H7 R3 H8
Network 3 (FDDI)
A simple internetwork. H
n
=host, R
n
= router
4
o An internetwork is a network of networks
n in the figure, we see Ethernets, an FDDI ring, and a
point-to-point link
n each of these is a single-technology network
n the nodes that interconnect the networks are called
routers (sometimes called gateways)
o The following figure shows how H1 and H8 are
logically connected by the internet, including
the protocol graph running on each node
Page 3


1
1
Internetworking
2
4.1 Simple Internetworking (IP)
4.1.1 What is an Internework
4.1.2 Service Model
4.1.3 Global Address
4.1.4 Datagram Forwarding in IP
4.1.5 Address Translation (ARP)
4.1.6 Host Configuration (DHCP)
4.1.7 Error Reporting (ICMP)
4.1.8 Virtual Networks and Tunnels
2
3
4.1.1 What is an Internework
o Concatenation of networks
R2
R1
H4
H5
H3 H2 H1
Network 2 (Ethernet)
Network 1 (Ethernet)
H6
Network 4
(point-to-point)
H7 R3 H8
Network 3 (FDDI)
A simple internetwork. H
n
=host, R
n
= router
4
o An internetwork is a network of networks
n in the figure, we see Ethernets, an FDDI ring, and a
point-to-point link
n each of these is a single-technology network
n the nodes that interconnect the networks are called
routers (sometimes called gateways)
o The following figure shows how H1 and H8 are
logically connected by the internet, including
the protocol graph running on each node
3
5
o A simple internetwork of protocol stack
R1 R2 R3
H1 H8
ETH FDDI
IP
ETH
TCP
FDDI PPP PPP ETH
IP
ETH
TCP
IP IP IP
Protocol layers used to connect H1 to H8.
ETH: the protocol that runs over Ethernet.
6
4.1.2 Service Model
o A good place to start when you build an internetwork
is to define its service model
o A service model is the host-to-host services you want
to provide
o Service model for an internetwork
n a host-to-host service only if this service can
somehow be provided over each of the underlying
physical networks
Page 4


1
1
Internetworking
2
4.1 Simple Internetworking (IP)
4.1.1 What is an Internework
4.1.2 Service Model
4.1.3 Global Address
4.1.4 Datagram Forwarding in IP
4.1.5 Address Translation (ARP)
4.1.6 Host Configuration (DHCP)
4.1.7 Error Reporting (ICMP)
4.1.8 Virtual Networks and Tunnels
2
3
4.1.1 What is an Internework
o Concatenation of networks
R2
R1
H4
H5
H3 H2 H1
Network 2 (Ethernet)
Network 1 (Ethernet)
H6
Network 4
(point-to-point)
H7 R3 H8
Network 3 (FDDI)
A simple internetwork. H
n
=host, R
n
= router
4
o An internetwork is a network of networks
n in the figure, we see Ethernets, an FDDI ring, and a
point-to-point link
n each of these is a single-technology network
n the nodes that interconnect the networks are called
routers (sometimes called gateways)
o The following figure shows how H1 and H8 are
logically connected by the internet, including
the protocol graph running on each node
3
5
o A simple internetwork of protocol stack
R1 R2 R3
H1 H8
ETH FDDI
IP
ETH
TCP
FDDI PPP PPP ETH
IP
ETH
TCP
IP IP IP
Protocol layers used to connect H1 to H8.
ETH: the protocol that runs over Ethernet.
6
4.1.2 Service Model
o A good place to start when you build an internetwork
is to define its service model
o A service model is the host-to-host services you want
to provide
o Service model for an internetwork
n a host-to-host service only if this service can
somehow be provided over each of the underlying
physical networks
4
7
4.1.2 Service Model
o IP service model has two parts
n addressing scheme
o provides a way to identify all hosts in the internetwork
n datagram (conectionless) model of data delivery
o This service model is sometimes called best effort
n although IP makes every effort to deliver datagrams, it makes
no guarantees
8
o Datagram
n a type of packet sent in a connectionless manner
over a network
n every datagram carry enough information to let
the network forward the packet to its correct
destination
n no need for any advance setup mechanism to tell
the network what to do when the packet arrives
Page 5


1
1
Internetworking
2
4.1 Simple Internetworking (IP)
4.1.1 What is an Internework
4.1.2 Service Model
4.1.3 Global Address
4.1.4 Datagram Forwarding in IP
4.1.5 Address Translation (ARP)
4.1.6 Host Configuration (DHCP)
4.1.7 Error Reporting (ICMP)
4.1.8 Virtual Networks and Tunnels
2
3
4.1.1 What is an Internework
o Concatenation of networks
R2
R1
H4
H5
H3 H2 H1
Network 2 (Ethernet)
Network 1 (Ethernet)
H6
Network 4
(point-to-point)
H7 R3 H8
Network 3 (FDDI)
A simple internetwork. H
n
=host, R
n
= router
4
o An internetwork is a network of networks
n in the figure, we see Ethernets, an FDDI ring, and a
point-to-point link
n each of these is a single-technology network
n the nodes that interconnect the networks are called
routers (sometimes called gateways)
o The following figure shows how H1 and H8 are
logically connected by the internet, including
the protocol graph running on each node
3
5
o A simple internetwork of protocol stack
R1 R2 R3
H1 H8
ETH FDDI
IP
ETH
TCP
FDDI PPP PPP ETH
IP
ETH
TCP
IP IP IP
Protocol layers used to connect H1 to H8.
ETH: the protocol that runs over Ethernet.
6
4.1.2 Service Model
o A good place to start when you build an internetwork
is to define its service model
o A service model is the host-to-host services you want
to provide
o Service model for an internetwork
n a host-to-host service only if this service can
somehow be provided over each of the underlying
physical networks
4
7
4.1.2 Service Model
o IP service model has two parts
n addressing scheme
o provides a way to identify all hosts in the internetwork
n datagram (conectionless) model of data delivery
o This service model is sometimes called best effort
n although IP makes every effort to deliver datagrams, it makes
no guarantees
8
o Datagram
n a type of packet sent in a connectionless manner
over a network
n every datagram carry enough information to let
the network forward the packet to its correct
destination
n no need for any advance setup mechanism to tell
the network what to do when the packet arrives
5
9
o Best-effort delivery (unreliable service)
n if something goes wrong and has the following
situations
o packets are lost
o packets are delivered out of order
o duplicate copies of a packet are delivered
o packets can be delayed for a long time
n the network does not make any attempt to recover
from the failure
o Best-effort, connectionless service is about the
simplest service you could ask for from an
internetwork
o If you provide best-effort service over a
network that provides a reliable service, then
that’s fine
10
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FAQs on PPT: Internetworking - Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

1. What is internetworking?
Ans. Internetworking refers to the process of connecting multiple networks together to create a larger network. It enables communication and data sharing between different networks, allowing devices and users to interact seamlessly.
2. What are the advantages of internetworking?
Ans. Internetworking offers several benefits, including: - Enhanced communication: Internetworking enables efficient and reliable communication between devices and users on different networks. - Resource sharing: It allows for the sharing of resources such as printers, scanners, and servers across multiple networks, increasing productivity. - Scalability: Internetworking provides the ability to expand and grow networks as needed, accommodating the increasing number of devices and users. - Improved reliability: By connecting multiple networks, internetworking provides redundancy and fault tolerance, ensuring that if one network fails, communication can still be maintained. - Enhanced security: Internetworking allows for the implementation of security measures at various network levels, protecting sensitive data and preventing unauthorized access.
3. What are the common internetworking protocols?
Ans. Some commonly used internetworking protocols are: - Internet Protocol (IP): The IP protocol is responsible for addressing and routing packets across networks in an internetwork. - Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): TCP is a connection-oriented protocol that ensures reliable transmission of data between devices on an internetwork. - User Datagram Protocol (UDP): UDP is a connectionless protocol that provides a faster but less reliable transmission of data compared to TCP. - Border Gateway Protocol (BGP): BGP is an exterior gateway protocol used to exchange routing and reachability information between autonomous systems on the internet. - Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP): ICMP is primarily used for diagnostic and error reporting purposes, handling errors and messages related to network connectivity.
4. How does internetworking affect network performance?
Ans. Internetworking can have both positive and negative impacts on network performance. Some factors include: - Latency: The process of routing packets across multiple networks can introduce latency, causing delays in data transmission. - Bandwidth limitations: Internetworking may result in bandwidth constraints due to the increased traffic and the need to share resources among connected networks. - Improved performance: On the other hand, internetworking can improve performance by providing access to a wider range of resources and enabling load balancing across multiple networks. - Network congestion: If not properly managed, internetworking can lead to network congestion as the volume of data increases when multiple networks are connected. - Scalability: Internetworking allows for scalability, ensuring that networks can accommodate the growing number of devices and users without significantly impacting performance.
5. What are some challenges in implementing internetworking?
Ans. Implementing internetworking can come with various challenges, such as: - Compatibility issues: Different networks may use different protocols and technologies, making it essential to ensure compatibility and seamless integration between them. - Security risks: Internetworking can introduce security vulnerabilities, and it is crucial to implement robust security measures to protect against threats and unauthorized access. - Configuration complexity: Managing multiple networks and ensuring proper configuration can be complex, requiring expertise and careful planning. - Network management: Internetworking adds complexity to network management, as multiple networks need to be monitored, maintained, and optimized. - Performance optimization: Balancing network performance across multiple networks and addressing potential bottlenecks can be challenging, requiring continuous monitoring and optimization efforts.
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