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 Page 1


 
48                                                                                                                                                                       
SPB 2011-2020  
• It was adopted by the parties to the CBD, 
during the tenth meeting of the 
Conference of the Parties (COP10) in 2010 
in Nagoya, Japan, with the purpose of 
inspiring broad-based action in support of 
biodiversity over the next decade by all 
countries and stakeholders. 
• It was comprised of a shared vision for 
2050, a mission and 20 targets organized 
under 5 strategic goals, collectively known 
as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets (ABTs). 
• Vision: Living in Harmony with Nature 
where by 2050, biodiversity is valued, 
conserved, restored and wisely used, 
maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining 
a healthy planet and delivering benefits 
essential for all people. 
5. ENVIRONMENT 
5.1. 15TH COP TO THE CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY 
Why in News? 
Recently, first part of 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Convention on 
Biological Diversity (CBD) was held virtually in Kunming, China. 
More on the News 
• The main objective of the COP 15 was to develop and adopt a post-
2020 “Global Biodiversity Framework” with a to replace and 
update the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (SPB) 2011-2020 and 
Aichi Biodiversity Targets.  
• The framework will include a set of global goals, targets and 
indicators that will guide conservation, protection, restoration and 
sustainable management of biodiversity and ecosystems for the 
next 10 years.  
o The first draft of the GBF was released in July 2021, containing 
21 targets for 2030 and 4 Goals to achieve humanity “living in 
harmony with nature,” vision by 2050. 
• Parties will reconvene in 2022 for further negotiations and to 
come to a final agreement on the post-2020 Global Biodiversity 
Framework. 
Key Outcomes of the conference 
• Adoption of Kunming Declaration: The declaration called for urgent and integrated action to reflect biodiversity 
considerations in all sectors of the global economy.  
o More than 100 nations, including India, made commitments to- 
? ensure the 
development, 
adoption and 
implementation of an 
effective post-2020 
global biodiversity 
framework.  
? reverse the current 
loss of biodiversity. 
?  ensure that 
biodiversity is put on 
a path to recovery by 
2030 at the latest. 
o It also noted the efforts 
and commitment of 
many countries to 
protect 30 percent of 
their land and sea areas 
by 2030 (30 by 30 
target), which is critical 
for reversing a major 
driver of nature’s decline. 
 
Page 2


 
48                                                                                                                                                                       
SPB 2011-2020  
• It was adopted by the parties to the CBD, 
during the tenth meeting of the 
Conference of the Parties (COP10) in 2010 
in Nagoya, Japan, with the purpose of 
inspiring broad-based action in support of 
biodiversity over the next decade by all 
countries and stakeholders. 
• It was comprised of a shared vision for 
2050, a mission and 20 targets organized 
under 5 strategic goals, collectively known 
as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets (ABTs). 
• Vision: Living in Harmony with Nature 
where by 2050, biodiversity is valued, 
conserved, restored and wisely used, 
maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining 
a healthy planet and delivering benefits 
essential for all people. 
5. ENVIRONMENT 
5.1. 15TH COP TO THE CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY 
Why in News? 
Recently, first part of 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Convention on 
Biological Diversity (CBD) was held virtually in Kunming, China. 
More on the News 
• The main objective of the COP 15 was to develop and adopt a post-
2020 “Global Biodiversity Framework” with a to replace and 
update the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (SPB) 2011-2020 and 
Aichi Biodiversity Targets.  
• The framework will include a set of global goals, targets and 
indicators that will guide conservation, protection, restoration and 
sustainable management of biodiversity and ecosystems for the 
next 10 years.  
o The first draft of the GBF was released in July 2021, containing 
21 targets for 2030 and 4 Goals to achieve humanity “living in 
harmony with nature,” vision by 2050. 
• Parties will reconvene in 2022 for further negotiations and to 
come to a final agreement on the post-2020 Global Biodiversity 
Framework. 
Key Outcomes of the conference 
• Adoption of Kunming Declaration: The declaration called for urgent and integrated action to reflect biodiversity 
considerations in all sectors of the global economy.  
o More than 100 nations, including India, made commitments to- 
? ensure the 
development, 
adoption and 
implementation of an 
effective post-2020 
global biodiversity 
framework.  
? reverse the current 
loss of biodiversity. 
?  ensure that 
biodiversity is put on 
a path to recovery by 
2030 at the latest. 
o It also noted the efforts 
and commitment of 
many countries to 
protect 30 percent of 
their land and sea areas 
by 2030 (30 by 30 
target), which is critical 
for reversing a major 
driver of nature’s decline. 
 
 
49                                                                                                                                                                       
• Kunming Biodiversity Fund: China established the 
Fund with approximately USD 230 million to 
support projects for protecting biodiversity in 
developing countries. 
• Open letter to Private sector: The conference 
called for increased involvement of the private 
sector, including an open letter from business CEOs 
to world leaders, urging for bold action. 
• Global Environment Facility, the UN Development 
Programme and the UN Environment Programme, 
committed to fast-tracking financial and technical 
support to developing countries for GBF 
implementation. 
Key issues related to post-2020 Global Biodiversity 
Framework 
• Adoption of the 30 by 30 Targets: Related issues-- 
o Could harm the rights of indigenous 
peoples and local communities living in 
biodiverse regions. 
o Difficulties in multilateral cooperation for 
conservation of cross border land/ocean areas. 
o Lack of quality targets will result in the 
protection of areas of little conservation value. 
• Digital sequence information (DSI): Presently 
commercial benefits of DSI are not covered by 
benefit-sharing mechanisms. Countries rich in 
genetic resources but lacking the capacity to utilise 
them want DSI to be covered by benefit-sharing mechanisms – a move opposed by countries strong in biotech.  
o DSI is information that has been obtained from sequencing and analysing genetic material. 
• Lack of ambition and urgency: For example, while the world has been shocked by the scientific conclusion that 
more than a million species are threatened with extinction, the draft framework fails to set a goal or target of 
halting extinctions directly caused by human activity. 
• Financing gap: Current financial mechanisms fall short of estimated USD 700 billion needed annually to 
halt biodiversity decline.  
• Lack of convenient mechanisms to track collective ambitions, or to regularly take stock of progress: This has led to 
worsening of drivers of biodiversity loss and decline in biodiversity between 2011 and 2020 despite an increase in 
policies and actions to support biodiversity.  
o According to the findings of Fifth Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO-5) report, at the global level none of the 20 
targets have been fully achieved. 
• Fragmented efforts: There is a need for integrated efforts to address crises of biodiversity loss, climate change, land 
degradation and desertification, ocean degradation, and pollution as they share many underlying drivers of change.  
• Adverse impact on small farmers: Redirecting agricultural, forestry and fishing subsidies which harm biodiversity 
will adversely impact small-scale farmers, fishers etc. in developing nations. 
• Negative impact of emphasizing carbon storage functions of Nature based Solutions: It can lead to carbon emitters 
using tree-planting and other carbon offsets in developing countries to avoid their duties to cut emissions, while 
expropriating the forest usage rights of indigenous people and local residents. 
Way Forward 
• Protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures should be expanded to incorporate all 
areas of particular importance for biodiversity, including key biodiversity areas (KBAs), while recognising the rights 
and roles of indigenous peoples and local communities. 
Page 3


 
48                                                                                                                                                                       
SPB 2011-2020  
• It was adopted by the parties to the CBD, 
during the tenth meeting of the 
Conference of the Parties (COP10) in 2010 
in Nagoya, Japan, with the purpose of 
inspiring broad-based action in support of 
biodiversity over the next decade by all 
countries and stakeholders. 
• It was comprised of a shared vision for 
2050, a mission and 20 targets organized 
under 5 strategic goals, collectively known 
as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets (ABTs). 
• Vision: Living in Harmony with Nature 
where by 2050, biodiversity is valued, 
conserved, restored and wisely used, 
maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining 
a healthy planet and delivering benefits 
essential for all people. 
5. ENVIRONMENT 
5.1. 15TH COP TO THE CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY 
Why in News? 
Recently, first part of 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Convention on 
Biological Diversity (CBD) was held virtually in Kunming, China. 
More on the News 
• The main objective of the COP 15 was to develop and adopt a post-
2020 “Global Biodiversity Framework” with a to replace and 
update the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (SPB) 2011-2020 and 
Aichi Biodiversity Targets.  
• The framework will include a set of global goals, targets and 
indicators that will guide conservation, protection, restoration and 
sustainable management of biodiversity and ecosystems for the 
next 10 years.  
o The first draft of the GBF was released in July 2021, containing 
21 targets for 2030 and 4 Goals to achieve humanity “living in 
harmony with nature,” vision by 2050. 
• Parties will reconvene in 2022 for further negotiations and to 
come to a final agreement on the post-2020 Global Biodiversity 
Framework. 
Key Outcomes of the conference 
• Adoption of Kunming Declaration: The declaration called for urgent and integrated action to reflect biodiversity 
considerations in all sectors of the global economy.  
o More than 100 nations, including India, made commitments to- 
? ensure the 
development, 
adoption and 
implementation of an 
effective post-2020 
global biodiversity 
framework.  
? reverse the current 
loss of biodiversity. 
?  ensure that 
biodiversity is put on 
a path to recovery by 
2030 at the latest. 
o It also noted the efforts 
and commitment of 
many countries to 
protect 30 percent of 
their land and sea areas 
by 2030 (30 by 30 
target), which is critical 
for reversing a major 
driver of nature’s decline. 
 
 
49                                                                                                                                                                       
• Kunming Biodiversity Fund: China established the 
Fund with approximately USD 230 million to 
support projects for protecting biodiversity in 
developing countries. 
• Open letter to Private sector: The conference 
called for increased involvement of the private 
sector, including an open letter from business CEOs 
to world leaders, urging for bold action. 
• Global Environment Facility, the UN Development 
Programme and the UN Environment Programme, 
committed to fast-tracking financial and technical 
support to developing countries for GBF 
implementation. 
Key issues related to post-2020 Global Biodiversity 
Framework 
• Adoption of the 30 by 30 Targets: Related issues-- 
o Could harm the rights of indigenous 
peoples and local communities living in 
biodiverse regions. 
o Difficulties in multilateral cooperation for 
conservation of cross border land/ocean areas. 
o Lack of quality targets will result in the 
protection of areas of little conservation value. 
• Digital sequence information (DSI): Presently 
commercial benefits of DSI are not covered by 
benefit-sharing mechanisms. Countries rich in 
genetic resources but lacking the capacity to utilise 
them want DSI to be covered by benefit-sharing mechanisms – a move opposed by countries strong in biotech.  
o DSI is information that has been obtained from sequencing and analysing genetic material. 
• Lack of ambition and urgency: For example, while the world has been shocked by the scientific conclusion that 
more than a million species are threatened with extinction, the draft framework fails to set a goal or target of 
halting extinctions directly caused by human activity. 
• Financing gap: Current financial mechanisms fall short of estimated USD 700 billion needed annually to 
halt biodiversity decline.  
• Lack of convenient mechanisms to track collective ambitions, or to regularly take stock of progress: This has led to 
worsening of drivers of biodiversity loss and decline in biodiversity between 2011 and 2020 despite an increase in 
policies and actions to support biodiversity.  
o According to the findings of Fifth Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO-5) report, at the global level none of the 20 
targets have been fully achieved. 
• Fragmented efforts: There is a need for integrated efforts to address crises of biodiversity loss, climate change, land 
degradation and desertification, ocean degradation, and pollution as they share many underlying drivers of change.  
• Adverse impact on small farmers: Redirecting agricultural, forestry and fishing subsidies which harm biodiversity 
will adversely impact small-scale farmers, fishers etc. in developing nations. 
• Negative impact of emphasizing carbon storage functions of Nature based Solutions: It can lead to carbon emitters 
using tree-planting and other carbon offsets in developing countries to avoid their duties to cut emissions, while 
expropriating the forest usage rights of indigenous people and local residents. 
Way Forward 
• Protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures should be expanded to incorporate all 
areas of particular importance for biodiversity, including key biodiversity areas (KBAs), while recognising the rights 
and roles of indigenous peoples and local communities. 
 
50                                                                                                                                                                       
• Global targets must be measurable, underpinned by science, and have explicit outcomes, so that their 
implementation and impacts can be monitored and assessed.  
o Clear systems of common indicators, monitoring, reporting and review, and global stocktaking of progress and 
ratcheting of ambitions are needed. 
• Given the links between the climate and nature crises, targets within the framework should be aligned to existing 
commitments related to climate, land sea etc.  
• Governments should make efforts to raise and contribute additional investment in nature.  
o At least 10% of the overall recovery investment for COVID-19 crisis can be directed towards protecting and 
restoring nature. 
• Measures for successful implementation require capacity building, technology transfer, technical support, South-
South and other forms of cooperation, gender mainstreaming, incorporation of traditional and local knowledge, 
public awareness and participation, and transparency.  
 
Related News: High Ambition Coalition (HAC) for Nature and People 
• India officially joined the High Ambition Coalition for Nature and People. 
• India is the first of the BRICS bloc of major emerging economies (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) to join the HAC. 
• It is an intergovernmental group of 70 countries co-chaired by Costa Rica and France and by the United Kingdom as Ocean 
co-chair, championing a global deal for nature and people with the central goal of protecting at least 30 percent of world’s 
land and ocean by 2030.  
• The 30x30 target is a global target which aims to halt the accelerating loss of species, and protect vital ecosystems that are 
the source of our economic security. 
5.2. INDIA AND CLIMATE AGENDA 
Why in News? 
Prime Minister of India recently laid out India’s climate change action 
plan (panchamrita) at the ongoing 26th United Nations Framework 
Convention on Climate Change’s Conference of Parties (COP26) in 
Glasgow. 
Prevalent challenges related to India’s Climate action 
• Coal dependency: Coal continues to be a driving force behind 
electrification in India and plays an important role in the energy 
security of the country. Thus, it will be difficult to replace it, 
especially since integrating renewable energy into the grid can be 
costly. 
• Further, multiple coal-fired power plants already in the works are 
still being built and approvals are being given for new domestic 
mines to be opened up. 
• Balancing growth and environment: For a country like India, 
committing to net zero transition could potentially have 
implications on growth, on the economy and on energy 
availability for industrialisation and urbanisation. 
• Lack of ambition:  
o Scientists have advised countries to go net zero latest by 
2050 and move on to negative emissions to mitigate the 
worst effects of the climate crisis. 
o Also, India’s commitments focus on increasing total capacity 
rather than total consumption of renewable installed capacity  
o Absence of commitments relating to reduction in emissions 
from other energy-intensive sectors like transport sector and 
industries like cement, iron and steel, non-metallic minerals and chemicals. 
Page 4


 
48                                                                                                                                                                       
SPB 2011-2020  
• It was adopted by the parties to the CBD, 
during the tenth meeting of the 
Conference of the Parties (COP10) in 2010 
in Nagoya, Japan, with the purpose of 
inspiring broad-based action in support of 
biodiversity over the next decade by all 
countries and stakeholders. 
• It was comprised of a shared vision for 
2050, a mission and 20 targets organized 
under 5 strategic goals, collectively known 
as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets (ABTs). 
• Vision: Living in Harmony with Nature 
where by 2050, biodiversity is valued, 
conserved, restored and wisely used, 
maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining 
a healthy planet and delivering benefits 
essential for all people. 
5. ENVIRONMENT 
5.1. 15TH COP TO THE CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY 
Why in News? 
Recently, first part of 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Convention on 
Biological Diversity (CBD) was held virtually in Kunming, China. 
More on the News 
• The main objective of the COP 15 was to develop and adopt a post-
2020 “Global Biodiversity Framework” with a to replace and 
update the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (SPB) 2011-2020 and 
Aichi Biodiversity Targets.  
• The framework will include a set of global goals, targets and 
indicators that will guide conservation, protection, restoration and 
sustainable management of biodiversity and ecosystems for the 
next 10 years.  
o The first draft of the GBF was released in July 2021, containing 
21 targets for 2030 and 4 Goals to achieve humanity “living in 
harmony with nature,” vision by 2050. 
• Parties will reconvene in 2022 for further negotiations and to 
come to a final agreement on the post-2020 Global Biodiversity 
Framework. 
Key Outcomes of the conference 
• Adoption of Kunming Declaration: The declaration called for urgent and integrated action to reflect biodiversity 
considerations in all sectors of the global economy.  
o More than 100 nations, including India, made commitments to- 
? ensure the 
development, 
adoption and 
implementation of an 
effective post-2020 
global biodiversity 
framework.  
? reverse the current 
loss of biodiversity. 
?  ensure that 
biodiversity is put on 
a path to recovery by 
2030 at the latest. 
o It also noted the efforts 
and commitment of 
many countries to 
protect 30 percent of 
their land and sea areas 
by 2030 (30 by 30 
target), which is critical 
for reversing a major 
driver of nature’s decline. 
 
 
49                                                                                                                                                                       
• Kunming Biodiversity Fund: China established the 
Fund with approximately USD 230 million to 
support projects for protecting biodiversity in 
developing countries. 
• Open letter to Private sector: The conference 
called for increased involvement of the private 
sector, including an open letter from business CEOs 
to world leaders, urging for bold action. 
• Global Environment Facility, the UN Development 
Programme and the UN Environment Programme, 
committed to fast-tracking financial and technical 
support to developing countries for GBF 
implementation. 
Key issues related to post-2020 Global Biodiversity 
Framework 
• Adoption of the 30 by 30 Targets: Related issues-- 
o Could harm the rights of indigenous 
peoples and local communities living in 
biodiverse regions. 
o Difficulties in multilateral cooperation for 
conservation of cross border land/ocean areas. 
o Lack of quality targets will result in the 
protection of areas of little conservation value. 
• Digital sequence information (DSI): Presently 
commercial benefits of DSI are not covered by 
benefit-sharing mechanisms. Countries rich in 
genetic resources but lacking the capacity to utilise 
them want DSI to be covered by benefit-sharing mechanisms – a move opposed by countries strong in biotech.  
o DSI is information that has been obtained from sequencing and analysing genetic material. 
• Lack of ambition and urgency: For example, while the world has been shocked by the scientific conclusion that 
more than a million species are threatened with extinction, the draft framework fails to set a goal or target of 
halting extinctions directly caused by human activity. 
• Financing gap: Current financial mechanisms fall short of estimated USD 700 billion needed annually to 
halt biodiversity decline.  
• Lack of convenient mechanisms to track collective ambitions, or to regularly take stock of progress: This has led to 
worsening of drivers of biodiversity loss and decline in biodiversity between 2011 and 2020 despite an increase in 
policies and actions to support biodiversity.  
o According to the findings of Fifth Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO-5) report, at the global level none of the 20 
targets have been fully achieved. 
• Fragmented efforts: There is a need for integrated efforts to address crises of biodiversity loss, climate change, land 
degradation and desertification, ocean degradation, and pollution as they share many underlying drivers of change.  
• Adverse impact on small farmers: Redirecting agricultural, forestry and fishing subsidies which harm biodiversity 
will adversely impact small-scale farmers, fishers etc. in developing nations. 
• Negative impact of emphasizing carbon storage functions of Nature based Solutions: It can lead to carbon emitters 
using tree-planting and other carbon offsets in developing countries to avoid their duties to cut emissions, while 
expropriating the forest usage rights of indigenous people and local residents. 
Way Forward 
• Protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures should be expanded to incorporate all 
areas of particular importance for biodiversity, including key biodiversity areas (KBAs), while recognising the rights 
and roles of indigenous peoples and local communities. 
 
50                                                                                                                                                                       
• Global targets must be measurable, underpinned by science, and have explicit outcomes, so that their 
implementation and impacts can be monitored and assessed.  
o Clear systems of common indicators, monitoring, reporting and review, and global stocktaking of progress and 
ratcheting of ambitions are needed. 
• Given the links between the climate and nature crises, targets within the framework should be aligned to existing 
commitments related to climate, land sea etc.  
• Governments should make efforts to raise and contribute additional investment in nature.  
o At least 10% of the overall recovery investment for COVID-19 crisis can be directed towards protecting and 
restoring nature. 
• Measures for successful implementation require capacity building, technology transfer, technical support, South-
South and other forms of cooperation, gender mainstreaming, incorporation of traditional and local knowledge, 
public awareness and participation, and transparency.  
 
Related News: High Ambition Coalition (HAC) for Nature and People 
• India officially joined the High Ambition Coalition for Nature and People. 
• India is the first of the BRICS bloc of major emerging economies (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) to join the HAC. 
• It is an intergovernmental group of 70 countries co-chaired by Costa Rica and France and by the United Kingdom as Ocean 
co-chair, championing a global deal for nature and people with the central goal of protecting at least 30 percent of world’s 
land and ocean by 2030.  
• The 30x30 target is a global target which aims to halt the accelerating loss of species, and protect vital ecosystems that are 
the source of our economic security. 
5.2. INDIA AND CLIMATE AGENDA 
Why in News? 
Prime Minister of India recently laid out India’s climate change action 
plan (panchamrita) at the ongoing 26th United Nations Framework 
Convention on Climate Change’s Conference of Parties (COP26) in 
Glasgow. 
Prevalent challenges related to India’s Climate action 
• Coal dependency: Coal continues to be a driving force behind 
electrification in India and plays an important role in the energy 
security of the country. Thus, it will be difficult to replace it, 
especially since integrating renewable energy into the grid can be 
costly. 
• Further, multiple coal-fired power plants already in the works are 
still being built and approvals are being given for new domestic 
mines to be opened up. 
• Balancing growth and environment: For a country like India, 
committing to net zero transition could potentially have 
implications on growth, on the economy and on energy 
availability for industrialisation and urbanisation. 
• Lack of ambition:  
o Scientists have advised countries to go net zero latest by 
2050 and move on to negative emissions to mitigate the 
worst effects of the climate crisis. 
o Also, India’s commitments focus on increasing total capacity 
rather than total consumption of renewable installed capacity  
o Absence of commitments relating to reduction in emissions 
from other energy-intensive sectors like transport sector and 
industries like cement, iron and steel, non-metallic minerals and chemicals. 
 
51                                                                                                                                                                       
• Rising emissions from agricultural sector: India's significant 
food and fertilizer subsidies contribute to climate change 
leading to high GHG emissions, especially in paddy 
cultivation. 
• Need of investment: India expects developed countries to 
provide climate finance of $1 trillion. 
• Issues in implementation of the climate missions: like 
institutional, systemic and process barriers, including 
financial constraints, inter-ministerial coordination, lack of 
technical expertise and project clearance delays. 
• Existing laws are inadequate to deal with climate change: 
and do not contain provisions to specifically to reduce 
future climate impacts and tackle environmental/climate 
violations. 
• Fragmentation of climate action: India lacks a 
comprehensive climate action plan to monitor and deal 
with climate adaptation and mitigation and other 
environmental and socio-economic issues in an integrated 
manner.  
Way Forward 
• Phasing out coal by retiring the inefficient 
coal plants and not building new ones.  
• Enacting a climate law: It could consider 
two aspects:  
o Creating an institution that monitors 
action plans for climate change: A 
‘Commission on Climate Change’ with 
quasi-judicial powers could be set up, 
with the power and the authority to 
issue directions, and oversee 
implementation of plans and 
programmes on climate.  
o Establishing a system of liability and 
accountability at short-, medium- and 
long-term levels by having a legally 
enforceable National Climate Change 
Plan that goes beyond just policy 
guidelines. 
• Developing a strategy for net zero goals 
(see infographic):  
• Ensuring adequate support from developed to developing countries in the form of finance, technology and in 
capacity building. 
• Net negative emissions from developed nations: In order to vacate the carbon space in 2050 for developing 
countries to grow, the developed countries can aim for negative emissions. 
 
Schemes/policies to combat Climate Change 
• National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC).  
• Climate Change Action Program (CCAP).  
• National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP), 2020 which includes Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) 
Electric Vehicles in India (FAME India) scheme.  
• Adoption of the BS-VI norms to reduce vehicular emissions. 
Page 5


 
48                                                                                                                                                                       
SPB 2011-2020  
• It was adopted by the parties to the CBD, 
during the tenth meeting of the 
Conference of the Parties (COP10) in 2010 
in Nagoya, Japan, with the purpose of 
inspiring broad-based action in support of 
biodiversity over the next decade by all 
countries and stakeholders. 
• It was comprised of a shared vision for 
2050, a mission and 20 targets organized 
under 5 strategic goals, collectively known 
as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets (ABTs). 
• Vision: Living in Harmony with Nature 
where by 2050, biodiversity is valued, 
conserved, restored and wisely used, 
maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining 
a healthy planet and delivering benefits 
essential for all people. 
5. ENVIRONMENT 
5.1. 15TH COP TO THE CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY 
Why in News? 
Recently, first part of 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Convention on 
Biological Diversity (CBD) was held virtually in Kunming, China. 
More on the News 
• The main objective of the COP 15 was to develop and adopt a post-
2020 “Global Biodiversity Framework” with a to replace and 
update the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (SPB) 2011-2020 and 
Aichi Biodiversity Targets.  
• The framework will include a set of global goals, targets and 
indicators that will guide conservation, protection, restoration and 
sustainable management of biodiversity and ecosystems for the 
next 10 years.  
o The first draft of the GBF was released in July 2021, containing 
21 targets for 2030 and 4 Goals to achieve humanity “living in 
harmony with nature,” vision by 2050. 
• Parties will reconvene in 2022 for further negotiations and to 
come to a final agreement on the post-2020 Global Biodiversity 
Framework. 
Key Outcomes of the conference 
• Adoption of Kunming Declaration: The declaration called for urgent and integrated action to reflect biodiversity 
considerations in all sectors of the global economy.  
o More than 100 nations, including India, made commitments to- 
? ensure the 
development, 
adoption and 
implementation of an 
effective post-2020 
global biodiversity 
framework.  
? reverse the current 
loss of biodiversity. 
?  ensure that 
biodiversity is put on 
a path to recovery by 
2030 at the latest. 
o It also noted the efforts 
and commitment of 
many countries to 
protect 30 percent of 
their land and sea areas 
by 2030 (30 by 30 
target), which is critical 
for reversing a major 
driver of nature’s decline. 
 
 
49                                                                                                                                                                       
• Kunming Biodiversity Fund: China established the 
Fund with approximately USD 230 million to 
support projects for protecting biodiversity in 
developing countries. 
• Open letter to Private sector: The conference 
called for increased involvement of the private 
sector, including an open letter from business CEOs 
to world leaders, urging for bold action. 
• Global Environment Facility, the UN Development 
Programme and the UN Environment Programme, 
committed to fast-tracking financial and technical 
support to developing countries for GBF 
implementation. 
Key issues related to post-2020 Global Biodiversity 
Framework 
• Adoption of the 30 by 30 Targets: Related issues-- 
o Could harm the rights of indigenous 
peoples and local communities living in 
biodiverse regions. 
o Difficulties in multilateral cooperation for 
conservation of cross border land/ocean areas. 
o Lack of quality targets will result in the 
protection of areas of little conservation value. 
• Digital sequence information (DSI): Presently 
commercial benefits of DSI are not covered by 
benefit-sharing mechanisms. Countries rich in 
genetic resources but lacking the capacity to utilise 
them want DSI to be covered by benefit-sharing mechanisms – a move opposed by countries strong in biotech.  
o DSI is information that has been obtained from sequencing and analysing genetic material. 
• Lack of ambition and urgency: For example, while the world has been shocked by the scientific conclusion that 
more than a million species are threatened with extinction, the draft framework fails to set a goal or target of 
halting extinctions directly caused by human activity. 
• Financing gap: Current financial mechanisms fall short of estimated USD 700 billion needed annually to 
halt biodiversity decline.  
• Lack of convenient mechanisms to track collective ambitions, or to regularly take stock of progress: This has led to 
worsening of drivers of biodiversity loss and decline in biodiversity between 2011 and 2020 despite an increase in 
policies and actions to support biodiversity.  
o According to the findings of Fifth Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO-5) report, at the global level none of the 20 
targets have been fully achieved. 
• Fragmented efforts: There is a need for integrated efforts to address crises of biodiversity loss, climate change, land 
degradation and desertification, ocean degradation, and pollution as they share many underlying drivers of change.  
• Adverse impact on small farmers: Redirecting agricultural, forestry and fishing subsidies which harm biodiversity 
will adversely impact small-scale farmers, fishers etc. in developing nations. 
• Negative impact of emphasizing carbon storage functions of Nature based Solutions: It can lead to carbon emitters 
using tree-planting and other carbon offsets in developing countries to avoid their duties to cut emissions, while 
expropriating the forest usage rights of indigenous people and local residents. 
Way Forward 
• Protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures should be expanded to incorporate all 
areas of particular importance for biodiversity, including key biodiversity areas (KBAs), while recognising the rights 
and roles of indigenous peoples and local communities. 
 
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• Global targets must be measurable, underpinned by science, and have explicit outcomes, so that their 
implementation and impacts can be monitored and assessed.  
o Clear systems of common indicators, monitoring, reporting and review, and global stocktaking of progress and 
ratcheting of ambitions are needed. 
• Given the links between the climate and nature crises, targets within the framework should be aligned to existing 
commitments related to climate, land sea etc.  
• Governments should make efforts to raise and contribute additional investment in nature.  
o At least 10% of the overall recovery investment for COVID-19 crisis can be directed towards protecting and 
restoring nature. 
• Measures for successful implementation require capacity building, technology transfer, technical support, South-
South and other forms of cooperation, gender mainstreaming, incorporation of traditional and local knowledge, 
public awareness and participation, and transparency.  
 
Related News: High Ambition Coalition (HAC) for Nature and People 
• India officially joined the High Ambition Coalition for Nature and People. 
• India is the first of the BRICS bloc of major emerging economies (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) to join the HAC. 
• It is an intergovernmental group of 70 countries co-chaired by Costa Rica and France and by the United Kingdom as Ocean 
co-chair, championing a global deal for nature and people with the central goal of protecting at least 30 percent of world’s 
land and ocean by 2030.  
• The 30x30 target is a global target which aims to halt the accelerating loss of species, and protect vital ecosystems that are 
the source of our economic security. 
5.2. INDIA AND CLIMATE AGENDA 
Why in News? 
Prime Minister of India recently laid out India’s climate change action 
plan (panchamrita) at the ongoing 26th United Nations Framework 
Convention on Climate Change’s Conference of Parties (COP26) in 
Glasgow. 
Prevalent challenges related to India’s Climate action 
• Coal dependency: Coal continues to be a driving force behind 
electrification in India and plays an important role in the energy 
security of the country. Thus, it will be difficult to replace it, 
especially since integrating renewable energy into the grid can be 
costly. 
• Further, multiple coal-fired power plants already in the works are 
still being built and approvals are being given for new domestic 
mines to be opened up. 
• Balancing growth and environment: For a country like India, 
committing to net zero transition could potentially have 
implications on growth, on the economy and on energy 
availability for industrialisation and urbanisation. 
• Lack of ambition:  
o Scientists have advised countries to go net zero latest by 
2050 and move on to negative emissions to mitigate the 
worst effects of the climate crisis. 
o Also, India’s commitments focus on increasing total capacity 
rather than total consumption of renewable installed capacity  
o Absence of commitments relating to reduction in emissions 
from other energy-intensive sectors like transport sector and 
industries like cement, iron and steel, non-metallic minerals and chemicals. 
 
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• Rising emissions from agricultural sector: India's significant 
food and fertilizer subsidies contribute to climate change 
leading to high GHG emissions, especially in paddy 
cultivation. 
• Need of investment: India expects developed countries to 
provide climate finance of $1 trillion. 
• Issues in implementation of the climate missions: like 
institutional, systemic and process barriers, including 
financial constraints, inter-ministerial coordination, lack of 
technical expertise and project clearance delays. 
• Existing laws are inadequate to deal with climate change: 
and do not contain provisions to specifically to reduce 
future climate impacts and tackle environmental/climate 
violations. 
• Fragmentation of climate action: India lacks a 
comprehensive climate action plan to monitor and deal 
with climate adaptation and mitigation and other 
environmental and socio-economic issues in an integrated 
manner.  
Way Forward 
• Phasing out coal by retiring the inefficient 
coal plants and not building new ones.  
• Enacting a climate law: It could consider 
two aspects:  
o Creating an institution that monitors 
action plans for climate change: A 
‘Commission on Climate Change’ with 
quasi-judicial powers could be set up, 
with the power and the authority to 
issue directions, and oversee 
implementation of plans and 
programmes on climate.  
o Establishing a system of liability and 
accountability at short-, medium- and 
long-term levels by having a legally 
enforceable National Climate Change 
Plan that goes beyond just policy 
guidelines. 
• Developing a strategy for net zero goals 
(see infographic):  
• Ensuring adequate support from developed to developing countries in the form of finance, technology and in 
capacity building. 
• Net negative emissions from developed nations: In order to vacate the carbon space in 2050 for developing 
countries to grow, the developed countries can aim for negative emissions. 
 
Schemes/policies to combat Climate Change 
• National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC).  
• Climate Change Action Program (CCAP).  
• National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP), 2020 which includes Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) 
Electric Vehicles in India (FAME India) scheme.  
• Adoption of the BS-VI norms to reduce vehicular emissions. 
 
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• Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) under the Environment Protection Act, 1986. 
• Energy Conservation Building Code. 
• Schemes to promote renewable energy: Solar cities, Ultra mega solar parks, National Biofuel Policy, National Offshore Wind 
Energy Policy, Renewable Purchase Obligation etc. 
• Other schemes: Ujjwala, UJALA, AMRUT, Swachh Bharat Mission, Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA) 
etc. 
• Financial tools: National Adaptation Fund on Climate Change, Priority Sector Lending (PSL) for renewable energy sector.  
• Satellite technology to observe and tackle Climate Change- HySIS Megha-Tropiques SARAL mission, Oceansat3-Argos mission 
etc. 
• At International stage: International Solar Alliances (ISA) and Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI).  
• Other measures: Polluter Pay Principle, Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme, Carbon tax, Energy Saving 
Certificates (ESCerts). 
 
Related News  
Production gap report 2021 released by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 
• Report measures the gap between governments’ planned production of fossil fuels and the global production levels 
consistent with meeting the Paris Agreement temperature limits (limiting warming to 1.5°C or 2°C). 
• Key Findings  
o As countries set net-zero emission targets, and 
increase their climate ambitions under the Paris 
Agreement, they have not explicitly recognized 
or planned for the rapid reduction in fossil fuel 
production that these targets will require. 
o World’s governments plan to produce around 
110% more fossil fuels in 2030 than would be 
consistent with limiting warming to 1.5°C, and 
45% more than consistent with 2°C.  
o G20 countries have directed over USD 300 
billion in new funds towards fossil fuel activities 
since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic — 
more than they have towards clean energy. 
• Key recommendations 
o Acknowledge in their energy and climate plans 
need to reduce global fossil fuel production in 
line with Paris Agreement’s limits. 
o Place restrictions on fossil fuel exploration and 
extraction and phase out government support 
for fossil fuel production. 
o Leverage international cooperation to ensure a more effective and equitable global wind-down of production. 
5.3. RIGHT TO BURN FOSSIL FUELS 
Why in news? 
The Like-Minded Developing Countries — a group of developing countries which have a similar stand in the United 
Nations climate negotiations — has demanded that Developed countries must ensure net-zero emissions by 2030 to 
provide carbon space to the developing countries to burn fossil fuels like coal for their growth. 
Why does India need a ‘right to burn’ fossil fuels? 
• Low share in global emissions: India has neither historically emitted nor currently emits carbon anywhere close to 
what the global North has, or does, in per capita terms. Thus, it has no reason to commit to declining dependence 
on coal, at least in the near future. 
o India’s emissions are at relatively low 1.96 tons CO 2 per capita (17.6 tons CO 2 per capita for USA). 
• Fulfilment of India's developmental imperatives like eradication of poverty, provision of basic needs for all citizens 
and access to energy for all, in the context of sustainable development need space for emissions. 
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FAQs on Environment: October 2021 Current Affairs - Environment & Additional Topics for State PSC Exams - BPSC (Bihar)

1. What are the major environmental issues in October 2021?
Ans. In October 2021, there are several major environmental issues that are gaining attention. Some of these include climate change, deforestation, pollution (air, water, and soil), loss of biodiversity, and the need for sustainable development.
2. Why is climate change a significant concern in October 2021?
Ans. Climate change is a significant concern in October 2021 due to its devastating impacts on the environment and human well-being. Rising global temperatures, extreme weather events, sea-level rise, and melting ice caps are some of the consequences of climate change that are becoming more pronounced and urgent.
3. What are the recent efforts to combat deforestation in October 2021?
Ans. In October 2021, there are various efforts being made to combat deforestation. These include international collaborations such as the New York Declaration on Forests, which aims to halve deforestation by 2020 and end it by 2030. Additionally, there are ongoing reforestation programs, sustainable forestry practices, and initiatives to promote the use of alternative materials to reduce the demand for wood products.
4. How is pollution being addressed in October 2021?
Ans. Pollution is being addressed in October 2021 through various measures. Governments and organizations are implementing stricter regulations on industrial emissions, promoting renewable energy sources, encouraging the use of clean technologies, and raising awareness about the importance of reducing individual carbon footprints. Efforts are also being made to improve waste management systems and reduce single-use plastic consumption.
5. What is the importance of biodiversity conservation in October 2021?
Ans. Biodiversity conservation is crucial in October 2021 as it plays a vital role in maintaining the balance of ecosystems and supporting human livelihoods. It helps in the preservation of various species, promotes genetic diversity, and provides essential ecosystem services such as pollination, water purification, and climate regulation. Protecting biodiversity is essential for the sustainability and resilience of our planet in the face of environmental challenges.
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