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52                                                                                                                                                        
5. ENVIRONMENT 
5.1. CLIMATE FINANCE 
Why in News? 
The report titled ‘The State of Cities Climate Finance’ was 
recently released by the Cities Climate Finance Leadership 
Alliance and the World Bank. 
Key Highlights of the report 
• An average of $384 billion was invested in urban climate 
finance annually in 2017-2018. 
• Urban climate finance flows are heavily concentrated in 
OECD countries and China. 
• Vastly insufficient amounts of urban climate finance were invested in many developing economy regions, 
including South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. 
• Finance for adaptation projects amounted to $7 billion in 2017-2018, representing 9 per cent of investments 
tracked at the project level, against the 91 per cent ($69 billion) for mitigation and dual uses. 
What is Climate Finance? 
• Climate finance refers to local, national or transnational financing—drawn from public, private and 
alternative sources of financing—that seeks to support mitigation (reducing GHG emissions) and adaptation 
(adapting to the adverse effects and reduce the impacts of a changing climate) actions that will address 
climate change. 
• Climate financing will essentially help the world to reach the target of limiting global warming to an increase 
of 1.5°C above pre-industrial level. 
• The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris 
Agreement call for financial assistance from Parties with more financial resources to those that are less 
endowed and more vulnerable.  
Financial mechanisms established UNFCCC and related Agreements 
Global Environment 
Facility (GEF) 
• It has served as an operating entity of the financial mechanism since the Convention’s entry 
into force in 1994. It manages two funds- 
o Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF), established in 2001, to finance projects relating 
to: adaptation; technology transfer and capacity building; energy, transport, industry, 
agriculture, forestry and waste management; and economic diversification. 
o Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF), established to support a work programme to 
assist Least Developed Country Parties (LDCs) carry out the preparation and 
implementation of national adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs). 
Adaptation Fund (AF) • It was established in 2001 to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in 
developing country Parties to the Kyoto Protocol that are particularly vulnerable to the 
adverse effects of climate change. 
Green Climate Fund 
(GCF) 
It was established in COP 16, in 2010 and developed countries had pledged to mobilise US$ 100 
billion per year by 2020 through this fund to support developing countries raise and realize 
their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) ambitions towards low-emissions, climate-
resilient pathways. 
Other Funds and instruments of financing 
UN-backed 
international climate 
funds 
 
• Clean Technology Fund (CTF):  It aims at empowering transformation in developing 
countries by providing resources to scale up low carbon technologies. 
• Climate Investment Funds (CIFs): It aims to accelerate climate action by empowering 
transformations in clean technology, energy access, climate resilience, and sustainable 
forests in developing and middle-income countries. 
• UN- Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD): It aims to 
protect forests, a pre-eminent nature-based solution to the climate emergency. 
• Net Zero Asset Owner Alliance: It has 29 members, including pension funds, insurance 
companies, and sovereign wealth funds, and is working on substantial methodologies to 
align portfolios with net zero Paris targets. 
Cities Climate Finance Leadership Alliance  
• It is a coalition of leaders committed to 
deploying finance for city level climate 
action at scale by 2030.  
• It is the only multi-level and multi-
stakeholder coalition aimed at closing 
the investment gap for urban 
subnational climate projects and 
infrastructure worldwide. 
Page 2


 
52                                                                                                                                                        
5. ENVIRONMENT 
5.1. CLIMATE FINANCE 
Why in News? 
The report titled ‘The State of Cities Climate Finance’ was 
recently released by the Cities Climate Finance Leadership 
Alliance and the World Bank. 
Key Highlights of the report 
• An average of $384 billion was invested in urban climate 
finance annually in 2017-2018. 
• Urban climate finance flows are heavily concentrated in 
OECD countries and China. 
• Vastly insufficient amounts of urban climate finance were invested in many developing economy regions, 
including South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. 
• Finance for adaptation projects amounted to $7 billion in 2017-2018, representing 9 per cent of investments 
tracked at the project level, against the 91 per cent ($69 billion) for mitigation and dual uses. 
What is Climate Finance? 
• Climate finance refers to local, national or transnational financing—drawn from public, private and 
alternative sources of financing—that seeks to support mitigation (reducing GHG emissions) and adaptation 
(adapting to the adverse effects and reduce the impacts of a changing climate) actions that will address 
climate change. 
• Climate financing will essentially help the world to reach the target of limiting global warming to an increase 
of 1.5°C above pre-industrial level. 
• The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris 
Agreement call for financial assistance from Parties with more financial resources to those that are less 
endowed and more vulnerable.  
Financial mechanisms established UNFCCC and related Agreements 
Global Environment 
Facility (GEF) 
• It has served as an operating entity of the financial mechanism since the Convention’s entry 
into force in 1994. It manages two funds- 
o Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF), established in 2001, to finance projects relating 
to: adaptation; technology transfer and capacity building; energy, transport, industry, 
agriculture, forestry and waste management; and economic diversification. 
o Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF), established to support a work programme to 
assist Least Developed Country Parties (LDCs) carry out the preparation and 
implementation of national adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs). 
Adaptation Fund (AF) • It was established in 2001 to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in 
developing country Parties to the Kyoto Protocol that are particularly vulnerable to the 
adverse effects of climate change. 
Green Climate Fund 
(GCF) 
It was established in COP 16, in 2010 and developed countries had pledged to mobilise US$ 100 
billion per year by 2020 through this fund to support developing countries raise and realize 
their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) ambitions towards low-emissions, climate-
resilient pathways. 
Other Funds and instruments of financing 
UN-backed 
international climate 
funds 
 
• Clean Technology Fund (CTF):  It aims at empowering transformation in developing 
countries by providing resources to scale up low carbon technologies. 
• Climate Investment Funds (CIFs): It aims to accelerate climate action by empowering 
transformations in clean technology, energy access, climate resilience, and sustainable 
forests in developing and middle-income countries. 
• UN- Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD): It aims to 
protect forests, a pre-eminent nature-based solution to the climate emergency. 
• Net Zero Asset Owner Alliance: It has 29 members, including pension funds, insurance 
companies, and sovereign wealth funds, and is working on substantial methodologies to 
align portfolios with net zero Paris targets. 
Cities Climate Finance Leadership Alliance  
• It is a coalition of leaders committed to 
deploying finance for city level climate 
action at scale by 2030.  
• It is the only multi-level and multi-
stakeholder coalition aimed at closing 
the investment gap for urban 
subnational climate projects and 
infrastructure worldwide. 
 
53                                                                                                                                                        
Other international 
funds 
• Climate Change Fund of Asian Development Bank (ADB): It was established in 2008 to 
facilitate greater investments in developing member countries (DMCs) to effectively 
address the causes and consequences of climate change, by strengthening support to low-
carbon and climate-resilient development. 
• Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF): It is a global partnership of governments, 
businesses, civil society, and Indigenous Peoples focused on reducing emissions from 
deforestation and forest degradation, forest carbon stock conservation, the sustainable 
management of forests, and the enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing 
countries, activities commonly referred to as REDD+. 
Other National and 
local Sources of 
raising finances 
 
• Allocations from National Governments:  For example, National Adaptation Fund for 
Climate Change (NAFCC) is a Central Sector Scheme which was set up in the year 2015-16 to 
support concrete adaptation activities which mitigate the adverse effects of climate 
change. 
• Carbon pricing instruments: These include a carbon market approach (where an Emissions 
Trading Scheme is established, and carbon credits are bought and sold based on a market 
price per tCO2e); Carbon emissions tax approach (that can also be in the form of a fossil fuel 
tax or removal of fossil fuel subsidies) etc. 
 
Challenges in mobilizing climate finance 
• Insufficient in amount: While climate finance in 2017 and 2018 crossed the USD half-trillion mark, IPCC 
report estimated that the investment required to remain within the 1.5°C to 2°C scenario should be between 
$1.6 to $3.8 trillion per year. 
• Stress added by COVID-19 pandemic: The disruptions caused by the pandemic such as need for more 
emergency services coupled with a reduction in tax revenue have led to diversion of funding away from 
climate resilience projects and renewable energy. 
• Underfunding of adaptation: The Climate Policy Imitative noted in its 2019 Climate Finance 
Landscape report that the vast majority of the finance that is tracked continues to flow toward activities for 
mitigation. 
• Lack of ‘investment ready’ low-carbon/ climate-resilient projects: There are few visible ‘investment ready’ 
projects and most projects require further assessment regarding scale of returns in terms of their 
contribution in climate mitigation or adaptation.  
• Gaps in present global knowledge about climate finance: These include issues such as- 
o Lack of common definitions for central concepts related to climate finance or financial accounting rules. 
o Limited awareness by national policymakers on the financing mechanisms that exist.  
o A scarcity of demonstrable, tested models on climate finance delivery. 
o Low ‘bankability’ of some climate action projects due to lack of sufficient data about future returns and 
risks on investment.  
• Lack of adequate finance for least developed countries (LDCs) and small island developing states (SIDS): 
Launched during the COP 19 in 2013, the Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) intended that developed 
countries provide developing countries (including SIDS and LDCs) with finance, technology and capacity-
Page 3


 
52                                                                                                                                                        
5. ENVIRONMENT 
5.1. CLIMATE FINANCE 
Why in News? 
The report titled ‘The State of Cities Climate Finance’ was 
recently released by the Cities Climate Finance Leadership 
Alliance and the World Bank. 
Key Highlights of the report 
• An average of $384 billion was invested in urban climate 
finance annually in 2017-2018. 
• Urban climate finance flows are heavily concentrated in 
OECD countries and China. 
• Vastly insufficient amounts of urban climate finance were invested in many developing economy regions, 
including South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. 
• Finance for adaptation projects amounted to $7 billion in 2017-2018, representing 9 per cent of investments 
tracked at the project level, against the 91 per cent ($69 billion) for mitigation and dual uses. 
What is Climate Finance? 
• Climate finance refers to local, national or transnational financing—drawn from public, private and 
alternative sources of financing—that seeks to support mitigation (reducing GHG emissions) and adaptation 
(adapting to the adverse effects and reduce the impacts of a changing climate) actions that will address 
climate change. 
• Climate financing will essentially help the world to reach the target of limiting global warming to an increase 
of 1.5°C above pre-industrial level. 
• The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris 
Agreement call for financial assistance from Parties with more financial resources to those that are less 
endowed and more vulnerable.  
Financial mechanisms established UNFCCC and related Agreements 
Global Environment 
Facility (GEF) 
• It has served as an operating entity of the financial mechanism since the Convention’s entry 
into force in 1994. It manages two funds- 
o Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF), established in 2001, to finance projects relating 
to: adaptation; technology transfer and capacity building; energy, transport, industry, 
agriculture, forestry and waste management; and economic diversification. 
o Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF), established to support a work programme to 
assist Least Developed Country Parties (LDCs) carry out the preparation and 
implementation of national adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs). 
Adaptation Fund (AF) • It was established in 2001 to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in 
developing country Parties to the Kyoto Protocol that are particularly vulnerable to the 
adverse effects of climate change. 
Green Climate Fund 
(GCF) 
It was established in COP 16, in 2010 and developed countries had pledged to mobilise US$ 100 
billion per year by 2020 through this fund to support developing countries raise and realize 
their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) ambitions towards low-emissions, climate-
resilient pathways. 
Other Funds and instruments of financing 
UN-backed 
international climate 
funds 
 
• Clean Technology Fund (CTF):  It aims at empowering transformation in developing 
countries by providing resources to scale up low carbon technologies. 
• Climate Investment Funds (CIFs): It aims to accelerate climate action by empowering 
transformations in clean technology, energy access, climate resilience, and sustainable 
forests in developing and middle-income countries. 
• UN- Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD): It aims to 
protect forests, a pre-eminent nature-based solution to the climate emergency. 
• Net Zero Asset Owner Alliance: It has 29 members, including pension funds, insurance 
companies, and sovereign wealth funds, and is working on substantial methodologies to 
align portfolios with net zero Paris targets. 
Cities Climate Finance Leadership Alliance  
• It is a coalition of leaders committed to 
deploying finance for city level climate 
action at scale by 2030.  
• It is the only multi-level and multi-
stakeholder coalition aimed at closing 
the investment gap for urban 
subnational climate projects and 
infrastructure worldwide. 
 
53                                                                                                                                                        
Other international 
funds 
• Climate Change Fund of Asian Development Bank (ADB): It was established in 2008 to 
facilitate greater investments in developing member countries (DMCs) to effectively 
address the causes and consequences of climate change, by strengthening support to low-
carbon and climate-resilient development. 
• Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF): It is a global partnership of governments, 
businesses, civil society, and Indigenous Peoples focused on reducing emissions from 
deforestation and forest degradation, forest carbon stock conservation, the sustainable 
management of forests, and the enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing 
countries, activities commonly referred to as REDD+. 
Other National and 
local Sources of 
raising finances 
 
• Allocations from National Governments:  For example, National Adaptation Fund for 
Climate Change (NAFCC) is a Central Sector Scheme which was set up in the year 2015-16 to 
support concrete adaptation activities which mitigate the adverse effects of climate 
change. 
• Carbon pricing instruments: These include a carbon market approach (where an Emissions 
Trading Scheme is established, and carbon credits are bought and sold based on a market 
price per tCO2e); Carbon emissions tax approach (that can also be in the form of a fossil fuel 
tax or removal of fossil fuel subsidies) etc. 
 
Challenges in mobilizing climate finance 
• Insufficient in amount: While climate finance in 2017 and 2018 crossed the USD half-trillion mark, IPCC 
report estimated that the investment required to remain within the 1.5°C to 2°C scenario should be between 
$1.6 to $3.8 trillion per year. 
• Stress added by COVID-19 pandemic: The disruptions caused by the pandemic such as need for more 
emergency services coupled with a reduction in tax revenue have led to diversion of funding away from 
climate resilience projects and renewable energy. 
• Underfunding of adaptation: The Climate Policy Imitative noted in its 2019 Climate Finance 
Landscape report that the vast majority of the finance that is tracked continues to flow toward activities for 
mitigation. 
• Lack of ‘investment ready’ low-carbon/ climate-resilient projects: There are few visible ‘investment ready’ 
projects and most projects require further assessment regarding scale of returns in terms of their 
contribution in climate mitigation or adaptation.  
• Gaps in present global knowledge about climate finance: These include issues such as- 
o Lack of common definitions for central concepts related to climate finance or financial accounting rules. 
o Limited awareness by national policymakers on the financing mechanisms that exist.  
o A scarcity of demonstrable, tested models on climate finance delivery. 
o Low ‘bankability’ of some climate action projects due to lack of sufficient data about future returns and 
risks on investment.  
• Lack of adequate finance for least developed countries (LDCs) and small island developing states (SIDS): 
Launched during the COP 19 in 2013, the Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) intended that developed 
countries provide developing countries (including SIDS and LDCs) with finance, technology and capacity-
 
54                                                                                                                                                        
Rationale for a New Commission  
• Currently, there is a lack of a permanent, dedicated 
and participative mechanism adopting a collaborative 
and participatory approach involving relevant central 
ministries, state governments, local bodies and other 
stakeholders to tackle air pollution in the National 
Capital Region (NCR) and adjoining areas.  
• To reach a permanent solution and to establish a self-
regulated, democratically-monitored mechanism for 
tackling air pollution in NCR. 
building to help victims of climate change recover after extreme weather events or slower-onset climate 
disasters such as sea-level rise. However, no considerable progress has been made to solidify financial 
commitments of developed nations. 
• Obstacles to expeditious access by developing countries to international climate finance: For instance, 
about 85% of green finance in India came from domestic sources, with private players such as commercial 
banks and corporations accounting for two-thirds of this. This can be attributed to issues such as lack of 
efficient delivery channels, low awareness, etc. 
Way forward 
• Governments should introduce carbon-pricing mechanisms, climate data systems, and criteria for 
assessing capital investments in green projects to help prioritize climate-smart investment options.  
• Enhance capital investment planning of Local Governments by integrating carbon pricing and other climate-
smart metrics into decision making. 
• Multilateral development banks (MDBs) and development finance institutions (DFIs) need to take urgent 
measures to align their portfolios with the Paris Agreement. 
• Incentive structures and mechanisms, such as tax rebates, are required to promote private sector 
investment in mitigation and adaptation activities in developing countries. 
• Standardizing definitions of climate finance: Development finance institutions can promote best practices 
to track and report climate finance at the project level by developing harmonized definitions, taxonomies, 
and methods.  
• Balancing investments in Climate adaptation and mitigation, based on studies assessing their impacts and 
returns on investment, to holistically address the issue of climate change. 
• Developing additional funding mechanisms to compensate for loss and damage: GCF already supports 
activities that can be defined as relating to “loss and damage”. Its efforts can be facilitated by establishing 
other funds that can pool private and public investments from developed nations and global insurance 
mechanisms to compensate for loss and damage. 
Conclusion 
The Indian ministry of environment, forests and climate change estimates the country will require ?162.5 trillion 
(USD 2.5 trillion) from 2015 to 2030, or roughly ?11 trillion per year, for effective climate action. Hence, it is 
essential to scale up efforts at international, national and local levels to mobilize and effectively utilise climate 
finance to deal with ongoing and upcoming effects of climate change. 
5.2. AIR POLLUTION IN DELHI AND NCR 
Why in news 
The Commission for Air Quality Management in the 
National Capital Region and Adjoining Areas Bill, 2021, 
was recently passed by both Houses of the 
Parliament. It replaces the Ordinance that was 
promulgated in April 2021.   
Key highlights of the Bill 
• Functions of the commission: To have better co-
ordination, research, identification, and 
resolution of problems related to air quality in the National Capital Region (NCR) and adjoining areas 
(Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh, adjoining the National Capital Territory of Delhi and 
NCR).  
• Composition: The Commission will consist of a Chairperson, an officer of the rank of a Joint Secretary as the 
member-secretary and Chief Coordinating Officer, a full time member and 3 independent technical 
members, 3 members from NGOs among others.  
• Powers of the Commission:  The Commission will be the sole authority with jurisdiction over matters 
defined in the Bill (such as air quality management).  In case of conflicts, directions of the Commission will 
prevail over the orders of the respective state governments, the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), 
state PCBs, and state-level statutory bodies. Powers of the Commission include: 
Page 4


 
52                                                                                                                                                        
5. ENVIRONMENT 
5.1. CLIMATE FINANCE 
Why in News? 
The report titled ‘The State of Cities Climate Finance’ was 
recently released by the Cities Climate Finance Leadership 
Alliance and the World Bank. 
Key Highlights of the report 
• An average of $384 billion was invested in urban climate 
finance annually in 2017-2018. 
• Urban climate finance flows are heavily concentrated in 
OECD countries and China. 
• Vastly insufficient amounts of urban climate finance were invested in many developing economy regions, 
including South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. 
• Finance for adaptation projects amounted to $7 billion in 2017-2018, representing 9 per cent of investments 
tracked at the project level, against the 91 per cent ($69 billion) for mitigation and dual uses. 
What is Climate Finance? 
• Climate finance refers to local, national or transnational financing—drawn from public, private and 
alternative sources of financing—that seeks to support mitigation (reducing GHG emissions) and adaptation 
(adapting to the adverse effects and reduce the impacts of a changing climate) actions that will address 
climate change. 
• Climate financing will essentially help the world to reach the target of limiting global warming to an increase 
of 1.5°C above pre-industrial level. 
• The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris 
Agreement call for financial assistance from Parties with more financial resources to those that are less 
endowed and more vulnerable.  
Financial mechanisms established UNFCCC and related Agreements 
Global Environment 
Facility (GEF) 
• It has served as an operating entity of the financial mechanism since the Convention’s entry 
into force in 1994. It manages two funds- 
o Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF), established in 2001, to finance projects relating 
to: adaptation; technology transfer and capacity building; energy, transport, industry, 
agriculture, forestry and waste management; and economic diversification. 
o Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF), established to support a work programme to 
assist Least Developed Country Parties (LDCs) carry out the preparation and 
implementation of national adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs). 
Adaptation Fund (AF) • It was established in 2001 to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in 
developing country Parties to the Kyoto Protocol that are particularly vulnerable to the 
adverse effects of climate change. 
Green Climate Fund 
(GCF) 
It was established in COP 16, in 2010 and developed countries had pledged to mobilise US$ 100 
billion per year by 2020 through this fund to support developing countries raise and realize 
their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) ambitions towards low-emissions, climate-
resilient pathways. 
Other Funds and instruments of financing 
UN-backed 
international climate 
funds 
 
• Clean Technology Fund (CTF):  It aims at empowering transformation in developing 
countries by providing resources to scale up low carbon technologies. 
• Climate Investment Funds (CIFs): It aims to accelerate climate action by empowering 
transformations in clean technology, energy access, climate resilience, and sustainable 
forests in developing and middle-income countries. 
• UN- Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD): It aims to 
protect forests, a pre-eminent nature-based solution to the climate emergency. 
• Net Zero Asset Owner Alliance: It has 29 members, including pension funds, insurance 
companies, and sovereign wealth funds, and is working on substantial methodologies to 
align portfolios with net zero Paris targets. 
Cities Climate Finance Leadership Alliance  
• It is a coalition of leaders committed to 
deploying finance for city level climate 
action at scale by 2030.  
• It is the only multi-level and multi-
stakeholder coalition aimed at closing 
the investment gap for urban 
subnational climate projects and 
infrastructure worldwide. 
 
53                                                                                                                                                        
Other international 
funds 
• Climate Change Fund of Asian Development Bank (ADB): It was established in 2008 to 
facilitate greater investments in developing member countries (DMCs) to effectively 
address the causes and consequences of climate change, by strengthening support to low-
carbon and climate-resilient development. 
• Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF): It is a global partnership of governments, 
businesses, civil society, and Indigenous Peoples focused on reducing emissions from 
deforestation and forest degradation, forest carbon stock conservation, the sustainable 
management of forests, and the enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing 
countries, activities commonly referred to as REDD+. 
Other National and 
local Sources of 
raising finances 
 
• Allocations from National Governments:  For example, National Adaptation Fund for 
Climate Change (NAFCC) is a Central Sector Scheme which was set up in the year 2015-16 to 
support concrete adaptation activities which mitigate the adverse effects of climate 
change. 
• Carbon pricing instruments: These include a carbon market approach (where an Emissions 
Trading Scheme is established, and carbon credits are bought and sold based on a market 
price per tCO2e); Carbon emissions tax approach (that can also be in the form of a fossil fuel 
tax or removal of fossil fuel subsidies) etc. 
 
Challenges in mobilizing climate finance 
• Insufficient in amount: While climate finance in 2017 and 2018 crossed the USD half-trillion mark, IPCC 
report estimated that the investment required to remain within the 1.5°C to 2°C scenario should be between 
$1.6 to $3.8 trillion per year. 
• Stress added by COVID-19 pandemic: The disruptions caused by the pandemic such as need for more 
emergency services coupled with a reduction in tax revenue have led to diversion of funding away from 
climate resilience projects and renewable energy. 
• Underfunding of adaptation: The Climate Policy Imitative noted in its 2019 Climate Finance 
Landscape report that the vast majority of the finance that is tracked continues to flow toward activities for 
mitigation. 
• Lack of ‘investment ready’ low-carbon/ climate-resilient projects: There are few visible ‘investment ready’ 
projects and most projects require further assessment regarding scale of returns in terms of their 
contribution in climate mitigation or adaptation.  
• Gaps in present global knowledge about climate finance: These include issues such as- 
o Lack of common definitions for central concepts related to climate finance or financial accounting rules. 
o Limited awareness by national policymakers on the financing mechanisms that exist.  
o A scarcity of demonstrable, tested models on climate finance delivery. 
o Low ‘bankability’ of some climate action projects due to lack of sufficient data about future returns and 
risks on investment.  
• Lack of adequate finance for least developed countries (LDCs) and small island developing states (SIDS): 
Launched during the COP 19 in 2013, the Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) intended that developed 
countries provide developing countries (including SIDS and LDCs) with finance, technology and capacity-
 
54                                                                                                                                                        
Rationale for a New Commission  
• Currently, there is a lack of a permanent, dedicated 
and participative mechanism adopting a collaborative 
and participatory approach involving relevant central 
ministries, state governments, local bodies and other 
stakeholders to tackle air pollution in the National 
Capital Region (NCR) and adjoining areas.  
• To reach a permanent solution and to establish a self-
regulated, democratically-monitored mechanism for 
tackling air pollution in NCR. 
building to help victims of climate change recover after extreme weather events or slower-onset climate 
disasters such as sea-level rise. However, no considerable progress has been made to solidify financial 
commitments of developed nations. 
• Obstacles to expeditious access by developing countries to international climate finance: For instance, 
about 85% of green finance in India came from domestic sources, with private players such as commercial 
banks and corporations accounting for two-thirds of this. This can be attributed to issues such as lack of 
efficient delivery channels, low awareness, etc. 
Way forward 
• Governments should introduce carbon-pricing mechanisms, climate data systems, and criteria for 
assessing capital investments in green projects to help prioritize climate-smart investment options.  
• Enhance capital investment planning of Local Governments by integrating carbon pricing and other climate-
smart metrics into decision making. 
• Multilateral development banks (MDBs) and development finance institutions (DFIs) need to take urgent 
measures to align their portfolios with the Paris Agreement. 
• Incentive structures and mechanisms, such as tax rebates, are required to promote private sector 
investment in mitigation and adaptation activities in developing countries. 
• Standardizing definitions of climate finance: Development finance institutions can promote best practices 
to track and report climate finance at the project level by developing harmonized definitions, taxonomies, 
and methods.  
• Balancing investments in Climate adaptation and mitigation, based on studies assessing their impacts and 
returns on investment, to holistically address the issue of climate change. 
• Developing additional funding mechanisms to compensate for loss and damage: GCF already supports 
activities that can be defined as relating to “loss and damage”. Its efforts can be facilitated by establishing 
other funds that can pool private and public investments from developed nations and global insurance 
mechanisms to compensate for loss and damage. 
Conclusion 
The Indian ministry of environment, forests and climate change estimates the country will require ?162.5 trillion 
(USD 2.5 trillion) from 2015 to 2030, or roughly ?11 trillion per year, for effective climate action. Hence, it is 
essential to scale up efforts at international, national and local levels to mobilize and effectively utilise climate 
finance to deal with ongoing and upcoming effects of climate change. 
5.2. AIR POLLUTION IN DELHI AND NCR 
Why in news 
The Commission for Air Quality Management in the 
National Capital Region and Adjoining Areas Bill, 2021, 
was recently passed by both Houses of the 
Parliament. It replaces the Ordinance that was 
promulgated in April 2021.   
Key highlights of the Bill 
• Functions of the commission: To have better co-
ordination, research, identification, and 
resolution of problems related to air quality in the National Capital Region (NCR) and adjoining areas 
(Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh, adjoining the National Capital Territory of Delhi and 
NCR).  
• Composition: The Commission will consist of a Chairperson, an officer of the rank of a Joint Secretary as the 
member-secretary and Chief Coordinating Officer, a full time member and 3 independent technical 
members, 3 members from NGOs among others.  
• Powers of the Commission:  The Commission will be the sole authority with jurisdiction over matters 
defined in the Bill (such as air quality management).  In case of conflicts, directions of the Commission will 
prevail over the orders of the respective state governments, the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), 
state PCBs, and state-level statutory bodies. Powers of the Commission include: 
 
55                                                                                                                                                        
Severity of India’s air pollution 
• According to the World Air Quality Report,2020, prepared by 
Swiss organisation, IQAir:  
o India continues to feature prominently at the top of 
the most polluted cities ranking, with 22 of the top 30 
most polluted cities globally. 
o Besides Delhi, the 21 other Indian cities among the 30 
most polluted cities in the world are Ghaziabad, 
Bulandshahar, Bisrakh Jalalpur, Noida, Greater Noida, 
Kanpur, Lucknow, etc.  
o Major sources of India's air pollution: Transportation, 
biomass burning for cooking, electricity generation, 
industry, construction, waste burning, and episodic 
agricultural burning. 
o Restricting activities influencing air quality,  
o Investigating and conducting research related to environmental pollution impacting air quality, 
o Preparing codes and guidelines to prevent and control air pollution,  
o Issuing directions on matters including 
inspections, or regulation which will be 
binding on the concerned person or 
authority.   
• Penalties: Contravention of provisions of 
the Bill, or orders and directions of the 
Commission will be punishable with 
imprisonment of up to five years, or fine 
of up to one crore rupees, or both.   
o The Bill excludes farmers from the 
scope of these penalties.  However, the 
Commission may collect an 
environmental compensation from 
farmers causing pollution by stubble burning.   
• Appeals against the Commission’s orders will lie with the 
National Green Tribunal (NGT).   
• Selection Committee for full-time members: The 
Committee will be headed by the Minister in charge of the 
Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change. 
Factors abetting air pollution in Delhi and NCR 
• Industrial Pollution: CPCB data shows that the national 
capital is home to and surrounded by highly pollutive 
industrial clusters that do not meet limits on air, water, or 
soil emissions.   
o For example, the Supreme Court in 2017 banned the use 
of cheaper alternatives in the NCR, including petroleum 
coke and furnace oil. However, these same fuels continue to be used in neighboring states. 
• Vehicular emission: The CPCB and the National Environmental Enginee ring Research Institute 
(NEERI) have declared vehicular emission as a major contributor to Delhi’s increasing air pollution. 
• Inadequate public infrastructure: In India, investment in public transport and infrastructure is low 
which leads to congested roads, and hence air pollution. 
• Large scale construction: Construction in Delhi-NCR is another reason that is increasing dust and 
pollution in the air. Considering the dipping air quality, a number of construction sites have stalled 
work, as directed by the Delhi Government. 
• Other reasons:  Over-population in the capital, garbage dumps are also increasing air pollution and 
building-up smog in the air. 
• Reasons for rise in pollution in winter  
o Dip in temperatures: As temperature dips, the inversion height — which is the layer beyond which 
pollutants cannot disperse into the upper layer of the atmosphere – is lowered. The concentration of 
pollutants in the air increases when this happens. 
o Dip in wind speed:  High-speed winds are very effective at dispersing pollutants, but winters bring a dip 
in wind speed over all as compared to in summers. As a result of this dust particles and pollutants in 
the air become unable to move. Due to stagnant winds, these pollutants get locked in the air 
and affect weather conditions, resulting in smog. 
o Biomass burning in neighbouring states: Delhi is landlocked between its adjoining areas and Stubble 
burning in these states especially in Punjab and Haryana, is considered a major cause for environment 
pollution. A 2015 source-apportionment study on Delhi’s air pollution conducted by IIT-Kanpur also 
states that 17-26% of all particulate matter in Delhi in winters is because of biomass burning. 
o Combustion caused by Fire crackers: It may not be the top reason for the smog, but it definitely 
contributes to its build up. 
Page 5


 
52                                                                                                                                                        
5. ENVIRONMENT 
5.1. CLIMATE FINANCE 
Why in News? 
The report titled ‘The State of Cities Climate Finance’ was 
recently released by the Cities Climate Finance Leadership 
Alliance and the World Bank. 
Key Highlights of the report 
• An average of $384 billion was invested in urban climate 
finance annually in 2017-2018. 
• Urban climate finance flows are heavily concentrated in 
OECD countries and China. 
• Vastly insufficient amounts of urban climate finance were invested in many developing economy regions, 
including South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. 
• Finance for adaptation projects amounted to $7 billion in 2017-2018, representing 9 per cent of investments 
tracked at the project level, against the 91 per cent ($69 billion) for mitigation and dual uses. 
What is Climate Finance? 
• Climate finance refers to local, national or transnational financing—drawn from public, private and 
alternative sources of financing—that seeks to support mitigation (reducing GHG emissions) and adaptation 
(adapting to the adverse effects and reduce the impacts of a changing climate) actions that will address 
climate change. 
• Climate financing will essentially help the world to reach the target of limiting global warming to an increase 
of 1.5°C above pre-industrial level. 
• The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris 
Agreement call for financial assistance from Parties with more financial resources to those that are less 
endowed and more vulnerable.  
Financial mechanisms established UNFCCC and related Agreements 
Global Environment 
Facility (GEF) 
• It has served as an operating entity of the financial mechanism since the Convention’s entry 
into force in 1994. It manages two funds- 
o Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF), established in 2001, to finance projects relating 
to: adaptation; technology transfer and capacity building; energy, transport, industry, 
agriculture, forestry and waste management; and economic diversification. 
o Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF), established to support a work programme to 
assist Least Developed Country Parties (LDCs) carry out the preparation and 
implementation of national adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs). 
Adaptation Fund (AF) • It was established in 2001 to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in 
developing country Parties to the Kyoto Protocol that are particularly vulnerable to the 
adverse effects of climate change. 
Green Climate Fund 
(GCF) 
It was established in COP 16, in 2010 and developed countries had pledged to mobilise US$ 100 
billion per year by 2020 through this fund to support developing countries raise and realize 
their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) ambitions towards low-emissions, climate-
resilient pathways. 
Other Funds and instruments of financing 
UN-backed 
international climate 
funds 
 
• Clean Technology Fund (CTF):  It aims at empowering transformation in developing 
countries by providing resources to scale up low carbon technologies. 
• Climate Investment Funds (CIFs): It aims to accelerate climate action by empowering 
transformations in clean technology, energy access, climate resilience, and sustainable 
forests in developing and middle-income countries. 
• UN- Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD): It aims to 
protect forests, a pre-eminent nature-based solution to the climate emergency. 
• Net Zero Asset Owner Alliance: It has 29 members, including pension funds, insurance 
companies, and sovereign wealth funds, and is working on substantial methodologies to 
align portfolios with net zero Paris targets. 
Cities Climate Finance Leadership Alliance  
• It is a coalition of leaders committed to 
deploying finance for city level climate 
action at scale by 2030.  
• It is the only multi-level and multi-
stakeholder coalition aimed at closing 
the investment gap for urban 
subnational climate projects and 
infrastructure worldwide. 
 
53                                                                                                                                                        
Other international 
funds 
• Climate Change Fund of Asian Development Bank (ADB): It was established in 2008 to 
facilitate greater investments in developing member countries (DMCs) to effectively 
address the causes and consequences of climate change, by strengthening support to low-
carbon and climate-resilient development. 
• Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF): It is a global partnership of governments, 
businesses, civil society, and Indigenous Peoples focused on reducing emissions from 
deforestation and forest degradation, forest carbon stock conservation, the sustainable 
management of forests, and the enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing 
countries, activities commonly referred to as REDD+. 
Other National and 
local Sources of 
raising finances 
 
• Allocations from National Governments:  For example, National Adaptation Fund for 
Climate Change (NAFCC) is a Central Sector Scheme which was set up in the year 2015-16 to 
support concrete adaptation activities which mitigate the adverse effects of climate 
change. 
• Carbon pricing instruments: These include a carbon market approach (where an Emissions 
Trading Scheme is established, and carbon credits are bought and sold based on a market 
price per tCO2e); Carbon emissions tax approach (that can also be in the form of a fossil fuel 
tax or removal of fossil fuel subsidies) etc. 
 
Challenges in mobilizing climate finance 
• Insufficient in amount: While climate finance in 2017 and 2018 crossed the USD half-trillion mark, IPCC 
report estimated that the investment required to remain within the 1.5°C to 2°C scenario should be between 
$1.6 to $3.8 trillion per year. 
• Stress added by COVID-19 pandemic: The disruptions caused by the pandemic such as need for more 
emergency services coupled with a reduction in tax revenue have led to diversion of funding away from 
climate resilience projects and renewable energy. 
• Underfunding of adaptation: The Climate Policy Imitative noted in its 2019 Climate Finance 
Landscape report that the vast majority of the finance that is tracked continues to flow toward activities for 
mitigation. 
• Lack of ‘investment ready’ low-carbon/ climate-resilient projects: There are few visible ‘investment ready’ 
projects and most projects require further assessment regarding scale of returns in terms of their 
contribution in climate mitigation or adaptation.  
• Gaps in present global knowledge about climate finance: These include issues such as- 
o Lack of common definitions for central concepts related to climate finance or financial accounting rules. 
o Limited awareness by national policymakers on the financing mechanisms that exist.  
o A scarcity of demonstrable, tested models on climate finance delivery. 
o Low ‘bankability’ of some climate action projects due to lack of sufficient data about future returns and 
risks on investment.  
• Lack of adequate finance for least developed countries (LDCs) and small island developing states (SIDS): 
Launched during the COP 19 in 2013, the Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) intended that developed 
countries provide developing countries (including SIDS and LDCs) with finance, technology and capacity-
 
54                                                                                                                                                        
Rationale for a New Commission  
• Currently, there is a lack of a permanent, dedicated 
and participative mechanism adopting a collaborative 
and participatory approach involving relevant central 
ministries, state governments, local bodies and other 
stakeholders to tackle air pollution in the National 
Capital Region (NCR) and adjoining areas.  
• To reach a permanent solution and to establish a self-
regulated, democratically-monitored mechanism for 
tackling air pollution in NCR. 
building to help victims of climate change recover after extreme weather events or slower-onset climate 
disasters such as sea-level rise. However, no considerable progress has been made to solidify financial 
commitments of developed nations. 
• Obstacles to expeditious access by developing countries to international climate finance: For instance, 
about 85% of green finance in India came from domestic sources, with private players such as commercial 
banks and corporations accounting for two-thirds of this. This can be attributed to issues such as lack of 
efficient delivery channels, low awareness, etc. 
Way forward 
• Governments should introduce carbon-pricing mechanisms, climate data systems, and criteria for 
assessing capital investments in green projects to help prioritize climate-smart investment options.  
• Enhance capital investment planning of Local Governments by integrating carbon pricing and other climate-
smart metrics into decision making. 
• Multilateral development banks (MDBs) and development finance institutions (DFIs) need to take urgent 
measures to align their portfolios with the Paris Agreement. 
• Incentive structures and mechanisms, such as tax rebates, are required to promote private sector 
investment in mitigation and adaptation activities in developing countries. 
• Standardizing definitions of climate finance: Development finance institutions can promote best practices 
to track and report climate finance at the project level by developing harmonized definitions, taxonomies, 
and methods.  
• Balancing investments in Climate adaptation and mitigation, based on studies assessing their impacts and 
returns on investment, to holistically address the issue of climate change. 
• Developing additional funding mechanisms to compensate for loss and damage: GCF already supports 
activities that can be defined as relating to “loss and damage”. Its efforts can be facilitated by establishing 
other funds that can pool private and public investments from developed nations and global insurance 
mechanisms to compensate for loss and damage. 
Conclusion 
The Indian ministry of environment, forests and climate change estimates the country will require ?162.5 trillion 
(USD 2.5 trillion) from 2015 to 2030, or roughly ?11 trillion per year, for effective climate action. Hence, it is 
essential to scale up efforts at international, national and local levels to mobilize and effectively utilise climate 
finance to deal with ongoing and upcoming effects of climate change. 
5.2. AIR POLLUTION IN DELHI AND NCR 
Why in news 
The Commission for Air Quality Management in the 
National Capital Region and Adjoining Areas Bill, 2021, 
was recently passed by both Houses of the 
Parliament. It replaces the Ordinance that was 
promulgated in April 2021.   
Key highlights of the Bill 
• Functions of the commission: To have better co-
ordination, research, identification, and 
resolution of problems related to air quality in the National Capital Region (NCR) and adjoining areas 
(Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh, adjoining the National Capital Territory of Delhi and 
NCR).  
• Composition: The Commission will consist of a Chairperson, an officer of the rank of a Joint Secretary as the 
member-secretary and Chief Coordinating Officer, a full time member and 3 independent technical 
members, 3 members from NGOs among others.  
• Powers of the Commission:  The Commission will be the sole authority with jurisdiction over matters 
defined in the Bill (such as air quality management).  In case of conflicts, directions of the Commission will 
prevail over the orders of the respective state governments, the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), 
state PCBs, and state-level statutory bodies. Powers of the Commission include: 
 
55                                                                                                                                                        
Severity of India’s air pollution 
• According to the World Air Quality Report,2020, prepared by 
Swiss organisation, IQAir:  
o India continues to feature prominently at the top of 
the most polluted cities ranking, with 22 of the top 30 
most polluted cities globally. 
o Besides Delhi, the 21 other Indian cities among the 30 
most polluted cities in the world are Ghaziabad, 
Bulandshahar, Bisrakh Jalalpur, Noida, Greater Noida, 
Kanpur, Lucknow, etc.  
o Major sources of India's air pollution: Transportation, 
biomass burning for cooking, electricity generation, 
industry, construction, waste burning, and episodic 
agricultural burning. 
o Restricting activities influencing air quality,  
o Investigating and conducting research related to environmental pollution impacting air quality, 
o Preparing codes and guidelines to prevent and control air pollution,  
o Issuing directions on matters including 
inspections, or regulation which will be 
binding on the concerned person or 
authority.   
• Penalties: Contravention of provisions of 
the Bill, or orders and directions of the 
Commission will be punishable with 
imprisonment of up to five years, or fine 
of up to one crore rupees, or both.   
o The Bill excludes farmers from the 
scope of these penalties.  However, the 
Commission may collect an 
environmental compensation from 
farmers causing pollution by stubble burning.   
• Appeals against the Commission’s orders will lie with the 
National Green Tribunal (NGT).   
• Selection Committee for full-time members: The 
Committee will be headed by the Minister in charge of the 
Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change. 
Factors abetting air pollution in Delhi and NCR 
• Industrial Pollution: CPCB data shows that the national 
capital is home to and surrounded by highly pollutive 
industrial clusters that do not meet limits on air, water, or 
soil emissions.   
o For example, the Supreme Court in 2017 banned the use 
of cheaper alternatives in the NCR, including petroleum 
coke and furnace oil. However, these same fuels continue to be used in neighboring states. 
• Vehicular emission: The CPCB and the National Environmental Enginee ring Research Institute 
(NEERI) have declared vehicular emission as a major contributor to Delhi’s increasing air pollution. 
• Inadequate public infrastructure: In India, investment in public transport and infrastructure is low 
which leads to congested roads, and hence air pollution. 
• Large scale construction: Construction in Delhi-NCR is another reason that is increasing dust and 
pollution in the air. Considering the dipping air quality, a number of construction sites have stalled 
work, as directed by the Delhi Government. 
• Other reasons:  Over-population in the capital, garbage dumps are also increasing air pollution and 
building-up smog in the air. 
• Reasons for rise in pollution in winter  
o Dip in temperatures: As temperature dips, the inversion height — which is the layer beyond which 
pollutants cannot disperse into the upper layer of the atmosphere – is lowered. The concentration of 
pollutants in the air increases when this happens. 
o Dip in wind speed:  High-speed winds are very effective at dispersing pollutants, but winters bring a dip 
in wind speed over all as compared to in summers. As a result of this dust particles and pollutants in 
the air become unable to move. Due to stagnant winds, these pollutants get locked in the air 
and affect weather conditions, resulting in smog. 
o Biomass burning in neighbouring states: Delhi is landlocked between its adjoining areas and Stubble 
burning in these states especially in Punjab and Haryana, is considered a major cause for environment 
pollution. A 2015 source-apportionment study on Delhi’s air pollution conducted by IIT-Kanpur also 
states that 17-26% of all particulate matter in Delhi in winters is because of biomass burning. 
o Combustion caused by Fire crackers: It may not be the top reason for the smog, but it definitely 
contributes to its build up. 
 
56                                                                                                                                                        
Way ahead 
• Filling the Policy Gaps: Speeding up the 
transition to clean energy and clean 
transport. Also, it is pertinent that 
governments prioritize sustainable and 
clean energy sources, as well as the cities, 
need to encourage low cost, active, and 
carbon-neutral mobility choices such as 
walking, cycling, and accessible public 
transport. 
• Capacity Building: More awareness 
needs to be created among policymakers 
and the general public about the slow 
but substantial impact of ambient 
particulate matter and household air 
pollution.  
• Viable public transport system strategy. 
While the Metro has provided massive 
relief to Delhi’s commuters, it is not 
viable for all economic classes. 
Therefore, Delhi needs a more active bus 
service. Also, electric mobility of public 
transport is a definitive way towards 
cleaner air, without compromising 
functionality. 
• Financing and Role of Private sector:  An investment fund with a dedicated green focus could play an 
instrumental role in catalyzing growth of green industries and simultaneously addressing the twin 
problems of air pollution and climate change. 
o A Green Superfund: The Triple Bottomline framework, with an emphasis on profit, people and the 
planet, will be at the heart of the Superfund’s performance management strategy.  
• Academia-Urban Planning Linkage: The academic community can be tapped to find innovative solutions .  
o For example, researchers from Banaras Hindu University (BHU) have determined which trees are 
hardy enough to put up with the assault of particulate matter gaseous pollutants (nitrous oxide, 
sulphur dioxide, ozone) in the city’s urban pockets. This knowledge can be used by urban planners in 
managing urban forests. 
• Community as a Stakeholder: It is also crucial to have the representation of vulnerable communities 
particularly women and tribal communities in decision-making bodies to ensure that their specific 
problems are brought to light and noted while making development and industrial plans. 
5.3. NATIONAL DOLPHIN RESEARCH CENTRE (NDRC) 
Why in news? 
India's and Asia's first National Dolphin Research Centre (NDRC) is coming up in the premises of Patna 
University, Bihar. 
More on news 
• The centre is being set up on banks of Ganges, as per recommendation of a steering committee constituted 
for implementation of Project Dolphin. 
• As per the committee, Bihar had a natural advantage as it accounted for 50% of the world’s river dolphin 
population. 
• It was first time proposed in 2011. 
About Gangetic Dolphin 
• The Gangetic River dolphin is India’s national aquatic animal (declared in 2009).  
Read More
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FAQs on Environment: July 2021 Current Affair - Environment & Additional Topics for State PSC Exams - BPSC (Bihar)

1. What are the main causes of air pollution?
Ans. The main causes of air pollution include emissions from vehicles, industrial activities, burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, and agricultural practices. These activities release pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter into the air, leading to poor air quality.
2. How does deforestation contribute to climate change?
Ans. Deforestation contributes to climate change by reducing the number of trees that can absorb carbon dioxide through photosynthesis. Trees act as carbon sinks, helping to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. When forests are cleared, the stored carbon is released back into the atmosphere, increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases and exacerbating global warming.
3. What are the impacts of plastic pollution on marine life?
Ans. Plastic pollution has significant impacts on marine life. Marine animals can mistake plastic for food, leading to ingestion and potential suffocation or internal injuries. Plastic debris can also entangle marine species, causing injuries or death. Additionally, the chemicals released by plastic can disrupt the hormonal balance of marine organisms, affecting their reproduction and development.
4. How does climate change affect biodiversity?
Ans. Climate change affects biodiversity by altering ecosystems and disrupting the balance between species. Rising temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events can lead to habitat loss, shifts in species distribution, and increased risk of species extinction. Additionally, climate change can affect the timing of biological events, such as migration and breeding, which can further disrupt ecosystems.
5. What are the consequences of water pollution?
Ans. Water pollution has severe consequences for both human health and the environment. Contaminated water sources can cause waterborne diseases, such as cholera and typhoid fever. It also negatively impacts aquatic ecosystems, leading to the death of fish and other aquatic organisms. Water pollution can also contaminate groundwater, making it unsuitable for drinking or agricultural use.
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