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1. What are coordination compounds?
Ans. Coordination compounds are complex molecules made up of a central metal atom or ion surrounded by ligands. These ligands are usually ions or molecules with lone pairs of electrons that can form coordinate bonds with the metal atom. Coordination compounds are known for their characteristic color, magnetic properties, and ability to undergo various chemical reactions.
2. How do coordination compounds form?
Ans. Coordination compounds form through a process known as coordination bonding. In this process, the central metal atom or ion accepts lone pairs of electrons from the ligands, forming coordinate bonds. The formation of these bonds is driven by the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged metal atom and the negatively charged ligands.
3. What are the applications of coordination compounds?
Ans. Coordination compounds have numerous applications in various fields. They are widely used as catalysts in chemical reactions, especially in industrial processes. Coordination compounds also find applications in medicine, as some metal-based coordination compounds exhibit anticancer or antimicrobial properties. Furthermore, coordination compounds are used in dyeing and pigmentation processes, as well as in the production of electronic devices and sensors.
4. How are coordination compounds named?
Ans. The naming of coordination compounds follows a set of rules known as IUPAC nomenclature. In this system, the ligands are named first, followed by the name of the central metal atom or ion. The oxidation state of the metal is indicated by a Roman numeral in parentheses, and the overall charge of the coordination compound is specified by adding the word "complex" and the corresponding charge in square brackets.
5. What factors affect the stability of coordination compounds?
Ans. Several factors influence the stability of coordination compounds. One important factor is the nature of the ligands and their ability to form strong coordinate bonds with the central metal atom. The charge and size of the metal atom also play a role, as well as the coordination number and geometry of the complex. Additionally, factors such as pH, temperature, and the presence of other ions in the solution can affect the stability of coordination compounds.
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