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Chapter 7 Conservation of Plants and Animals 
Deforestation  
Cutting down of trees on large scale is known as deforestation 
Causes 
1. To get land for agriculture, building houses, factories and dams. 
2. Collecting wood for furniture or fuel. 
3. Natural calamities such as forest fire or volcanoes. 
Effects of Deforestation 
1. Increases the temperature 
2. Reduced ground water level 
3. Soil erosion 
4. Increased level of carbon dioxide 
5. Loss of habitat for wild animals 
6. Droughts by disturbing the water cycle and reducing the amount of rainfall. 
7. Desertification – the fertile land of the forests is converted to deserts after deforestation 
It reduces the water holding capacity of the soil. 
It also reduces the infiltration rate of the water into the ground leading to floods. 
 
Biosphere – the part of Earth that supports life. 
Biodiversity – the variety of organisms, their interrelationship with each other and their natural environment is known as 
biodiversity. 
 
Flora – plants 
Fauna - animals 
Protected area – the area reserved by the government to protect the flora and fauna of that area.  
Sanctuary – protected areas for particular animals while some human activity such as collecting      
fallen leaves and timber is allowed 
   National Parks – protected areas for plants and animals over large  area. No human interference is 
allowed. 
                               Biosphere Reserve – Protected area for conservation of wild plants, animals and tribal. 
 
Endemic Species – Species that are found in only one particular area and do not occur anywhere else. E.g. Indian 
Rhinoceros are endemic to India. 
Species – A group of populations that are capable of breeding with each other to produce fertile offspring  
Project Tiger – Initiation by the government of India to protect and increase the population of tigers in India.  
Endangered animals – the animals whose number is reducing at a very rapid rate due to hunting, deforestation or any 
other factor. Asiatic lions and Gharials in India 
Red Data Book – A book that keeps the data of all the endangered plants and animals of a region. 
Page 2


Chapter 7 Conservation of Plants and Animals 
Deforestation  
Cutting down of trees on large scale is known as deforestation 
Causes 
1. To get land for agriculture, building houses, factories and dams. 
2. Collecting wood for furniture or fuel. 
3. Natural calamities such as forest fire or volcanoes. 
Effects of Deforestation 
1. Increases the temperature 
2. Reduced ground water level 
3. Soil erosion 
4. Increased level of carbon dioxide 
5. Loss of habitat for wild animals 
6. Droughts by disturbing the water cycle and reducing the amount of rainfall. 
7. Desertification – the fertile land of the forests is converted to deserts after deforestation 
It reduces the water holding capacity of the soil. 
It also reduces the infiltration rate of the water into the ground leading to floods. 
 
Biosphere – the part of Earth that supports life. 
Biodiversity – the variety of organisms, their interrelationship with each other and their natural environment is known as 
biodiversity. 
 
Flora – plants 
Fauna - animals 
Protected area – the area reserved by the government to protect the flora and fauna of that area.  
Sanctuary – protected areas for particular animals while some human activity such as collecting      
fallen leaves and timber is allowed 
   National Parks – protected areas for plants and animals over large  area. No human interference is 
allowed. 
                               Biosphere Reserve – Protected area for conservation of wild plants, animals and tribal. 
 
Endemic Species – Species that are found in only one particular area and do not occur anywhere else. E.g. Indian 
Rhinoceros are endemic to India. 
Species – A group of populations that are capable of breeding with each other to produce fertile offspring  
Project Tiger – Initiation by the government of India to protect and increase the population of tigers in India.  
Endangered animals – the animals whose number is reducing at a very rapid rate due to hunting, deforestation or any 
other factor. Asiatic lions and Gharials in India 
Red Data Book – A book that keeps the data of all the endangered plants and animals of a region. 
Extinct – Plants or animals that are no longer found in a particular region. E.g. Asiatic Cheetah from India 
Ecosystem – the plants, animals and microorganisms along with their interaction with non-living components such as 
soil, air or water is known as ecosystem. 
Migration – the movement of birds or animals over long distances for a particular season due to climatic conditions or 
laying eggs is called migration. 
Reforestation – The growing of large number of plants and trees to restore the destroyed forests is known as 
reforestation. 
 
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FAQs on Short Note: Conservation of Plants and Animals - Class 8

1. What is the importance of conserving plants and animals?
Ans. Conserving plants and animals is important for maintaining the balance of ecosystems. Plants provide oxygen, food, and shelter for animals, while animals help in pollination and seed dispersal. Conserving them ensures biodiversity, prevents species extinction, and supports the overall health of the planet.
2. What are the main threats to plant and animal conservation?
Ans. The main threats to plant and animal conservation include habitat loss due to deforestation and urbanization, pollution, climate change, overexploitation, and invasive species. These factors disrupt ecosystems and can lead to the decline and extinction of species.
3. How can individuals contribute to the conservation of plants and animals?
Ans. Individuals can contribute to the conservation of plants and animals by: 1. Protecting natural habitats by avoiding deforestation and promoting reforestation. 2. Practicing sustainable consumption by choosing products that are ethically sourced and not harmful to the environment. 3. Supporting conservation organizations and initiatives through donations or volunteering. 4. Spreading awareness about the importance of conservation and promoting responsible behavior towards nature. 5. Participating in community conservation projects and advocating for stronger environmental policies.
4. What is the role of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries in conserving plants and animals?
Ans. National parks and wildlife sanctuaries play a crucial role in conserving plants and animals. They provide protected areas where wildlife can thrive without human interference. These areas help in preserving biodiversity, protecting endangered species, and maintaining ecological balance. They also serve as educational and recreational spaces, allowing people to connect with nature and understand the importance of conservation.
5. How does climate change affect the conservation of plants and animals?
Ans. Climate change has a significant impact on the conservation of plants and animals. Rising temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, and extreme weather events can alter habitats and disrupt ecosystems. This can lead to the loss of suitable habitats for many species, affecting their survival and migration patterns. Climate change also increases the risk of species extinction and reduces the overall biodiversity of an area. Conservation efforts need to address these climate-related challenges to ensure the long-term survival of plants and animals.
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