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Alcohols & Ethers PPT Chemistry Class 12

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Chapter 11: Alcohols and Ethers
• Alcohols and Ethers: Structure and Properties (Sections 11.1-2)
• Important Alcohols and Ethers (Section 11.3)
• Synthesis of Alcohols from Alkenes (Section 11.4; Chapter 8)
• Reactions of Alcohols (Section 11.5)
• Old Acid Base Stuff (Section 11.6, Chapter 3)
• Alcohols into Alkyl Halides (Section 11.7)
• Alcohol Reactions w/ HX (Section 11.8)
• Alcohol Reactions w/ PBr
3
, SOCl
2
(Section 11.9) 
• Alcohol Derivatives as Leaving Groups (Section 11.10)
• Synthesis of Ethers (Section 11.11)
• Reactions of Ethers (Section 11.12)
• Epoxides: Synthesis and Opening (Sections 11.13 and 11.14)
• Anti 1,2 Dihydroxylation of Alkenes (Section 11.15)
Page 2


Chapter 11: Alcohols and Ethers
• Alcohols and Ethers: Structure and Properties (Sections 11.1-2)
• Important Alcohols and Ethers (Section 11.3)
• Synthesis of Alcohols from Alkenes (Section 11.4; Chapter 8)
• Reactions of Alcohols (Section 11.5)
• Old Acid Base Stuff (Section 11.6, Chapter 3)
• Alcohols into Alkyl Halides (Section 11.7)
• Alcohol Reactions w/ HX (Section 11.8)
• Alcohol Reactions w/ PBr
3
, SOCl
2
(Section 11.9) 
• Alcohol Derivatives as Leaving Groups (Section 11.10)
• Synthesis of Ethers (Section 11.11)
• Reactions of Ethers (Section 11.12)
• Epoxides: Synthesis and Opening (Sections 11.13 and 11.14)
• Anti 1,2 Dihydroxylation of Alkenes (Section 11.15)
Alcohols: General Nomenclature
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
H
OH
OH
OH
OH
t
Bu
Methanol Ethanol 2-Propanol
2-methyl-2-propanol
Benzyl alcohol
2-Propenol
2-Propynol
Phenol m-Ethylphenol p-tert-Butylphenol
Page 3


Chapter 11: Alcohols and Ethers
• Alcohols and Ethers: Structure and Properties (Sections 11.1-2)
• Important Alcohols and Ethers (Section 11.3)
• Synthesis of Alcohols from Alkenes (Section 11.4; Chapter 8)
• Reactions of Alcohols (Section 11.5)
• Old Acid Base Stuff (Section 11.6, Chapter 3)
• Alcohols into Alkyl Halides (Section 11.7)
• Alcohol Reactions w/ HX (Section 11.8)
• Alcohol Reactions w/ PBr
3
, SOCl
2
(Section 11.9) 
• Alcohol Derivatives as Leaving Groups (Section 11.10)
• Synthesis of Ethers (Section 11.11)
• Reactions of Ethers (Section 11.12)
• Epoxides: Synthesis and Opening (Sections 11.13 and 11.14)
• Anti 1,2 Dihydroxylation of Alkenes (Section 11.15)
Alcohols: General Nomenclature
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
H
OH
OH
OH
OH
t
Bu
Methanol Ethanol 2-Propanol
2-methyl-2-propanol
Benzyl alcohol
2-Propenol
2-Propynol
Phenol m-Ethylphenol p-tert-Butylphenol
Substitution in Benzene Rings
X
X
X X
X
X
para meta ortho
Use para/meta/ortho Designations to Describe Substituent
Orientation in Disubstituted Benzene Rings, Just as in the
Phenol Examples from Previous Slide
Page 4


Chapter 11: Alcohols and Ethers
• Alcohols and Ethers: Structure and Properties (Sections 11.1-2)
• Important Alcohols and Ethers (Section 11.3)
• Synthesis of Alcohols from Alkenes (Section 11.4; Chapter 8)
• Reactions of Alcohols (Section 11.5)
• Old Acid Base Stuff (Section 11.6, Chapter 3)
• Alcohols into Alkyl Halides (Section 11.7)
• Alcohol Reactions w/ HX (Section 11.8)
• Alcohol Reactions w/ PBr
3
, SOCl
2
(Section 11.9) 
• Alcohol Derivatives as Leaving Groups (Section 11.10)
• Synthesis of Ethers (Section 11.11)
• Reactions of Ethers (Section 11.12)
• Epoxides: Synthesis and Opening (Sections 11.13 and 11.14)
• Anti 1,2 Dihydroxylation of Alkenes (Section 11.15)
Alcohols: General Nomenclature
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
H
OH
OH
OH
OH
t
Bu
Methanol Ethanol 2-Propanol
2-methyl-2-propanol
Benzyl alcohol
2-Propenol
2-Propynol
Phenol m-Ethylphenol p-tert-Butylphenol
Substitution in Benzene Rings
X
X
X X
X
X
para meta ortho
Use para/meta/ortho Designations to Describe Substituent
Orientation in Disubstituted Benzene Rings, Just as in the
Phenol Examples from Previous Slide
Alcohols and Ethers: Physical Properties
• Properties of Ethers Similar to Alkanes of Like Masses
? Diethyl ether (MW=74); Pentane (MW=72)
? Diethyl ether (BP=34.6 °C); Pentane (BP=36 °C)
• Alcohols Boil Much Higher than Comparable Ethers/Alkanes
• Related to Hydrogen Bonding of Alcohols (See Chapter 4)
• Alcohols form Hydrogen Bonding Networks w/ one Another
• Ethers Cannot Hydrogen Bond w/ one Another
• Ethers CAN H-Bond w/ H
2
O and Alcohols (Soluble in These)
Properties of Some Alcohols/Ethers in Tables 11.1 and 11.2
Page 5


Chapter 11: Alcohols and Ethers
• Alcohols and Ethers: Structure and Properties (Sections 11.1-2)
• Important Alcohols and Ethers (Section 11.3)
• Synthesis of Alcohols from Alkenes (Section 11.4; Chapter 8)
• Reactions of Alcohols (Section 11.5)
• Old Acid Base Stuff (Section 11.6, Chapter 3)
• Alcohols into Alkyl Halides (Section 11.7)
• Alcohol Reactions w/ HX (Section 11.8)
• Alcohol Reactions w/ PBr
3
, SOCl
2
(Section 11.9) 
• Alcohol Derivatives as Leaving Groups (Section 11.10)
• Synthesis of Ethers (Section 11.11)
• Reactions of Ethers (Section 11.12)
• Epoxides: Synthesis and Opening (Sections 11.13 and 11.14)
• Anti 1,2 Dihydroxylation of Alkenes (Section 11.15)
Alcohols: General Nomenclature
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
H
OH
OH
OH
OH
t
Bu
Methanol Ethanol 2-Propanol
2-methyl-2-propanol
Benzyl alcohol
2-Propenol
2-Propynol
Phenol m-Ethylphenol p-tert-Butylphenol
Substitution in Benzene Rings
X
X
X X
X
X
para meta ortho
Use para/meta/ortho Designations to Describe Substituent
Orientation in Disubstituted Benzene Rings, Just as in the
Phenol Examples from Previous Slide
Alcohols and Ethers: Physical Properties
• Properties of Ethers Similar to Alkanes of Like Masses
? Diethyl ether (MW=74); Pentane (MW=72)
? Diethyl ether (BP=34.6 °C); Pentane (BP=36 °C)
• Alcohols Boil Much Higher than Comparable Ethers/Alkanes
• Related to Hydrogen Bonding of Alcohols (See Chapter 4)
• Alcohols form Hydrogen Bonding Networks w/ one Another
• Ethers Cannot Hydrogen Bond w/ one Another
• Ethers CAN H-Bond w/ H
2
O and Alcohols (Soluble in These)
Properties of Some Alcohols/Ethers in Tables 11.1 and 11.2
Important Alcohols and Ethers
• Methanol (CH
3
OH)
• Often Called Wood Alcohol (Distilled From Wood)
• Prepared Now via Catalytic Hydrogenation Reactions
• Ethanol (CH
3
CH
2
OH)
• Made Through Fermentation of Sugars, in Alcoholic Drinks
• Common Solvent in Organic Labs (Absolute Ethanol)
• Ethylene Glycol (HOCH
2
CH
2
OH)
• Good Antifreeze: Low MW, High Boiling Point (197 °C)
• Diethyl Ether (CH
3
CH
2
OCH
2
CH
3
)
• Low Boiling Point, Volatile, Highly Flammable Liquid
• One of First Uses was as Surgical Anesthetic
• Watch Out for Old Ether Containers (Peroxides!!)
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FAQs on Alcohols & Ethers PPT Chemistry Class 12

1. What are alcohols and ethers?
Ans. Alcohols are organic compounds that contain a hydroxyl (-OH) group bonded to a carbon atom. Ethers, on the other hand, are organic compounds that have an oxygen atom bonded to two carbon atoms.
2. What are the main differences between alcohols and ethers?
Ans. The main difference between alcohols and ethers is the functional group present. Alcohols have a hydroxyl group (-OH), while ethers have an oxygen atom bonded to two carbon atoms. Additionally, alcohols can participate in hydrogen bonding, whereas ethers cannot.
3. What are the common uses of alcohols and ethers?
Ans. Alcohols have various applications, such as being used as solvents, antiseptics, disinfectants, and fuel additives. Ethers are commonly used as solvents and as starting materials for the synthesis of other organic compounds.
4. How are alcohols and ethers named?
Ans. Alcohols are named by replacing the -e ending of the corresponding alkane with -ol. For example, methane becomes methanol. Ethers are named by listing the alkyl groups bonded to the oxygen atom in alphabetical order, followed by the word "ether." For example, ethyl methyl ether.
5. What are the physical and chemical properties of alcohols and ethers?
Ans. Alcohols and ethers have similar physical properties, such as being colorless liquids with pleasant odors. They are generally less dense than water and have lower boiling points compared to similar-sized hydrocarbons. In terms of chemical properties, alcohols can undergo oxidation reactions to form carbonyl compounds, while ethers are relatively unreactive.
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