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 Page 1


With ever-increasing population of the world,
enhancement of food production is a major necessity.
Biological principles as applied to animal husbandry and
plant breeding have a major role in our efforts to increase
food production. Several new techniques like embryo
transfer technology and tissue culture techniques are going
to play a pivotal role in further enhancing food production.
9.1 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding
and raising livestock. As such it is a vital skill for farmers
and is as much science as it is art.  Animal husbandry
deals with the care and breeding of livestock like buffaloes,
cows, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, goats, etc., that
are useful to humans. Extended, it includes poultry
farming and fisheries. Fisheries include rearing, catching,
selling, etc., of fish, molluscs (shell-fish) and crustaceans
(prawns, crabs, etc.). Since time immemorial, animals like
bees, silk-worm, prawns, crabs, fishes, birds, pigs, cattle,
sheep and camels have been used by humans for products
like milk, eggs, meat, wool, silk, honey, etc.
It is estimated that more then 70 per cent of the world
livestock population is in India and China.  However, it is
CHAPTER 9
STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCEMENT
IN FOOD PRODUCTION
9.1 Animal Husbandry
9.2 Plant Breeding
9.3 Single Cell Proteins
9.4 Tissue Culture
2022-23
Page 2


With ever-increasing population of the world,
enhancement of food production is a major necessity.
Biological principles as applied to animal husbandry and
plant breeding have a major role in our efforts to increase
food production. Several new techniques like embryo
transfer technology and tissue culture techniques are going
to play a pivotal role in further enhancing food production.
9.1 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding
and raising livestock. As such it is a vital skill for farmers
and is as much science as it is art.  Animal husbandry
deals with the care and breeding of livestock like buffaloes,
cows, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, goats, etc., that
are useful to humans. Extended, it includes poultry
farming and fisheries. Fisheries include rearing, catching,
selling, etc., of fish, molluscs (shell-fish) and crustaceans
(prawns, crabs, etc.). Since time immemorial, animals like
bees, silk-worm, prawns, crabs, fishes, birds, pigs, cattle,
sheep and camels have been used by humans for products
like milk, eggs, meat, wool, silk, honey, etc.
It is estimated that more then 70 per cent of the world
livestock population is in India and China.  However, it is
CHAPTER 9
STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCEMENT
IN FOOD PRODUCTION
9.1 Animal Husbandry
9.2 Plant Breeding
9.3 Single Cell Proteins
9.4 Tissue Culture
2022-23
166
BIOLOGY
surprising to note that the contribution to the world farm produce is only
25 per cent, i.e., the productivity per unit is very low. Hence, in addition
to conventional practices of animal breeding and care, newer technologies
also have to be applied to achieve improvement in quality and productivity.
9.1.1 Management of Farms and Farm Animals
A professional approach to what have been traditional practices of farm
management gives the much needed boost to our food production. Let us
discuss some of the management procedures, employed in various animal
farm systems.
9.1.1.1 Dairy Farm Management
Dairying is the management of animals for milk and its products for
human consumption.  Can you list the animals that you would expect
to find in a dairy? What are different kinds of products that can be
made with milk from a dairy farm?  In dairy farm management, we deal
with processes and systems that increase yield and improve quality of
milk.  Milk yield is primarily dependent on the quality of breeds in the
farm. Selection of good breeds having high yielding potential (under the
climatic conditions of the area), combined with resistance to diseases is
very important. For the yield potential to be realised the cattle have to be
well looked after – they have to be housed well, should have adequate
water and be maintained disease free. The feeding of cattle should be
carried out in a scientific manner – with special emphasis on the quality
and quantity of fodder.  Besides, stringent cleanliness and hygiene (both
of the cattle and the handlers) are of paramount importance while milking,
storage and transport of the milk and its products. Nowadays, of course,
much of these processes have become mechanised, which reduces chance
of direct contact of the produce with the handler. Ensuring these stringent
measures would of course, require regular inspections, with proper record
keeping. It would also help to identify and rectify the problems as early
as possible. Regular visits by a veterinary doctor would be  mandatory.
You would probably find it interesting if you were to prepare a
questionnaire on diverse aspects of dairy keeping and then follow it up with
a visit to a dairy farm in your locality and seek answers to the questions.
9.1.1.2 Poultry Farm Management
Poultry is the class of domesticated fowl (birds) used for food or for their
eggs.  They typically include chicken and ducks, and sometimes turkey and
geese.  The word poultry is often used to refer to the meat of only these birds,
but in a more general sense it may refer to the meat of other birds too.
As in dairy farming, selection of disease free and suitable breeds,
proper and safe farm conditions, proper feed and water, and hygiene and
health care are important components of poultry farm management.
2022-23
Page 3


With ever-increasing population of the world,
enhancement of food production is a major necessity.
Biological principles as applied to animal husbandry and
plant breeding have a major role in our efforts to increase
food production. Several new techniques like embryo
transfer technology and tissue culture techniques are going
to play a pivotal role in further enhancing food production.
9.1 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding
and raising livestock. As such it is a vital skill for farmers
and is as much science as it is art.  Animal husbandry
deals with the care and breeding of livestock like buffaloes,
cows, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, goats, etc., that
are useful to humans. Extended, it includes poultry
farming and fisheries. Fisheries include rearing, catching,
selling, etc., of fish, molluscs (shell-fish) and crustaceans
(prawns, crabs, etc.). Since time immemorial, animals like
bees, silk-worm, prawns, crabs, fishes, birds, pigs, cattle,
sheep and camels have been used by humans for products
like milk, eggs, meat, wool, silk, honey, etc.
It is estimated that more then 70 per cent of the world
livestock population is in India and China.  However, it is
CHAPTER 9
STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCEMENT
IN FOOD PRODUCTION
9.1 Animal Husbandry
9.2 Plant Breeding
9.3 Single Cell Proteins
9.4 Tissue Culture
2022-23
166
BIOLOGY
surprising to note that the contribution to the world farm produce is only
25 per cent, i.e., the productivity per unit is very low. Hence, in addition
to conventional practices of animal breeding and care, newer technologies
also have to be applied to achieve improvement in quality and productivity.
9.1.1 Management of Farms and Farm Animals
A professional approach to what have been traditional practices of farm
management gives the much needed boost to our food production. Let us
discuss some of the management procedures, employed in various animal
farm systems.
9.1.1.1 Dairy Farm Management
Dairying is the management of animals for milk and its products for
human consumption.  Can you list the animals that you would expect
to find in a dairy? What are different kinds of products that can be
made with milk from a dairy farm?  In dairy farm management, we deal
with processes and systems that increase yield and improve quality of
milk.  Milk yield is primarily dependent on the quality of breeds in the
farm. Selection of good breeds having high yielding potential (under the
climatic conditions of the area), combined with resistance to diseases is
very important. For the yield potential to be realised the cattle have to be
well looked after – they have to be housed well, should have adequate
water and be maintained disease free. The feeding of cattle should be
carried out in a scientific manner – with special emphasis on the quality
and quantity of fodder.  Besides, stringent cleanliness and hygiene (both
of the cattle and the handlers) are of paramount importance while milking,
storage and transport of the milk and its products. Nowadays, of course,
much of these processes have become mechanised, which reduces chance
of direct contact of the produce with the handler. Ensuring these stringent
measures would of course, require regular inspections, with proper record
keeping. It would also help to identify and rectify the problems as early
as possible. Regular visits by a veterinary doctor would be  mandatory.
You would probably find it interesting if you were to prepare a
questionnaire on diverse aspects of dairy keeping and then follow it up with
a visit to a dairy farm in your locality and seek answers to the questions.
9.1.1.2 Poultry Farm Management
Poultry is the class of domesticated fowl (birds) used for food or for their
eggs.  They typically include chicken and ducks, and sometimes turkey and
geese.  The word poultry is often used to refer to the meat of only these birds,
but in a more general sense it may refer to the meat of other birds too.
As in dairy farming, selection of disease free and suitable breeds,
proper and safe farm conditions, proper feed and water, and hygiene and
health care are important components of poultry farm management.
2022-23
STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCEMENT IN FOOD PRODUCTION
167
You may have seen TV news or read newspaper–
reports about the ‘bird flu virus’ which created a scare in
the country and drastically affected egg and chicken
consumption.  Find out more about it and discuss whether
the panic reaction was justified. How can we prevent the
spread of the flu in case some chicken are infected?
9.1.2 Animal Breeding
Breeding of animals is an important aspect of animal
husbandry.  Animal breeding aims at increasing the yield
of animals and improving the desirable qualities of the
produce. For what kind of characters would we breed
animals? Would the selection of characters differ with
the choice of animals?
What do we understand by the term ‘breed’?  A group
of animals related by descent and similar in most characters
like general appearance, features, size, configuration, etc.,
are said to belong to a breed. Find out the names of some
common breeds of cattle and poultry in the farms of your
area.
When breeding is between animals of the same breed it
is called inbreeding, while crosses between different breeds
are called outbreeding.
Inbreeding : Inbreeding refers to the mating of more
closely related individuals within the same breed for 4-
6 generations. The breeding strategy is as follows – superior males and
superior females of the same breed are identified and mated in pairs.
The progeny obtained from such matings are evaluated and superior
males and females among them are identified for further mating. A
superior female, in the case of cattle, is the cow or buffalo that produces
more milk per lactation. On the other hand, a superior male is the bull,
which gives rise to superior progeny as compared to those of other
males.
Try to recollect the homozygous purelines developed by Mendel as
discussed in Chapter 5. A similar strategy is used for developing purelines
in cattle as was used in case of peas. Inbreeding increases homozygosity.
Thus inbreeding is necessary if we want to evolve a pureline in any animal.
Inbreeding exposes harmful recessive genes that are eliminated by selection.
It also helps in accumulation of superior genes and elimination of less
desirable genes. Therefore, this approach, where there is selection at each
step, increases the productivity of inbred population. However, continued
inbreeding, especially close inbreeding, usually reduces fertility and even
productivity. This is called inbreeding depression.  Whenever this becomes
a problem, selected animals of the breeding population should be mated
Figure 9.1 Improved breed of
cattle and chickens
(a) Jersey (b) Leghorn
(a)
(b)
2022-23
Page 4


With ever-increasing population of the world,
enhancement of food production is a major necessity.
Biological principles as applied to animal husbandry and
plant breeding have a major role in our efforts to increase
food production. Several new techniques like embryo
transfer technology and tissue culture techniques are going
to play a pivotal role in further enhancing food production.
9.1 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding
and raising livestock. As such it is a vital skill for farmers
and is as much science as it is art.  Animal husbandry
deals with the care and breeding of livestock like buffaloes,
cows, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, goats, etc., that
are useful to humans. Extended, it includes poultry
farming and fisheries. Fisheries include rearing, catching,
selling, etc., of fish, molluscs (shell-fish) and crustaceans
(prawns, crabs, etc.). Since time immemorial, animals like
bees, silk-worm, prawns, crabs, fishes, birds, pigs, cattle,
sheep and camels have been used by humans for products
like milk, eggs, meat, wool, silk, honey, etc.
It is estimated that more then 70 per cent of the world
livestock population is in India and China.  However, it is
CHAPTER 9
STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCEMENT
IN FOOD PRODUCTION
9.1 Animal Husbandry
9.2 Plant Breeding
9.3 Single Cell Proteins
9.4 Tissue Culture
2022-23
166
BIOLOGY
surprising to note that the contribution to the world farm produce is only
25 per cent, i.e., the productivity per unit is very low. Hence, in addition
to conventional practices of animal breeding and care, newer technologies
also have to be applied to achieve improvement in quality and productivity.
9.1.1 Management of Farms and Farm Animals
A professional approach to what have been traditional practices of farm
management gives the much needed boost to our food production. Let us
discuss some of the management procedures, employed in various animal
farm systems.
9.1.1.1 Dairy Farm Management
Dairying is the management of animals for milk and its products for
human consumption.  Can you list the animals that you would expect
to find in a dairy? What are different kinds of products that can be
made with milk from a dairy farm?  In dairy farm management, we deal
with processes and systems that increase yield and improve quality of
milk.  Milk yield is primarily dependent on the quality of breeds in the
farm. Selection of good breeds having high yielding potential (under the
climatic conditions of the area), combined with resistance to diseases is
very important. For the yield potential to be realised the cattle have to be
well looked after – they have to be housed well, should have adequate
water and be maintained disease free. The feeding of cattle should be
carried out in a scientific manner – with special emphasis on the quality
and quantity of fodder.  Besides, stringent cleanliness and hygiene (both
of the cattle and the handlers) are of paramount importance while milking,
storage and transport of the milk and its products. Nowadays, of course,
much of these processes have become mechanised, which reduces chance
of direct contact of the produce with the handler. Ensuring these stringent
measures would of course, require regular inspections, with proper record
keeping. It would also help to identify and rectify the problems as early
as possible. Regular visits by a veterinary doctor would be  mandatory.
You would probably find it interesting if you were to prepare a
questionnaire on diverse aspects of dairy keeping and then follow it up with
a visit to a dairy farm in your locality and seek answers to the questions.
9.1.1.2 Poultry Farm Management
Poultry is the class of domesticated fowl (birds) used for food or for their
eggs.  They typically include chicken and ducks, and sometimes turkey and
geese.  The word poultry is often used to refer to the meat of only these birds,
but in a more general sense it may refer to the meat of other birds too.
As in dairy farming, selection of disease free and suitable breeds,
proper and safe farm conditions, proper feed and water, and hygiene and
health care are important components of poultry farm management.
2022-23
STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCEMENT IN FOOD PRODUCTION
167
You may have seen TV news or read newspaper–
reports about the ‘bird flu virus’ which created a scare in
the country and drastically affected egg and chicken
consumption.  Find out more about it and discuss whether
the panic reaction was justified. How can we prevent the
spread of the flu in case some chicken are infected?
9.1.2 Animal Breeding
Breeding of animals is an important aspect of animal
husbandry.  Animal breeding aims at increasing the yield
of animals and improving the desirable qualities of the
produce. For what kind of characters would we breed
animals? Would the selection of characters differ with
the choice of animals?
What do we understand by the term ‘breed’?  A group
of animals related by descent and similar in most characters
like general appearance, features, size, configuration, etc.,
are said to belong to a breed. Find out the names of some
common breeds of cattle and poultry in the farms of your
area.
When breeding is between animals of the same breed it
is called inbreeding, while crosses between different breeds
are called outbreeding.
Inbreeding : Inbreeding refers to the mating of more
closely related individuals within the same breed for 4-
6 generations. The breeding strategy is as follows – superior males and
superior females of the same breed are identified and mated in pairs.
The progeny obtained from such matings are evaluated and superior
males and females among them are identified for further mating. A
superior female, in the case of cattle, is the cow or buffalo that produces
more milk per lactation. On the other hand, a superior male is the bull,
which gives rise to superior progeny as compared to those of other
males.
Try to recollect the homozygous purelines developed by Mendel as
discussed in Chapter 5. A similar strategy is used for developing purelines
in cattle as was used in case of peas. Inbreeding increases homozygosity.
Thus inbreeding is necessary if we want to evolve a pureline in any animal.
Inbreeding exposes harmful recessive genes that are eliminated by selection.
It also helps in accumulation of superior genes and elimination of less
desirable genes. Therefore, this approach, where there is selection at each
step, increases the productivity of inbred population. However, continued
inbreeding, especially close inbreeding, usually reduces fertility and even
productivity. This is called inbreeding depression.  Whenever this becomes
a problem, selected animals of the breeding population should be mated
Figure 9.1 Improved breed of
cattle and chickens
(a) Jersey (b) Leghorn
(a)
(b)
2022-23
168
BIOLOGY
with unrelated superior animals of the same breed. This usually helps
restore fertility and yield.
Out-breeding : Out-breeding is the breeding of the unrelated animals,
which may be between individuals of the same breed but having no
common ancestors for 4-6 generations (out-crossing) or between
different breeds (cross-breeding) or different species (inter-specific
hybridisation).
Out-crossing: This is the practice of mating of animals within the same
breed, but having no common ancestors on either side of their pedigree
up to 4-6 generations. The offspring of such a mating is known as an
out-cross. It is the best breeding method for animals that are below
average in productivity in milk production, growth rate in beef cattle,
etc. A single outcross often helps to overcome inbreeding depression.
Cross-breeding: In this method, superior males of one breed are mated
with superior females of another breed. Cross-breeding allows the
desirable qualities of two different breeds to be combined. The progeny
hybrid animals may themselves be used for commercial production.
Alternatively, they may be subjected to some form of inbreeding and
selection to develop new stable breeds that may be superior to the existing
breeds. Many new animal breeds have been developed by this approach.
Hisardale is a new breed of sheep developed in Punjab by crossing
Bikaneri ewes and Marino rams.
Interspecific hybridisation: In this method, male and female animals
of two different related species are mated. In some cases, the progeny
may combine desirable features of both the parents, and may be of
considerable economic value, e.g., the mule (Figure 9.2). Do you know
what cross leads to the production of the mule?
Controlled breeding experiments are carried out using artificial
insemination.  The semen is collected from the male that
is chosen as a parent and injected into the reproductive
tract of the selected female by the breeder.  The semen
may be used immediately or can be frozen and used at a
later date. It can also be transported in a frozen form to
where the female is housed. In this way desirable matings
are carried. Artificial insemination helps us overcome
several problems of normal matings.  Can you discuss
and list some of them?
Often, the success rate of crossing mature male and
female animals is fairly low even though artificial
insemination is carried out.  To improve chances of
successful production of hybrids, other means are also used. Multiple
Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology (MOET) is one such
programme for herd improvement.  In this method, a cow is administered
hormones, with FSH-like activity, to induce follicular maturation and super
ovulation – instead of one egg, which they normally yield per cycle, they
Figure 9.2 Mule
2022-23
Page 5


With ever-increasing population of the world,
enhancement of food production is a major necessity.
Biological principles as applied to animal husbandry and
plant breeding have a major role in our efforts to increase
food production. Several new techniques like embryo
transfer technology and tissue culture techniques are going
to play a pivotal role in further enhancing food production.
9.1 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding
and raising livestock. As such it is a vital skill for farmers
and is as much science as it is art.  Animal husbandry
deals with the care and breeding of livestock like buffaloes,
cows, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, goats, etc., that
are useful to humans. Extended, it includes poultry
farming and fisheries. Fisheries include rearing, catching,
selling, etc., of fish, molluscs (shell-fish) and crustaceans
(prawns, crabs, etc.). Since time immemorial, animals like
bees, silk-worm, prawns, crabs, fishes, birds, pigs, cattle,
sheep and camels have been used by humans for products
like milk, eggs, meat, wool, silk, honey, etc.
It is estimated that more then 70 per cent of the world
livestock population is in India and China.  However, it is
CHAPTER 9
STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCEMENT
IN FOOD PRODUCTION
9.1 Animal Husbandry
9.2 Plant Breeding
9.3 Single Cell Proteins
9.4 Tissue Culture
2022-23
166
BIOLOGY
surprising to note that the contribution to the world farm produce is only
25 per cent, i.e., the productivity per unit is very low. Hence, in addition
to conventional practices of animal breeding and care, newer technologies
also have to be applied to achieve improvement in quality and productivity.
9.1.1 Management of Farms and Farm Animals
A professional approach to what have been traditional practices of farm
management gives the much needed boost to our food production. Let us
discuss some of the management procedures, employed in various animal
farm systems.
9.1.1.1 Dairy Farm Management
Dairying is the management of animals for milk and its products for
human consumption.  Can you list the animals that you would expect
to find in a dairy? What are different kinds of products that can be
made with milk from a dairy farm?  In dairy farm management, we deal
with processes and systems that increase yield and improve quality of
milk.  Milk yield is primarily dependent on the quality of breeds in the
farm. Selection of good breeds having high yielding potential (under the
climatic conditions of the area), combined with resistance to diseases is
very important. For the yield potential to be realised the cattle have to be
well looked after – they have to be housed well, should have adequate
water and be maintained disease free. The feeding of cattle should be
carried out in a scientific manner – with special emphasis on the quality
and quantity of fodder.  Besides, stringent cleanliness and hygiene (both
of the cattle and the handlers) are of paramount importance while milking,
storage and transport of the milk and its products. Nowadays, of course,
much of these processes have become mechanised, which reduces chance
of direct contact of the produce with the handler. Ensuring these stringent
measures would of course, require regular inspections, with proper record
keeping. It would also help to identify and rectify the problems as early
as possible. Regular visits by a veterinary doctor would be  mandatory.
You would probably find it interesting if you were to prepare a
questionnaire on diverse aspects of dairy keeping and then follow it up with
a visit to a dairy farm in your locality and seek answers to the questions.
9.1.1.2 Poultry Farm Management
Poultry is the class of domesticated fowl (birds) used for food or for their
eggs.  They typically include chicken and ducks, and sometimes turkey and
geese.  The word poultry is often used to refer to the meat of only these birds,
but in a more general sense it may refer to the meat of other birds too.
As in dairy farming, selection of disease free and suitable breeds,
proper and safe farm conditions, proper feed and water, and hygiene and
health care are important components of poultry farm management.
2022-23
STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCEMENT IN FOOD PRODUCTION
167
You may have seen TV news or read newspaper–
reports about the ‘bird flu virus’ which created a scare in
the country and drastically affected egg and chicken
consumption.  Find out more about it and discuss whether
the panic reaction was justified. How can we prevent the
spread of the flu in case some chicken are infected?
9.1.2 Animal Breeding
Breeding of animals is an important aspect of animal
husbandry.  Animal breeding aims at increasing the yield
of animals and improving the desirable qualities of the
produce. For what kind of characters would we breed
animals? Would the selection of characters differ with
the choice of animals?
What do we understand by the term ‘breed’?  A group
of animals related by descent and similar in most characters
like general appearance, features, size, configuration, etc.,
are said to belong to a breed. Find out the names of some
common breeds of cattle and poultry in the farms of your
area.
When breeding is between animals of the same breed it
is called inbreeding, while crosses between different breeds
are called outbreeding.
Inbreeding : Inbreeding refers to the mating of more
closely related individuals within the same breed for 4-
6 generations. The breeding strategy is as follows – superior males and
superior females of the same breed are identified and mated in pairs.
The progeny obtained from such matings are evaluated and superior
males and females among them are identified for further mating. A
superior female, in the case of cattle, is the cow or buffalo that produces
more milk per lactation. On the other hand, a superior male is the bull,
which gives rise to superior progeny as compared to those of other
males.
Try to recollect the homozygous purelines developed by Mendel as
discussed in Chapter 5. A similar strategy is used for developing purelines
in cattle as was used in case of peas. Inbreeding increases homozygosity.
Thus inbreeding is necessary if we want to evolve a pureline in any animal.
Inbreeding exposes harmful recessive genes that are eliminated by selection.
It also helps in accumulation of superior genes and elimination of less
desirable genes. Therefore, this approach, where there is selection at each
step, increases the productivity of inbred population. However, continued
inbreeding, especially close inbreeding, usually reduces fertility and even
productivity. This is called inbreeding depression.  Whenever this becomes
a problem, selected animals of the breeding population should be mated
Figure 9.1 Improved breed of
cattle and chickens
(a) Jersey (b) Leghorn
(a)
(b)
2022-23
168
BIOLOGY
with unrelated superior animals of the same breed. This usually helps
restore fertility and yield.
Out-breeding : Out-breeding is the breeding of the unrelated animals,
which may be between individuals of the same breed but having no
common ancestors for 4-6 generations (out-crossing) or between
different breeds (cross-breeding) or different species (inter-specific
hybridisation).
Out-crossing: This is the practice of mating of animals within the same
breed, but having no common ancestors on either side of their pedigree
up to 4-6 generations. The offspring of such a mating is known as an
out-cross. It is the best breeding method for animals that are below
average in productivity in milk production, growth rate in beef cattle,
etc. A single outcross often helps to overcome inbreeding depression.
Cross-breeding: In this method, superior males of one breed are mated
with superior females of another breed. Cross-breeding allows the
desirable qualities of two different breeds to be combined. The progeny
hybrid animals may themselves be used for commercial production.
Alternatively, they may be subjected to some form of inbreeding and
selection to develop new stable breeds that may be superior to the existing
breeds. Many new animal breeds have been developed by this approach.
Hisardale is a new breed of sheep developed in Punjab by crossing
Bikaneri ewes and Marino rams.
Interspecific hybridisation: In this method, male and female animals
of two different related species are mated. In some cases, the progeny
may combine desirable features of both the parents, and may be of
considerable economic value, e.g., the mule (Figure 9.2). Do you know
what cross leads to the production of the mule?
Controlled breeding experiments are carried out using artificial
insemination.  The semen is collected from the male that
is chosen as a parent and injected into the reproductive
tract of the selected female by the breeder.  The semen
may be used immediately or can be frozen and used at a
later date. It can also be transported in a frozen form to
where the female is housed. In this way desirable matings
are carried. Artificial insemination helps us overcome
several problems of normal matings.  Can you discuss
and list some of them?
Often, the success rate of crossing mature male and
female animals is fairly low even though artificial
insemination is carried out.  To improve chances of
successful production of hybrids, other means are also used. Multiple
Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology (MOET) is one such
programme for herd improvement.  In this method, a cow is administered
hormones, with FSH-like activity, to induce follicular maturation and super
ovulation – instead of one egg, which they normally yield per cycle, they
Figure 9.2 Mule
2022-23
STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCEMENT IN FOOD PRODUCTION
169
produce 6-8 eggs. The animal is either mated with an elite bull or
artificially inseminated. The fertilised eggs at 8–32 cells stages, are
recovered non-surgically and transferred to surrogate mothers. The genetic
mother is available for another round of super ovulation. This technology
has been demonstrated for cattle, sheep, rabbits, buffaloes, mares, etc.
High milk-yielding breeds of females and high quality (lean meat with
less lipid) meat-yielding bulls have been bred successfully to increase
herd size in a short time.
9.1.3 Bee-keeping
Bee-keeping or apiculture is the maintenance of hives of honeybees for
the production of honey. It has been an age-old cottage industry. Honey
is a food of high nutritive value and also finds use in the indigenous
systems of medicine.  Honeybee also produces beeswax, which finds many
uses in industry, such as in the preparation of cosmetics and polishes of
various kinds. The increased demand of honey has led to large-scale bee-
keeping practices; it has become an established income generating
industry, whether practiced on a small or on a large scale.
Bee-keeping can be practiced in any area where there are sufficient
bee pastures of some wild shrubs, fruit orchards and cultivated crops.
There are several species of honeybees which can be reared. Of these, the
most common species is Apis indica. Beehives can be kept in one’s
courtyard, on the verandah of the house or even on the roof. Bee-keeping
is not labour-intensive.
Bee-keeping though relatively easy does require some specialised
knowledge and there are several organisations that teach bee-keeping.
The following points are important for successful bee-keeping:
(i) Knowledge of the nature and habits of bees,
(ii) Selection of suitable location for keeping the beehives,
(iii) Catching and hiving of swarms (group of bees),
(iv) Management of beehives during different seasons, and
(v) Handling and collection of honey and of beeswax. Bees are the pollinators
of many of our crop species (see chapter 2) such as sunflower, Brassica,
apple and pear. Keeping beehives in crop fields during flowering period
increases pollination efficiency and improves the yield– beneficial both
from the point of view of crop yield and honey yield.
9.1.4 Fisheries
Fishery is an industry devoted to the catching, processing or selling of fish,
shellfish or other aquatic animals. A large number of our population is
dependent on fish, fish products and other aquatic animals such as prawn,
crab, lobster, edible oyster, etc., for food. Some of the freshwater fishes which
are very common include Catla, Rohu and common carp. Some of the marine
fishes that are eaten include – Hilsa, Sardines, Mackerel and Pomfrets.
Find out what fishes are commonly eaten in your area.
2022-23
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FAQs on NCERT Textbook: Strategies for Improvement in Food Production - NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12) - CTET & State TET

1. What are the different strategies for improvement in food production?
Ans. There are several strategies for improvement in food production, including: 1) Crop rotation: This involves growing different crops in a specific sequence on the same piece of land to minimize soil nutrient depletion and pest infestation. 2) Genetic improvement: By selecting and breeding plants and animals with desirable traits, genetic improvement aims to enhance productivity, disease resistance, and quality. 3) Irrigation: Efficient water management through irrigation techniques like drip irrigation and sprinklers can ensure adequate water supply to crops, especially in areas with low rainfall. 4) Use of fertilizers: The application of fertilizers provides essential nutrients to plants, promoting their growth and productivity. 5) Pest and disease management: Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques, such as biological control and use of resistant varieties, help minimize the impact of pests and diseases on crop yield.
2. How does crop rotation contribute to the improvement in food production?
Ans. Crop rotation is a strategy that involves growing different crops in a specific sequence on the same piece of land. It helps improve food production in the following ways: 1) Nutrient management: Different crops have diverse nutrient requirements. Crop rotation allows for the replenishment of specific nutrients in the soil, preventing nutrient depletion and maintaining soil fertility. 2) Pest control: Crop rotation disrupts the life cycles of pests and diseases, making it difficult for them to survive and reproduce. This reduces the risk of pest infestation and the need for excessive pesticide use. 3) Weed suppression: Certain crops can naturally suppress the growth of weeds, reducing competition for nutrients, water, and sunlight. This leads to better crop growth and yield. 4) Soil health improvement: Crop rotation helps improve soil structure and organic matter content. It enhances soil water-holding capacity, aeration, and nutrient availability, creating a favorable environment for plant growth. 5) Disease management: Some crops are susceptible to specific diseases. By rotating crops, the buildup of disease-causing pathogens in the soil is minimized, reducing the occurrence of diseases and improving overall crop health.
3. How does genetic improvement contribute to the enhancement of food production?
Ans. Genetic improvement plays a crucial role in enhancing food production by: 1) Increasing productivity: Through selective breeding, plants and animals with desirable traits, such as high yield, improved growth rate, and early maturity, can be developed. This leads to increased productivity and higher crop yields. 2) Enhancing disease resistance: Genetic improvement allows for the development of crop varieties and animal breeds that are resistant to diseases and pests. This reduces the risk of crop loss and the need for excessive pesticide use. 3) Improving nutritional quality: Genetic modifications can be made to crops to enhance their nutritional value. For example, biofortification techniques can increase the content of essential nutrients like vitamins and minerals in crops, addressing nutrient deficiencies in human diets. 4) Adapting to environmental conditions: Genetic improvement enables the development of crops and livestock breeds that are better adapted to specific environmental conditions. This includes traits like drought tolerance, heat resistance, and tolerance to salinity, ensuring sustainable food production in challenging environments. 5) Improving post-harvest characteristics: Genetic improvement can also focus on improving post-harvest characteristics such as shelf life, transportability, and quality of produce. This helps reduce post-harvest losses and improves the marketability of agricultural products.
4. What are the advantages of using irrigation techniques in food production?
Ans. The advantages of using irrigation techniques in food production are: 1) Increased crop productivity: Irrigation ensures a consistent and adequate supply of water to crops, allowing them to maintain optimal growth conditions. This leads to increased crop productivity and higher yields. 2) Optimal water management: Irrigation techniques like drip irrigation and sprinklers enable precise water application, minimizing water wastage and ensuring efficient use of this valuable resource. 3) Crop diversification: Availability of irrigation water allows farmers to grow a variety of crops that may not be suitable for rain-fed agriculture. This diversification leads to improved food security and income generation. 4) Reduced dependence on rainfall: Irrigation reduces the dependency on rainfall for crop growth, mitigating the risks associated with erratic rainfall patterns and droughts. 5) Improved timing of water supply: With irrigation, farmers have greater control over the timing and frequency of water supply to crops. This allows them to better align water availability with the specific crop growth stages, optimizing plant growth and yield.
5. How does Integrated Pest Management (IPM) contribute to the improvement in food production?
Ans. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an approach that combines various pest control strategies to minimize the impact of pests on food production. It contributes to the improvement in food production in the following ways: 1) Reduced pesticide use: IPM emphasizes the use of non-chemical pest control methods such as biological control, cultural practices, and physical barriers. By reducing reliance on pesticides, it helps minimize environmental contamination and promotes sustainable farming practices. 2) Targeted pest control: IPM focuses on monitoring pest populations and using pest-specific control measures. This reduces the risk of pest resistance and ensures effective pest control without harming beneficial organisms. 3) Cost-effectiveness: By using a combination of pest control strategies, IPM optimizes resource utilization and reduces the overall cost of pest management. It allows farmers to achieve effective pest control while minimizing expenses. 4) Preservation of natural enemies: IPM encourages the conservation and enhancement of natural enemies of pests, such as predators, parasitoids, and pathogens. This helps maintain a balanced ecosystem and reduces the need for chemical pest control methods. 5) Sustainable pest management: IPM promotes long-term pest management strategies that are sustainable and environmentally friendly. It aims to minimize the negative impact on ecosystems and human health while ensuring food production is economically viable.
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