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UNIT - II
A cartoonist’s business in a democracy 
is to exercise his right to criticise, 
ridicule, find fault with... political 
leaders, through cartoons...
- R.K.Laxman
I told him to make the 
garland smaller... He is a 
frail old man and wouldn’t 
be able to stand the weight 
of such a huge garland!
Not bad! One of the taps in 
the nearby village must be 
getting water!
Government
Government
Government
Government
Government
Government
Government
Government
Unit_II Ch 3.indd   25 14-11-2022   04:58:45 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 2


UNIT - II
A cartoonist’s business in a democracy 
is to exercise his right to criticise, 
ridicule, find fault with... political 
leaders, through cartoons...
- R.K.Laxman
I told him to make the 
garland smaller... He is a 
frail old man and wouldn’t 
be able to stand the weight 
of such a huge garland!
Not bad! One of the taps in 
the nearby village must be 
getting water!
Government
Government
Government
Government
Government
Government
Government
Government
Unit_II Ch 3.indd   25 14-11-2022   04:58:45 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
You must have heard the word ‘government’ 
mentioned several times. In this chapter you  
will learn about what a government is and the 
important role it plays in our lives. What do 
governments do? How do they decide what to  
do? What is the difference between different  
types of governments such as monarchies and 
democracies? Read more and find out….
Chapter 3
What is
Government?
E
very country needs a government 
to make decisions and get things 
done. These can be decisions about 
where to build roads and schools, or 
how  to  reduce  the  price  of  onions 
when they get too expensive or ways 
to increase the supply of electricity. 
The government also takes action on 
many social issues, for example it has 
several programmes to help the poor. 
It does other important things such as 
running postal and railway services. 
Look at the newspaper headlines above 
and list the different kinds of activities 
that the government is reported to be 
doing in these newspaper headlines.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Isn’t this a wide range of activities? 
What do you think government is? 
Discuss in class.
Unit_II Ch 3.indd   26 14-11-2022   04:58:45 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 3


UNIT - II
A cartoonist’s business in a democracy 
is to exercise his right to criticise, 
ridicule, find fault with... political 
leaders, through cartoons...
- R.K.Laxman
I told him to make the 
garland smaller... He is a 
frail old man and wouldn’t 
be able to stand the weight 
of such a huge garland!
Not bad! One of the taps in 
the nearby village must be 
getting water!
Government
Government
Government
Government
Government
Government
Government
Government
Unit_II Ch 3.indd   25 14-11-2022   04:58:45 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
You must have heard the word ‘government’ 
mentioned several times. In this chapter you  
will learn about what a government is and the 
important role it plays in our lives. What do 
governments do? How do they decide what to  
do? What is the difference between different  
types of governments such as monarchies and 
democracies? Read more and find out….
Chapter 3
What is
Government?
E
very country needs a government 
to make decisions and get things 
done. These can be decisions about 
where to build roads and schools, or 
how  to  reduce  the  price  of  onions 
when they get too expensive or ways 
to increase the supply of electricity. 
The government also takes action on 
many social issues, for example it has 
several programmes to help the poor. 
It does other important things such as 
running postal and railway services. 
Look at the newspaper headlines above 
and list the different kinds of activities 
that the government is reported to be 
doing in these newspaper headlines.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Isn’t this a wide range of activities? 
What do you think government is? 
Discuss in class.
Unit_II Ch 3.indd   26 14-11-2022   04:58:45 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
What is Government / 27 
Can you list three things that the 
government does which have not 
been mentioned.
1.
2.
3.
Some rules have to be made that 
apply to everyone. For example, there 
is a need to control resources and 
protect the territory of a country, so 
people can feel secure.  Governments 
do this on behalf of their people 
by exercising leadership, taking  
decisions and implementing these 
among all the people living in their 
territory.
Levels of Government
Now that you know that the 
government is responsible for so many 
The government also has the job 
of protecting the boundaries of the 
country and maintaining peaceful 
relations with other countries.  It is 
responsible for ensuring that all its 
citizens have enough to eat and have 
good health facilities. When there are 
natural disasters like the tsunami or 
an earthquake it is the government that 
mainly organises aid and assistance for 
the affected people. If there is a dispute 
or if someone has committed a crime 
you find people in a court. Courts are 
also part of the government.
Perhaps you are wondering how 
governments manage to do all this. 
And why it is necessary for them 
to do so. When human beings live 
and work together, there needs to be 
some amount of organisation so that 
decisions can be made.
Some examples of 
institutions that are 
part of the government: 
The Supreme Court, 
The Indian Railways 
and Bharat Petroleum.
Unit_II Ch 3.indd   27 14-11-2022   04:58:46 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 4


UNIT - II
A cartoonist’s business in a democracy 
is to exercise his right to criticise, 
ridicule, find fault with... political 
leaders, through cartoons...
- R.K.Laxman
I told him to make the 
garland smaller... He is a 
frail old man and wouldn’t 
be able to stand the weight 
of such a huge garland!
Not bad! One of the taps in 
the nearby village must be 
getting water!
Government
Government
Government
Government
Government
Government
Government
Government
Unit_II Ch 3.indd   25 14-11-2022   04:58:45 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
You must have heard the word ‘government’ 
mentioned several times. In this chapter you  
will learn about what a government is and the 
important role it plays in our lives. What do 
governments do? How do they decide what to  
do? What is the difference between different  
types of governments such as monarchies and 
democracies? Read more and find out….
Chapter 3
What is
Government?
E
very country needs a government 
to make decisions and get things 
done. These can be decisions about 
where to build roads and schools, or 
how  to  reduce  the  price  of  onions 
when they get too expensive or ways 
to increase the supply of electricity. 
The government also takes action on 
many social issues, for example it has 
several programmes to help the poor. 
It does other important things such as 
running postal and railway services. 
Look at the newspaper headlines above 
and list the different kinds of activities 
that the government is reported to be 
doing in these newspaper headlines.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Isn’t this a wide range of activities? 
What do you think government is? 
Discuss in class.
Unit_II Ch 3.indd   26 14-11-2022   04:58:45 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
What is Government / 27 
Can you list three things that the 
government does which have not 
been mentioned.
1.
2.
3.
Some rules have to be made that 
apply to everyone. For example, there 
is a need to control resources and 
protect the territory of a country, so 
people can feel secure.  Governments 
do this on behalf of their people 
by exercising leadership, taking  
decisions and implementing these 
among all the people living in their 
territory.
Levels of Government
Now that you know that the 
government is responsible for so many 
The government also has the job 
of protecting the boundaries of the 
country and maintaining peaceful 
relations with other countries.  It is 
responsible for ensuring that all its 
citizens have enough to eat and have 
good health facilities. When there are 
natural disasters like the tsunami or 
an earthquake it is the government that 
mainly organises aid and assistance for 
the affected people. If there is a dispute 
or if someone has committed a crime 
you find people in a court. Courts are 
also part of the government.
Perhaps you are wondering how 
governments manage to do all this. 
And why it is necessary for them 
to do so. When human beings live 
and work together, there needs to be 
some amount of organisation so that 
decisions can be made.
Some examples of 
institutions that are 
part of the government: 
The Supreme Court, 
The Indian Railways 
and Bharat Petroleum.
Unit_II Ch 3.indd   27 14-11-2022   04:58:46 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
28 / Social and Political Life
different things, can you think of 
how it manages to do all these? The 
government works at different levels: 
at the local level, at the level of the 
state and at the national level. The 
local level means in your village, town 
or locality, the state level would mean 
that which covers an entire state like 
Haryana or Assam and the national 
level relates to the entire country (see 
the maps). Later in this book, you will 
read about how local level government 
functions, and when you go into the 
next few classes you will learn about 
how governments function at the state 
and central levels.
Unit_II Ch 3.indd   28 14-11-2022   04:58:47 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 5


UNIT - II
A cartoonist’s business in a democracy 
is to exercise his right to criticise, 
ridicule, find fault with... political 
leaders, through cartoons...
- R.K.Laxman
I told him to make the 
garland smaller... He is a 
frail old man and wouldn’t 
be able to stand the weight 
of such a huge garland!
Not bad! One of the taps in 
the nearby village must be 
getting water!
Government
Government
Government
Government
Government
Government
Government
Government
Unit_II Ch 3.indd   25 14-11-2022   04:58:45 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
You must have heard the word ‘government’ 
mentioned several times. In this chapter you  
will learn about what a government is and the 
important role it plays in our lives. What do 
governments do? How do they decide what to  
do? What is the difference between different  
types of governments such as monarchies and 
democracies? Read more and find out….
Chapter 3
What is
Government?
E
very country needs a government 
to make decisions and get things 
done. These can be decisions about 
where to build roads and schools, or 
how  to  reduce  the  price  of  onions 
when they get too expensive or ways 
to increase the supply of electricity. 
The government also takes action on 
many social issues, for example it has 
several programmes to help the poor. 
It does other important things such as 
running postal and railway services. 
Look at the newspaper headlines above 
and list the different kinds of activities 
that the government is reported to be 
doing in these newspaper headlines.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Isn’t this a wide range of activities? 
What do you think government is? 
Discuss in class.
Unit_II Ch 3.indd   26 14-11-2022   04:58:45 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
What is Government / 27 
Can you list three things that the 
government does which have not 
been mentioned.
1.
2.
3.
Some rules have to be made that 
apply to everyone. For example, there 
is a need to control resources and 
protect the territory of a country, so 
people can feel secure.  Governments 
do this on behalf of their people 
by exercising leadership, taking  
decisions and implementing these 
among all the people living in their 
territory.
Levels of Government
Now that you know that the 
government is responsible for so many 
The government also has the job 
of protecting the boundaries of the 
country and maintaining peaceful 
relations with other countries.  It is 
responsible for ensuring that all its 
citizens have enough to eat and have 
good health facilities. When there are 
natural disasters like the tsunami or 
an earthquake it is the government that 
mainly organises aid and assistance for 
the affected people. If there is a dispute 
or if someone has committed a crime 
you find people in a court. Courts are 
also part of the government.
Perhaps you are wondering how 
governments manage to do all this. 
And why it is necessary for them 
to do so. When human beings live 
and work together, there needs to be 
some amount of organisation so that 
decisions can be made.
Some examples of 
institutions that are 
part of the government: 
The Supreme Court, 
The Indian Railways 
and Bharat Petroleum.
Unit_II Ch 3.indd   27 14-11-2022   04:58:46 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
28 / Social and Political Life
different things, can you think of 
how it manages to do all these? The 
government works at different levels: 
at the local level, at the level of the 
state and at the national level. The 
local level means in your village, town 
or locality, the state level would mean 
that which covers an entire state like 
Haryana or Assam and the national 
level relates to the entire country (see 
the maps). Later in this book, you will 
read about how local level government 
functions, and when you go into the 
next few classes you will learn about 
how governments function at the state 
and central levels.
Unit_II Ch 3.indd   28 14-11-2022   04:58:47 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
What is Government / 29 
Source: www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/maps/atlas/00part1.pdf
Note: Telangana became the 29th State of India on the 2nd June, 2014 after the reorganisation of the State  of Andhra Pradesh.
         Since 31 October 2019, the state of Jammu & Kashmir was divided into two union territories — Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh.
Unit_II Ch 3.indd   29 14-11-2022   04:58:51 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
Read More
132 videos|662 docs|304 tests

FAQs on NCERT Textbook: What is Government? - Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

1. What is the definition of Government?
Ans. Government is the system or group of people responsible for controlling and managing a country, state, or community. It is a political organization that has the power to make laws, enforce them, and regulate the affairs of its citizens.
2. What are the different types of Government?
Ans. The different types of Government include democracy, monarchy, dictatorship, communism, and republic. Each type of government has its own unique characteristics and methods of governance.
3. What is the role of the Government in the economy?
Ans. The role of the government in the economy is to provide a stable and predictable environment for businesses to operate in. It also aims to promote economic growth and development by providing infrastructure, regulating industries, and managing resources.
4. What are the functions of the Government?
Ans. The functions of the government include providing security and protection, maintaining law and order, managing the economy, providing public goods and services, and protecting the rights and freedoms of its citizens.
5. What is the importance of Government in a society?
Ans. The importance of the government in society is to provide stability, order, and structure. It also plays a crucial role in ensuring the welfare and well-being of its citizens by providing basic services such as education, healthcare, and social welfare. Additionally, it serves as a mediator between different groups and individuals, resolving conflicts and promoting harmony.
132 videos|662 docs|304 tests
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