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international union of pro-Bolshevik 
socialist parties. Some received 
education in the USSR’s Communist 
University of the Workers of the East.
 (iv) Socialism became popular by the 
time of the outbreak of the Second 
World War.
  By the end of the twentieth century, 
the international reputation of the 
USSR as a socialist country had 
declined though it was recognised 
that socialist ideals still enjoyed 
respect among its people. But in each 
country the ideas of socialism were 
rethought in a number of ways.
V. Source-based Questions
 Q1. Read the following extract (Source E) 
taken from NCERT Textbook, page 45 
and answer the questions that follow:
This is a letter written by a peasant who 
did not want to join the collective farm. 
To the newspaper Krestianskaia Gazeta 
(Peasant Newspaper):
 “... I am a natural working peasant born 
in 1879 ...there are 6 members in my 
family, my wife was born in 1881, my 
son is 16, two daughters 19, all three 
go to school, my sister is 71. From 
1932, heavy taxes have been levied on 
me that I have found impossible. From 
1932, heavy taxes have been levied on 
me that I have found impossible. From 
1935, local authorities have increased 
the taxes on me... and I was unable 
to handle them and all my property 
was registered: my horse, cow, calf, 
sheep with lambs, all my implements, 
furniture and my reserve of wood for 
repair of buildings and they sold the 
lot for the taxes. In 1936, they sold two 
of my buildings... the kolkhoz bought 
them. In 1937, of two huts I had, one 
was sold and one was confiscated...”
 Afanasii Dedorovich Frebenev, an 
independent cultivator.
 From: V. Sokolov (ed), Obshchestvo I 
Vlast, v 1930-ye gody.
 (i) Why did the peasant not want to 
join the collective farm?
 (ii) What were the reasons that made the 
conditions of the Russian peasants 
so deplorable?
 Ans. (i) The peasant did not want to 
join the collective farm because all 
of his land and implements would 
be transferred to the ownership of 
collective farms.
 (ii) Stalin forced the peasants of Russia 
to cultivate in collective farms known 
as Kolkhoz. The bulk of land and 
implements were transferred to 
the ownership of collective farms. 
Peasants worked on the land, and 
the Kolkhoz profit was shared. Some 
peasants tried to resist but they 
could not get success. As a result, 
their condition became deplorable.
 Q2. Read the following extract (Source G) 
taken from NCERT Textbook, page 47 
and answer the questions that follow:
 Rabindranath Tagore wrote from 
Russia in 1930
‘Moscow appears much less clean than 
the other European capitals. None 
of those hurrying along the streets 
look smart. The whole place belongs 
to the workers … Here the masses 
have not in the least been put in the 
shade by the gentlemen … those who 
lived in the background for ages have 
come forward in the open today … I 
thought of the peasants and workers 
in my own country. It all seemed like 
the work of the Genii in the Arabian 
Nights. [here] only a decade ago they 
were as illiterate, helpless and hungry 
as our own masses … Who could be 
more astonished than an unfortunate 
Indian like myself to see how they had 
removed the mountain of ignorance 
and helplessness in these few years’.
 (i)  How does the author of the above 
passage portray Moscow?
 (ii) What is the condition of the mass 
there?
Page 2


international union of pro-Bolshevik 
socialist parties. Some received 
education in the USSR’s Communist 
University of the Workers of the East.
 (iv) Socialism became popular by the 
time of the outbreak of the Second 
World War.
  By the end of the twentieth century, 
the international reputation of the 
USSR as a socialist country had 
declined though it was recognised 
that socialist ideals still enjoyed 
respect among its people. But in each 
country the ideas of socialism were 
rethought in a number of ways.
V. Source-based Questions
 Q1. Read the following extract (Source E) 
taken from NCERT Textbook, page 45 
and answer the questions that follow:
This is a letter written by a peasant who 
did not want to join the collective farm. 
To the newspaper Krestianskaia Gazeta 
(Peasant Newspaper):
 “... I am a natural working peasant born 
in 1879 ...there are 6 members in my 
family, my wife was born in 1881, my 
son is 16, two daughters 19, all three 
go to school, my sister is 71. From 
1932, heavy taxes have been levied on 
me that I have found impossible. From 
1932, heavy taxes have been levied on 
me that I have found impossible. From 
1935, local authorities have increased 
the taxes on me... and I was unable 
to handle them and all my property 
was registered: my horse, cow, calf, 
sheep with lambs, all my implements, 
furniture and my reserve of wood for 
repair of buildings and they sold the 
lot for the taxes. In 1936, they sold two 
of my buildings... the kolkhoz bought 
them. In 1937, of two huts I had, one 
was sold and one was confiscated...”
 Afanasii Dedorovich Frebenev, an 
independent cultivator.
 From: V. Sokolov (ed), Obshchestvo I 
Vlast, v 1930-ye gody.
 (i) Why did the peasant not want to 
join the collective farm?
 (ii) What were the reasons that made the 
conditions of the Russian peasants 
so deplorable?
 Ans. (i) The peasant did not want to 
join the collective farm because all 
of his land and implements would 
be transferred to the ownership of 
collective farms.
 (ii) Stalin forced the peasants of Russia 
to cultivate in collective farms known 
as Kolkhoz. The bulk of land and 
implements were transferred to 
the ownership of collective farms. 
Peasants worked on the land, and 
the Kolkhoz profit was shared. Some 
peasants tried to resist but they 
could not get success. As a result, 
their condition became deplorable.
 Q2. Read the following extract (Source G) 
taken from NCERT Textbook, page 47 
and answer the questions that follow:
 Rabindranath Tagore wrote from 
Russia in 1930
‘Moscow appears much less clean than 
the other European capitals. None 
of those hurrying along the streets 
look smart. The whole place belongs 
to the workers … Here the masses 
have not in the least been put in the 
shade by the gentlemen … those who 
lived in the background for ages have 
come forward in the open today … I 
thought of the peasants and workers 
in my own country. It all seemed like 
the work of the Genii in the Arabian 
Nights. [here] only a decade ago they 
were as illiterate, helpless and hungry 
as our own masses … Who could be 
more astonished than an unfortunate 
Indian like myself to see how they had 
removed the mountain of ignorance 
and helplessness in these few years’.
 (i)  How does the author of the above 
passage portray Moscow?
 (ii) What is the condition of the mass 
there?
 (iii) Why does the author call himself 
unfortunate?
 Ans. (i) Moscow, as the author describes, is 
much less clean than other European 
capitals. The whole place belongs to 
the workers.
 (ii) The mass now look smart and 
enlightened.
 (iii) The author calls so for being a citizen 
of the country which had long been 
under the influence of illiteracy and 
poverty and it took a long time to 
remove them.
 VI. Picture-based Question
 Observe the picture given below taken 
from NCERT Textbook, page 37 carefully 
and answer the following questions
  The above picture is of pro-Bolshevik 
demonstration on 17th July which 
get fired upon by the army.
 (i) Who were Bolsheviks and who was 
their leader?
 (ii) Why and by whom was the popular 
demonstration by the Bolsheviks in 
July 1917 harshly repressed?
  Ans. (i) Bolsheviks were the majority group 
of the workers of Russia and their 
leader was Lenin.
 (ii) The popular demonstration by the 
Bolsheviks was harshly repressed by 
the Provisional Government because 
Bolshevik influence was growing 
fast and the government was afraid 
that it might give rise to another 
revolution.
 VII. Value-based Questions
 Q1. People in the early nineteenth century 
Europe wanted transformation of 
society. But not all of them wanted 
a complete transformation. Some 
thought that some change was 
necessary but wished for a gradual 
shift. Some wanted to restructure 
society radically. Thus, some were 
conservatives, others were liberals or 
radicals.
  Which values are associated with 
these three terms?
 Ans. Conservatives: They accepted 
that some change was inevitable 
but believed that the past had to 
be respected and change had to 
be brought about through a slow 
process. Thus, conservatives believed 
in a gradual shift.
  Radicals: They wanted a nation in 
which government was based on the 
majority of a country’s population. 
They were against the concentration 
of property in the hands of a few.
  Liberals: They opposed the 
uncontrolled power of dynastic 
rulers. They wanted a nation which 
tolerated all religions.
 Q2. The Imperial Russian Army came 
to be known as the ‘Russian steam 
roller’. It was the largest armed force 
in the world. When this army shifted 
its loyalty and began supporting 
the revolutionaries, Tsarist power 
collapsed.
  Which values can be reflected from 
this shift of loyalty? Mention four 
values.
 Ans.(i) Patriotism: By shifting its loyalty 
to the revolutionaries, the Imperial 
Russian army did a great work. It 
showed that the welfare of the nation 
was of prime importance.
Page 3


international union of pro-Bolshevik 
socialist parties. Some received 
education in the USSR’s Communist 
University of the Workers of the East.
 (iv) Socialism became popular by the 
time of the outbreak of the Second 
World War.
  By the end of the twentieth century, 
the international reputation of the 
USSR as a socialist country had 
declined though it was recognised 
that socialist ideals still enjoyed 
respect among its people. But in each 
country the ideas of socialism were 
rethought in a number of ways.
V. Source-based Questions
 Q1. Read the following extract (Source E) 
taken from NCERT Textbook, page 45 
and answer the questions that follow:
This is a letter written by a peasant who 
did not want to join the collective farm. 
To the newspaper Krestianskaia Gazeta 
(Peasant Newspaper):
 “... I am a natural working peasant born 
in 1879 ...there are 6 members in my 
family, my wife was born in 1881, my 
son is 16, two daughters 19, all three 
go to school, my sister is 71. From 
1932, heavy taxes have been levied on 
me that I have found impossible. From 
1932, heavy taxes have been levied on 
me that I have found impossible. From 
1935, local authorities have increased 
the taxes on me... and I was unable 
to handle them and all my property 
was registered: my horse, cow, calf, 
sheep with lambs, all my implements, 
furniture and my reserve of wood for 
repair of buildings and they sold the 
lot for the taxes. In 1936, they sold two 
of my buildings... the kolkhoz bought 
them. In 1937, of two huts I had, one 
was sold and one was confiscated...”
 Afanasii Dedorovich Frebenev, an 
independent cultivator.
 From: V. Sokolov (ed), Obshchestvo I 
Vlast, v 1930-ye gody.
 (i) Why did the peasant not want to 
join the collective farm?
 (ii) What were the reasons that made the 
conditions of the Russian peasants 
so deplorable?
 Ans. (i) The peasant did not want to 
join the collective farm because all 
of his land and implements would 
be transferred to the ownership of 
collective farms.
 (ii) Stalin forced the peasants of Russia 
to cultivate in collective farms known 
as Kolkhoz. The bulk of land and 
implements were transferred to 
the ownership of collective farms. 
Peasants worked on the land, and 
the Kolkhoz profit was shared. Some 
peasants tried to resist but they 
could not get success. As a result, 
their condition became deplorable.
 Q2. Read the following extract (Source G) 
taken from NCERT Textbook, page 47 
and answer the questions that follow:
 Rabindranath Tagore wrote from 
Russia in 1930
‘Moscow appears much less clean than 
the other European capitals. None 
of those hurrying along the streets 
look smart. The whole place belongs 
to the workers … Here the masses 
have not in the least been put in the 
shade by the gentlemen … those who 
lived in the background for ages have 
come forward in the open today … I 
thought of the peasants and workers 
in my own country. It all seemed like 
the work of the Genii in the Arabian 
Nights. [here] only a decade ago they 
were as illiterate, helpless and hungry 
as our own masses … Who could be 
more astonished than an unfortunate 
Indian like myself to see how they had 
removed the mountain of ignorance 
and helplessness in these few years’.
 (i)  How does the author of the above 
passage portray Moscow?
 (ii) What is the condition of the mass 
there?
 (iii) Why does the author call himself 
unfortunate?
 Ans. (i) Moscow, as the author describes, is 
much less clean than other European 
capitals. The whole place belongs to 
the workers.
 (ii) The mass now look smart and 
enlightened.
 (iii) The author calls so for being a citizen 
of the country which had long been 
under the influence of illiteracy and 
poverty and it took a long time to 
remove them.
 VI. Picture-based Question
 Observe the picture given below taken 
from NCERT Textbook, page 37 carefully 
and answer the following questions
  The above picture is of pro-Bolshevik 
demonstration on 17th July which 
get fired upon by the army.
 (i) Who were Bolsheviks and who was 
their leader?
 (ii) Why and by whom was the popular 
demonstration by the Bolsheviks in 
July 1917 harshly repressed?
  Ans. (i) Bolsheviks were the majority group 
of the workers of Russia and their 
leader was Lenin.
 (ii) The popular demonstration by the 
Bolsheviks was harshly repressed by 
the Provisional Government because 
Bolshevik influence was growing 
fast and the government was afraid 
that it might give rise to another 
revolution.
 VII. Value-based Questions
 Q1. People in the early nineteenth century 
Europe wanted transformation of 
society. But not all of them wanted 
a complete transformation. Some 
thought that some change was 
necessary but wished for a gradual 
shift. Some wanted to restructure 
society radically. Thus, some were 
conservatives, others were liberals or 
radicals.
  Which values are associated with 
these three terms?
 Ans. Conservatives: They accepted 
that some change was inevitable 
but believed that the past had to 
be respected and change had to 
be brought about through a slow 
process. Thus, conservatives believed 
in a gradual shift.
  Radicals: They wanted a nation in 
which government was based on the 
majority of a country’s population. 
They were against the concentration 
of property in the hands of a few.
  Liberals: They opposed the 
uncontrolled power of dynastic 
rulers. They wanted a nation which 
tolerated all religions.
 Q2. The Imperial Russian Army came 
to be known as the ‘Russian steam 
roller’. It was the largest armed force 
in the world. When this army shifted 
its loyalty and began supporting 
the revolutionaries, Tsarist power 
collapsed.
  Which values can be reflected from 
this shift of loyalty? Mention four 
values.
 Ans.(i) Patriotism: By shifting its loyalty 
to the revolutionaries, the Imperial 
Russian army did a great work. It 
showed that the welfare of the nation 
was of prime importance.
 (ii) National integration: The Russian army’s action encouraged national integration.
 (iii) Unity: The Russian soldiers were united and they began to support the 
revolutionaries unitedly.
 (iv) Team work: Their action was based on team work.
 Q3. Which values are associated with Stalin’s collectivisation programme? Mention 
three values.
 Ans.(i) Promotion of State — controlled large farms to increase production.
 (ii) Elimination of Kulaks, well-to-do peasants of Russia.
 (iii) Transfer of land and implements to the ownership of collective farms.
VIII. Map Skills
 Q1. On an outline map of the world, show the Russian Empire and the European 
countries at war during the First World War.
 Ans.
 
 Q2. On an outline map of the world, locate and label the following major countries of the 
First World War: (as per the CBSE Map List 2017-18)
  Central Powers – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey (Ottoman Empire)
  Allied Powers – France, England, Russia, America
Page 4


international union of pro-Bolshevik 
socialist parties. Some received 
education in the USSR’s Communist 
University of the Workers of the East.
 (iv) Socialism became popular by the 
time of the outbreak of the Second 
World War.
  By the end of the twentieth century, 
the international reputation of the 
USSR as a socialist country had 
declined though it was recognised 
that socialist ideals still enjoyed 
respect among its people. But in each 
country the ideas of socialism were 
rethought in a number of ways.
V. Source-based Questions
 Q1. Read the following extract (Source E) 
taken from NCERT Textbook, page 45 
and answer the questions that follow:
This is a letter written by a peasant who 
did not want to join the collective farm. 
To the newspaper Krestianskaia Gazeta 
(Peasant Newspaper):
 “... I am a natural working peasant born 
in 1879 ...there are 6 members in my 
family, my wife was born in 1881, my 
son is 16, two daughters 19, all three 
go to school, my sister is 71. From 
1932, heavy taxes have been levied on 
me that I have found impossible. From 
1932, heavy taxes have been levied on 
me that I have found impossible. From 
1935, local authorities have increased 
the taxes on me... and I was unable 
to handle them and all my property 
was registered: my horse, cow, calf, 
sheep with lambs, all my implements, 
furniture and my reserve of wood for 
repair of buildings and they sold the 
lot for the taxes. In 1936, they sold two 
of my buildings... the kolkhoz bought 
them. In 1937, of two huts I had, one 
was sold and one was confiscated...”
 Afanasii Dedorovich Frebenev, an 
independent cultivator.
 From: V. Sokolov (ed), Obshchestvo I 
Vlast, v 1930-ye gody.
 (i) Why did the peasant not want to 
join the collective farm?
 (ii) What were the reasons that made the 
conditions of the Russian peasants 
so deplorable?
 Ans. (i) The peasant did not want to 
join the collective farm because all 
of his land and implements would 
be transferred to the ownership of 
collective farms.
 (ii) Stalin forced the peasants of Russia 
to cultivate in collective farms known 
as Kolkhoz. The bulk of land and 
implements were transferred to 
the ownership of collective farms. 
Peasants worked on the land, and 
the Kolkhoz profit was shared. Some 
peasants tried to resist but they 
could not get success. As a result, 
their condition became deplorable.
 Q2. Read the following extract (Source G) 
taken from NCERT Textbook, page 47 
and answer the questions that follow:
 Rabindranath Tagore wrote from 
Russia in 1930
‘Moscow appears much less clean than 
the other European capitals. None 
of those hurrying along the streets 
look smart. The whole place belongs 
to the workers … Here the masses 
have not in the least been put in the 
shade by the gentlemen … those who 
lived in the background for ages have 
come forward in the open today … I 
thought of the peasants and workers 
in my own country. It all seemed like 
the work of the Genii in the Arabian 
Nights. [here] only a decade ago they 
were as illiterate, helpless and hungry 
as our own masses … Who could be 
more astonished than an unfortunate 
Indian like myself to see how they had 
removed the mountain of ignorance 
and helplessness in these few years’.
 (i)  How does the author of the above 
passage portray Moscow?
 (ii) What is the condition of the mass 
there?
 (iii) Why does the author call himself 
unfortunate?
 Ans. (i) Moscow, as the author describes, is 
much less clean than other European 
capitals. The whole place belongs to 
the workers.
 (ii) The mass now look smart and 
enlightened.
 (iii) The author calls so for being a citizen 
of the country which had long been 
under the influence of illiteracy and 
poverty and it took a long time to 
remove them.
 VI. Picture-based Question
 Observe the picture given below taken 
from NCERT Textbook, page 37 carefully 
and answer the following questions
  The above picture is of pro-Bolshevik 
demonstration on 17th July which 
get fired upon by the army.
 (i) Who were Bolsheviks and who was 
their leader?
 (ii) Why and by whom was the popular 
demonstration by the Bolsheviks in 
July 1917 harshly repressed?
  Ans. (i) Bolsheviks were the majority group 
of the workers of Russia and their 
leader was Lenin.
 (ii) The popular demonstration by the 
Bolsheviks was harshly repressed by 
the Provisional Government because 
Bolshevik influence was growing 
fast and the government was afraid 
that it might give rise to another 
revolution.
 VII. Value-based Questions
 Q1. People in the early nineteenth century 
Europe wanted transformation of 
society. But not all of them wanted 
a complete transformation. Some 
thought that some change was 
necessary but wished for a gradual 
shift. Some wanted to restructure 
society radically. Thus, some were 
conservatives, others were liberals or 
radicals.
  Which values are associated with 
these three terms?
 Ans. Conservatives: They accepted 
that some change was inevitable 
but believed that the past had to 
be respected and change had to 
be brought about through a slow 
process. Thus, conservatives believed 
in a gradual shift.
  Radicals: They wanted a nation in 
which government was based on the 
majority of a country’s population. 
They were against the concentration 
of property in the hands of a few.
  Liberals: They opposed the 
uncontrolled power of dynastic 
rulers. They wanted a nation which 
tolerated all religions.
 Q2. The Imperial Russian Army came 
to be known as the ‘Russian steam 
roller’. It was the largest armed force 
in the world. When this army shifted 
its loyalty and began supporting 
the revolutionaries, Tsarist power 
collapsed.
  Which values can be reflected from 
this shift of loyalty? Mention four 
values.
 Ans.(i) Patriotism: By shifting its loyalty 
to the revolutionaries, the Imperial 
Russian army did a great work. It 
showed that the welfare of the nation 
was of prime importance.
 (ii) National integration: The Russian army’s action encouraged national integration.
 (iii) Unity: The Russian soldiers were united and they began to support the 
revolutionaries unitedly.
 (iv) Team work: Their action was based on team work.
 Q3. Which values are associated with Stalin’s collectivisation programme? Mention 
three values.
 Ans.(i) Promotion of State — controlled large farms to increase production.
 (ii) Elimination of Kulaks, well-to-do peasants of Russia.
 (iii) Transfer of land and implements to the ownership of collective farms.
VIII. Map Skills
 Q1. On an outline map of the world, show the Russian Empire and the European 
countries at war during the First World War.
 Ans.
 
 Q2. On an outline map of the world, locate and label the following major countries of the 
First World War: (as per the CBSE Map List 2017-18)
  Central Powers – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey (Ottoman Empire)
  Allied Powers – France, England, Russia, America
TEST YOUR SKILLS
 1. Which incident triggered the Russian Revolution?
 2. Give a brief description of the civil war that broke out in Russia.
 3. “By the 1870s, socialist ideas spread through Europe.” Explain.
 4. What were the main features of the centralised planning that was introduced in Russia by the Bolsheviks?
 5. Give a brief account of the political condition of Russia before 1905.
???
Ans.
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FAQs on Social Science-9 (H2e) - Extra Documents & Tests for Class 9

1. What is social science and why is it important?
Ans. Social science is a field of study that examines human society, behavior, and interactions. It includes disciplines such as sociology, psychology, anthropology, economics, and political science. Social science is important as it helps us understand how individuals and groups function in society, analyze social issues, and make informed decisions for the betterment of society.
2. What are the major branches of social science?
Ans. The major branches of social science include sociology, psychology, anthropology, economics, and political science. Sociology studies the development, structure, and functioning of human society. Psychology focuses on individual behavior and mental processes. Anthropology explores the origin, development, and cultural diversity of humans. Economics analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Political science examines the theory and practice of government and politics.
3. How does social science contribute to society?
Ans. Social science contributes to society in several ways. It helps us understand social issues and phenomena, such as poverty, inequality, and crime. Through research and analysis, social scientists provide valuable insights and recommendations for addressing these issues. Social science also helps in policy-making by providing evidence-based solutions and strategies. Additionally, it promotes critical thinking, empathy, and a better understanding of diverse cultures, leading to a more inclusive and harmonious society.
4. What research methods are commonly used in social science?
Ans. Social scientists employ various research methods to gather and analyze data. These methods include surveys, interviews, experiments, observation, case studies, and statistical analysis. Surveys involve collecting information from a large sample of people through questionnaires. Interviews allow researchers to gather in-depth information from a smaller group or individuals. Experiments aim to establish cause-and-effect relationships. Observation involves directly observing and recording social behavior. Case studies examine a specific individual or group in detail. Statistical analysis involves analyzing numerical data to identify patterns and relationships.
5. How does social science contribute to our understanding of human behavior?
Ans. Social science contributes to our understanding of human behavior by providing systematic and evidence-based knowledge. Through the study of sociology, psychology, and anthropology, social scientists explore the factors influencing human behavior, such as social norms, cultural values, and individual psychology. They analyze patterns, trends, and variations in behavior to identify underlying causes and motivations. This understanding of human behavior helps in predicting and explaining social phenomena, improving interpersonal relationships, and developing interventions to address behavioral issues.
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