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Neural Control & Coordination PPT Biology Class 11

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 Page 1


Introduction
? The human body has several organs. These organs cannot perform their functions 
independently. In order to maintain homeostasis for the normal physiology of the 
human body, functions of these organs/organ systems in our body must be 
coordinated, so that they can work in proper manner.
? Coordination is the process through which two or more organs interact and 
complement the functions of one another. On the other hand, integration is a process, 
which makes two or more organs to work as a functional unit in harmony.
? For instance, when we do exercise, we observe significant increase in the rate of 
respiration, heart beat, blood flow, sweating, etc., to meet enhanced need of nutrients 
and energy for increased activities of lungs, heart, muscles and many other body 
organs. Thus, during exercise, functions of various organs of the body are 
coordinated and integrated.
? In higher animals (including human), two types of systems have been developed for 
the control, coordination and integration, i.e., nervous system and endocrine system. 
The nervous system provides an organised network of point to point connections for 
quick neural coordination. The endocrine system provides chemical integration 
through hormones.
Page 2


Introduction
? The human body has several organs. These organs cannot perform their functions 
independently. In order to maintain homeostasis for the normal physiology of the 
human body, functions of these organs/organ systems in our body must be 
coordinated, so that they can work in proper manner.
? Coordination is the process through which two or more organs interact and 
complement the functions of one another. On the other hand, integration is a process, 
which makes two or more organs to work as a functional unit in harmony.
? For instance, when we do exercise, we observe significant increase in the rate of 
respiration, heart beat, blood flow, sweating, etc., to meet enhanced need of nutrients 
and energy for increased activities of lungs, heart, muscles and many other body 
organs. Thus, during exercise, functions of various organs of the body are 
coordinated and integrated.
? In higher animals (including human), two types of systems have been developed for 
the control, coordination and integration, i.e., nervous system and endocrine system. 
The nervous system provides an organised network of point to point connections for 
quick neural coordination. The endocrine system provides chemical integration 
through hormones.
NEURAL SYSTEM
? The neural system is the control system of the body which consists of highly 
specialized cells called neurons. The sensory neurons detect and receive information 
from different sense organs (receptors) in the form of stimuli and transmit the 
stimuli to the Central Neural System (CNS) through sensory nerve fibers. In CNS 
the processing of information is done and a conclusion is drawn
? The conclusion is sent to different organs (effectors) through motor nerves. These 
effectors then show the response accordingly.
? The neural or nervous system is present in most of the multi cellular animals. Its 
complexity increases from lower to higher animals.
? Invertebrates have relatively simpler nervous system than the vertebrates.
Page 3


Introduction
? The human body has several organs. These organs cannot perform their functions 
independently. In order to maintain homeostasis for the normal physiology of the 
human body, functions of these organs/organ systems in our body must be 
coordinated, so that they can work in proper manner.
? Coordination is the process through which two or more organs interact and 
complement the functions of one another. On the other hand, integration is a process, 
which makes two or more organs to work as a functional unit in harmony.
? For instance, when we do exercise, we observe significant increase in the rate of 
respiration, heart beat, blood flow, sweating, etc., to meet enhanced need of nutrients 
and energy for increased activities of lungs, heart, muscles and many other body 
organs. Thus, during exercise, functions of various organs of the body are 
coordinated and integrated.
? In higher animals (including human), two types of systems have been developed for 
the control, coordination and integration, i.e., nervous system and endocrine system. 
The nervous system provides an organised network of point to point connections for 
quick neural coordination. The endocrine system provides chemical integration 
through hormones.
NEURAL SYSTEM
? The neural system is the control system of the body which consists of highly 
specialized cells called neurons. The sensory neurons detect and receive information 
from different sense organs (receptors) in the form of stimuli and transmit the 
stimuli to the Central Neural System (CNS) through sensory nerve fibers. In CNS 
the processing of information is done and a conclusion is drawn
? The conclusion is sent to different organs (effectors) through motor nerves. These 
effectors then show the response accordingly.
? The neural or nervous system is present in most of the multi cellular animals. Its 
complexity increases from lower to higher animals.
? Invertebrates have relatively simpler nervous system than the vertebrates.
HUMAN NEURAL SYSTEM
? The whole nervous system of human being is derived from embryonic ectoderm.
The human neural system is divided into two parts
1. Central Neural System (CNS)
2. Peripheral Neural System (PNS)
? The CNS includes the brain and the spinal cord and is the site of information 
processing and control.
? The PNS comprises of all the nerves of the body associated with the CNS (brain and 
spinal cord).
? The nerve fibres of the PNS are of two types
1. Afferent Fibres They transmit impulses from tissues/organs to the CNS.
2. Efferent Fibres They transmit regulatory impulses from the CNS to the concerned 
peripheral tissues/organs.
Page 4


Introduction
? The human body has several organs. These organs cannot perform their functions 
independently. In order to maintain homeostasis for the normal physiology of the 
human body, functions of these organs/organ systems in our body must be 
coordinated, so that they can work in proper manner.
? Coordination is the process through which two or more organs interact and 
complement the functions of one another. On the other hand, integration is a process, 
which makes two or more organs to work as a functional unit in harmony.
? For instance, when we do exercise, we observe significant increase in the rate of 
respiration, heart beat, blood flow, sweating, etc., to meet enhanced need of nutrients 
and energy for increased activities of lungs, heart, muscles and many other body 
organs. Thus, during exercise, functions of various organs of the body are 
coordinated and integrated.
? In higher animals (including human), two types of systems have been developed for 
the control, coordination and integration, i.e., nervous system and endocrine system. 
The nervous system provides an organised network of point to point connections for 
quick neural coordination. The endocrine system provides chemical integration 
through hormones.
NEURAL SYSTEM
? The neural system is the control system of the body which consists of highly 
specialized cells called neurons. The sensory neurons detect and receive information 
from different sense organs (receptors) in the form of stimuli and transmit the 
stimuli to the Central Neural System (CNS) through sensory nerve fibers. In CNS 
the processing of information is done and a conclusion is drawn
? The conclusion is sent to different organs (effectors) through motor nerves. These 
effectors then show the response accordingly.
? The neural or nervous system is present in most of the multi cellular animals. Its 
complexity increases from lower to higher animals.
? Invertebrates have relatively simpler nervous system than the vertebrates.
HUMAN NEURAL SYSTEM
? The whole nervous system of human being is derived from embryonic ectoderm.
The human neural system is divided into two parts
1. Central Neural System (CNS)
2. Peripheral Neural System (PNS)
? The CNS includes the brain and the spinal cord and is the site of information 
processing and control.
? The PNS comprises of all the nerves of the body associated with the CNS (brain and 
spinal cord).
? The nerve fibres of the PNS are of two types
1. Afferent Fibres They transmit impulses from tissues/organs to the CNS.
2. Efferent Fibres They transmit regulatory impulses from the CNS to the concerned 
peripheral tissues/organs.
? The PNS is divided into two divisions
1. Somatic neural system
2. Autonomic neural system.
? The somatic neural system relays impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles
? The autonomic neural system transmits impulses from the CNS to the involuntary 
organs and smooth muscles of the body.
? The autonomic neural system is further classified into 
1. Sympathetic neural system
2. Parasympathetic neural system.
Page 5


Introduction
? The human body has several organs. These organs cannot perform their functions 
independently. In order to maintain homeostasis for the normal physiology of the 
human body, functions of these organs/organ systems in our body must be 
coordinated, so that they can work in proper manner.
? Coordination is the process through which two or more organs interact and 
complement the functions of one another. On the other hand, integration is a process, 
which makes two or more organs to work as a functional unit in harmony.
? For instance, when we do exercise, we observe significant increase in the rate of 
respiration, heart beat, blood flow, sweating, etc., to meet enhanced need of nutrients 
and energy for increased activities of lungs, heart, muscles and many other body 
organs. Thus, during exercise, functions of various organs of the body are 
coordinated and integrated.
? In higher animals (including human), two types of systems have been developed for 
the control, coordination and integration, i.e., nervous system and endocrine system. 
The nervous system provides an organised network of point to point connections for 
quick neural coordination. The endocrine system provides chemical integration 
through hormones.
NEURAL SYSTEM
? The neural system is the control system of the body which consists of highly 
specialized cells called neurons. The sensory neurons detect and receive information 
from different sense organs (receptors) in the form of stimuli and transmit the 
stimuli to the Central Neural System (CNS) through sensory nerve fibers. In CNS 
the processing of information is done and a conclusion is drawn
? The conclusion is sent to different organs (effectors) through motor nerves. These 
effectors then show the response accordingly.
? The neural or nervous system is present in most of the multi cellular animals. Its 
complexity increases from lower to higher animals.
? Invertebrates have relatively simpler nervous system than the vertebrates.
HUMAN NEURAL SYSTEM
? The whole nervous system of human being is derived from embryonic ectoderm.
The human neural system is divided into two parts
1. Central Neural System (CNS)
2. Peripheral Neural System (PNS)
? The CNS includes the brain and the spinal cord and is the site of information 
processing and control.
? The PNS comprises of all the nerves of the body associated with the CNS (brain and 
spinal cord).
? The nerve fibres of the PNS are of two types
1. Afferent Fibres They transmit impulses from tissues/organs to the CNS.
2. Efferent Fibres They transmit regulatory impulses from the CNS to the concerned 
peripheral tissues/organs.
? The PNS is divided into two divisions
1. Somatic neural system
2. Autonomic neural system.
? The somatic neural system relays impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles
? The autonomic neural system transmits impulses from the CNS to the involuntary 
organs and smooth muscles of the body.
? The autonomic neural system is further classified into 
1. Sympathetic neural system
2. Parasympathetic neural system.
NEURON
? Neurons are the longest cells in the body. Human neural system has about 100 billion 
neurons. Majority of the neurons occur in the brain. Fully formed neurons never 
divide and remain in interphase throughout life.
? A neuron is a microscopic structure composed of three major parts
? 1. Cell Body (Cyton or Soma)
Like a typical cell it consists of cytoplasm, nucleus and cell membrane. The 
cytoplasm has typical cell organelles like mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, rough 
endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, lysosomes, certain granular bodies, neurofibrils, 
neurotubules and Nissl’s granules.
? Presence of neurofibrils and Nissl’ s granules is the characteristic to all neurons. 
? Neurofibrils play a role in the transmission of impulses.
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FAQs on Neural Control & Coordination PPT Biology Class 11

1. What is neural control and coordination?
Ans. Neural control and coordination refers to the process by which the nervous system regulates and coordinates the activities of different organs and systems in the body. It involves the transmission of electrical signals, known as nerve impulses, between neurons and the integration of these signals to produce appropriate responses.
2. How does the nervous system coordinate body movements?
Ans. The nervous system coordinates body movements through a complex network of neurons. When a specific movement is required, the brain sends signals through the spinal cord and peripheral nerves to the muscles involved. These signals trigger the contraction and relaxation of the muscles in a coordinated manner, resulting in the desired movement.
3. What are the main parts of the nervous system?
Ans. The nervous system is divided into two main parts: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord, while the PNS includes all the nerves that extend from the CNS to the rest of the body.
4. How do neurons transmit signals?
Ans. Neurons transmit signals through a process called synaptic transmission. When a nerve impulse reaches the end of one neuron, it triggers the release of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters cross the synapse, or the tiny gap between neurons, and bind to receptors on the next neuron, transmitting the signal.
5. What is the role of hormones in neural control and coordination?
Ans. While the nervous system primarily uses electrical signals for communication, hormones play a crucial role in neural control and coordination. Hormones are chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands and are transported through the bloodstream. They help regulate various physiological processes, including growth, metabolism, reproduction, and emotions, which are essential for overall neural control and coordination.
264 videos|514 docs|310 tests
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