PPT: Pressure Vessels (Thin Cylinder)

# PPT: Pressure Vessels (Thin Cylinder) | Strength of Materials (SOM) - Mechanical Engineering PDF Download

``` Page 1

TOPICS
? INTRODUCTION
? STRESSES IN THIN CYLINDRICAL SHEELS
?HOOP STRESS(CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRESS)
?LONGITUDINAL STRESS
? C (IN) D (OF) (A) TCS (DUE) (TO) IP
? C (IN) V (OF) (A) TCS (DUE) (TO) IP
? THIN SPHERICAL SHEELS
Page 2

TOPICS
? INTRODUCTION
? STRESSES IN THIN CYLINDRICAL SHEELS
?HOOP STRESS(CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRESS)
?LONGITUDINAL STRESS
? C (IN) D (OF) (A) TCS (DUE) (TO) IP
? C (IN) V (OF) (A) TCS (DUE) (TO) IP
? THIN SPHERICAL SHEELS
THIN CYLINDER
If the wall thickness is less than about 7% of the inner
diameter then the cylinder may be treated as a thin one.
Thin walled cylinders are used as boiler shells,pressure
tanks, pipes and in other low pressure pocessing
equipments.
Ingeneral three types of stresses are developed in pressure
cylinders viz.
Circumferential or Hoop stress, Longitudinal stress in
closed end cylinders and Radial stresses.
Page 3

TOPICS
? INTRODUCTION
? STRESSES IN THIN CYLINDRICAL SHEELS
?HOOP STRESS(CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRESS)
?LONGITUDINAL STRESS
? C (IN) D (OF) (A) TCS (DUE) (TO) IP
? C (IN) V (OF) (A) TCS (DUE) (TO) IP
? THIN SPHERICAL SHEELS
THIN CYLINDER
If the wall thickness is less than about 7% of the inner
diameter then the cylinder may be treated as a thin one.
Thin walled cylinders are used as boiler shells,pressure
tanks, pipes and in other low pressure pocessing
equipments.
Ingeneral three types of stresses are developed in pressure
cylinders viz.
Circumferential or Hoop stress, Longitudinal stress in
closed end cylinders and Radial stresses.
In a thin walled cylinder the circumferential
stresses may be assumed to be constant over the
wall thickness and stress in the radial direction
may be neglected for the analysis. Considering
the equilibrium of a cut out section the
circumferential stress and longitudinal stress can
be found.
Page 4

TOPICS
? INTRODUCTION
? STRESSES IN THIN CYLINDRICAL SHEELS
?HOOP STRESS(CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRESS)
?LONGITUDINAL STRESS
? C (IN) D (OF) (A) TCS (DUE) (TO) IP
? C (IN) V (OF) (A) TCS (DUE) (TO) IP
? THIN SPHERICAL SHEELS
THIN CYLINDER
If the wall thickness is less than about 7% of the inner
diameter then the cylinder may be treated as a thin one.
Thin walled cylinders are used as boiler shells,pressure
tanks, pipes and in other low pressure pocessing
equipments.
Ingeneral three types of stresses are developed in pressure
cylinders viz.
Circumferential or Hoop stress, Longitudinal stress in
closed end cylinders and Radial stresses.
In a thin walled cylinder the circumferential
stresses may be assumed to be constant over the
wall thickness and stress in the radial direction
may be neglected for the analysis. Considering
the equilibrium of a cut out section the
circumferential stress and longitudinal stress can
be found.
Page 5

TOPICS
? INTRODUCTION
? STRESSES IN THIN CYLINDRICAL SHEELS
?HOOP STRESS(CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRESS)
?LONGITUDINAL STRESS
? C (IN) D (OF) (A) TCS (DUE) (TO) IP
? C (IN) V (OF) (A) TCS (DUE) (TO) IP
? THIN SPHERICAL SHEELS
THIN CYLINDER
If the wall thickness is less than about 7% of the inner
diameter then the cylinder may be treated as a thin one.
Thin walled cylinders are used as boiler shells,pressure
tanks, pipes and in other low pressure pocessing
equipments.
Ingeneral three types of stresses are developed in pressure
cylinders viz.
Circumferential or Hoop stress, Longitudinal stress in
closed end cylinders and Radial stresses.
In a thin walled cylinder the circumferential
stresses may be assumed to be constant over the
wall thickness and stress in the radial direction
may be neglected for the analysis. Considering
the equilibrium of a cut out section the
circumferential stress and longitudinal stress can
be found.
2. Longitudinal Stress (s
L
) – This stress is directed along the
length of the cylinder. This is also tensile in nature and tends
to increase the length.
r
) – It is compressive in nature.
Its magnitude is equal to fluid pressure on the inside wall and
zero on the outer wall if it is open to atmosphere.
1. Hoop or Circumferential Stress (s
C
) – This is directed along the
tangent to the circumference and tensile in nature.  Thus, there
will be increase in diameter.
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## FAQs on PPT: Pressure Vessels (Thin Cylinder) - Strength of Materials (SOM) - Mechanical Engineering

 1. What is a pressure vessel?
Ans. A pressure vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure significantly different from the ambient pressure. It is usually made of materials that can withstand high pressures and is used in various industries for storing or processing substances under pressure.
 2. What are the different types of pressure vessels?
Ans. There are several types of pressure vessels, including thin-walled cylinders, spherical vessels, and torispherical heads. In the context of this article, we are specifically discussing thin-walled cylinders, which are commonly used in mechanical engineering applications.
 3. How is the thickness of a thin cylinder determined?
Ans. The thickness of a thin cylinder is determined using the formula for hoop stress, which takes into account the internal pressure, radius, and material properties. The equation allows engineers to calculate the required thickness to ensure the vessel can withstand the desired pressure without failing.
 4. What are the challenges in designing pressure vessels?
Ans. Designing pressure vessels involves considering various factors such as material selection, pressure containment, safety regulations, and fabrication techniques. Challenges may include finding materials with suitable strength and corrosion resistance, ensuring proper sealing and pressure relief mechanisms, and complying with relevant codes and standards.
 5. How are pressure vessels tested for safety?
Ans. Pressure vessels undergo various tests to ensure their safety and integrity. Common tests include hydrostatic testing, where the vessel is filled with water and subjected to a pressure higher than its working pressure, and ultrasonic inspection to detect any defects or cracks. These tests help identify potential weaknesses and ensure the vessel meets safety requirements.

## Strength of Materials (SOM)

37 videos|39 docs|45 tests

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