UPSC Exam  >  UPSC Notes  >  Indian Polity for UPSC CSE  >  NCERT Textbook: Rural Livelihoods

NCERT Textbook: Rural Livelihoods | Indian Polity for UPSC CSE PDF Download

Download, print and study this document offline
Please wait while the PDF view is loading
 Page 1


UNIT - IV
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Unit_IV Ch 7.indd   59 14-11-2022   04:32:52 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 2


UNIT - IV
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Unit_IV Ch 7.indd   59 14-11-2022   04:32:52 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
In the first chapter we looked at the many kinds of 
diversity in our lives. We also explored how living in 
different regions has an effect on the work people 
do, the kinds of plants, trees, crops or things that 
become important to them. In this chapter we will 
look at the different ways in which people earn 
their living in villages. And here too, as in the first 
two chapters, we will examine whether people 
have equal opportunities to earn a living. We will 
look at the similarities in their life situations and 
the problems that they face.
Chapter 7
Rural
Livelihoods
1. Describe the work that you see people doing in the above 
pictures. 
2. Identify the different types of work that are related to farming 
and those that are not. List these in a table.
3. In your notebook draw some pictures of work that you have 
seen people do in rural areas and write a few sentences that 
describe the work
Unit_IV Ch 7.indd   60 14-11-2022   04:32:52 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 3


UNIT - IV
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Unit_IV Ch 7.indd   59 14-11-2022   04:32:52 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
In the first chapter we looked at the many kinds of 
diversity in our lives. We also explored how living in 
different regions has an effect on the work people 
do, the kinds of plants, trees, crops or things that 
become important to them. In this chapter we will 
look at the different ways in which people earn 
their living in villages. And here too, as in the first 
two chapters, we will examine whether people 
have equal opportunities to earn a living. We will 
look at the similarities in their life situations and 
the problems that they face.
Chapter 7
Rural
Livelihoods
1. Describe the work that you see people doing in the above 
pictures. 
2. Identify the different types of work that are related to farming 
and those that are not. List these in a table.
3. In your notebook draw some pictures of work that you have 
seen people do in rural areas and write a few sentences that 
describe the work
Unit_IV Ch 7.indd   60 14-11-2022   04:32:52 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
Rural Livelihoods / 61 
morning and snacks like vadai, bonda 
and mysorepak in the evening. Near  
the teashops in a corner lives a 
blacksmith family whose home serves  
as their workshop. Next to their home 
is a cycle hire and repair shop. Two 
families earn a living by washing 
clothes. There are some people 
who go to the nearby town to work 
as construction workers and lorry  
drivers.
The village is surrounded by low  
hills. Paddy is the main crop that 
is grown in irrigated lands. Most of 
the families earn a living through 
agriculture.
Kalpattu village
K
alpattu is a village that’s close 
to the sea coast in Tamil Nadu. 
People here do many kinds of work.  
As in other villages, here too there 
is non-farm work such as making 
baskets, utensils, pots, bricks, 
bullock-carts etc.
There are people who provide  
services such as blacksmiths, nurses, 
teachers, washermen, weavers,  
barbers, cycle repair mechanics and  
so on. There are also some  
shopkeepers and traders. In the main 
street, which looks like a bazaar, you 
Transplanting paddy is back-breaking work.
will find a variety of small shops such 
as tea shops, grocery shops, barber 
shops, a cloth shop, a tailor and 
two fertiliser and seed shops. There 
are four teashops, which sell tiffin – 
such as idli, dosai and upama in the 
There are some 
coconut groves around. 
Cotton, sugar cane and 
plantain are also grown, 
and there are mango 
orchards. Let us now 
meet some people who 
work in the fields in 
Kalpattu and see what 
we can learn about 
farming from them.
Thulasi
All of us here work on 
Ramalingam’s land. 
He has twenty acres 
of paddy fields in 
Kalpattu. Even before I was married 
I used to work on paddy fields in my 
parental village. I work from 8.30 in 
the morning till 4.30 in the evening 
and Karuthamma, Ramalingam’s wife, 
supervises us.
Unit_IV Ch 7.indd   61 14-11-2022   04:32:54 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 4


UNIT - IV
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Unit_IV Ch 7.indd   59 14-11-2022   04:32:52 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
In the first chapter we looked at the many kinds of 
diversity in our lives. We also explored how living in 
different regions has an effect on the work people 
do, the kinds of plants, trees, crops or things that 
become important to them. In this chapter we will 
look at the different ways in which people earn 
their living in villages. And here too, as in the first 
two chapters, we will examine whether people 
have equal opportunities to earn a living. We will 
look at the similarities in their life situations and 
the problems that they face.
Chapter 7
Rural
Livelihoods
1. Describe the work that you see people doing in the above 
pictures. 
2. Identify the different types of work that are related to farming 
and those that are not. List these in a table.
3. In your notebook draw some pictures of work that you have 
seen people do in rural areas and write a few sentences that 
describe the work
Unit_IV Ch 7.indd   60 14-11-2022   04:32:52 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
Rural Livelihoods / 61 
morning and snacks like vadai, bonda 
and mysorepak in the evening. Near  
the teashops in a corner lives a 
blacksmith family whose home serves  
as their workshop. Next to their home 
is a cycle hire and repair shop. Two 
families earn a living by washing 
clothes. There are some people 
who go to the nearby town to work 
as construction workers and lorry  
drivers.
The village is surrounded by low  
hills. Paddy is the main crop that 
is grown in irrigated lands. Most of 
the families earn a living through 
agriculture.
Kalpattu village
K
alpattu is a village that’s close 
to the sea coast in Tamil Nadu. 
People here do many kinds of work.  
As in other villages, here too there 
is non-farm work such as making 
baskets, utensils, pots, bricks, 
bullock-carts etc.
There are people who provide  
services such as blacksmiths, nurses, 
teachers, washermen, weavers,  
barbers, cycle repair mechanics and  
so on. There are also some  
shopkeepers and traders. In the main 
street, which looks like a bazaar, you 
Transplanting paddy is back-breaking work.
will find a variety of small shops such 
as tea shops, grocery shops, barber 
shops, a cloth shop, a tailor and 
two fertiliser and seed shops. There 
are four teashops, which sell tiffin – 
such as idli, dosai and upama in the 
There are some 
coconut groves around. 
Cotton, sugar cane and 
plantain are also grown, 
and there are mango 
orchards. Let us now 
meet some people who 
work in the fields in 
Kalpattu and see what 
we can learn about 
farming from them.
Thulasi
All of us here work on 
Ramalingam’s land. 
He has twenty acres 
of paddy fields in 
Kalpattu. Even before I was married 
I used to work on paddy fields in my 
parental village. I work from 8.30 in 
the morning till 4.30 in the evening 
and Karuthamma, Ramalingam’s wife, 
supervises us.
Unit_IV Ch 7.indd   61 14-11-2022   04:32:54 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
62 / Social and Political Life
This is one of the few times in the 
year that I find regular work. Now I 
am transplanting the paddy, when the 
plants have grown a bit Ramalingam 
will call us again for weeding and then 
finally once again for the harvesting.
When I was young I could do this 
work with no difficulty. But now as I 
grow  older  I  find  bending  for  long 
hours with my feet in water very painful.  
Ramalingam pays Rs 40 per day. This 
is a little less than what labourers get 
in my home village, but I come here 
because I can depend on him to call me 
whenever there is work. Unlike others, 
he does not go looking for cheaper labour 
from other villages.
My husband, Raman is also a 
labourer. We don’t own any land. 
During this time of the year he sprays 
pesticides. When there is no work on 
the farm he finds work outside, either 
loading sand from the river or stone 
from the quarry nearby. This is sent 
by truck to be used in nearby towns to 
make houses.
Apart from working on the land, I 
do all the tasks at home. I cook food for 
my family, clean the house and wash 
clothes. I go with other women to the 
nearby forest to collect firewood. About 
one kilometre away we have a village 
borewell from where I fetch water. My 
husband helps in getting materials such 
as groceries for the house.
Our school-going daughters are the 
joy of our lives. Last year, one of them 
fell ill and had to be taken to the hospital 
in town. We had to sell our cow to pay 
back the money we borrowed from 
Ramalingam for her treatment.
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
Harvesting
Weeding
Transplanting
Preparing 
saplings
December
Based on the above diagram would 
you say that Thulasi earns money 
throughout the year?
1. Describe the work that 
Thulasi does. How is it 
different from the work 
Raman does?
2. Thulasi gets paid very little 
money for the work she 
does. Why do you think 
agricultural labourers like 
her are forced to accept low 
wages?
3. In what ways would her way 
of earning a living have been 
different if Thulasi owned 
some farm land? Discuss.
4. What are the crops grown in 
your  region or nearby rural 
area? What kinds of  work  do  
agricultural labourers do?
Unit_IV Ch 7.indd   62 14-11-2022   04:32:54 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 5


UNIT - IV
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Livelihoods
Unit_IV Ch 7.indd   59 14-11-2022   04:32:52 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
In the first chapter we looked at the many kinds of 
diversity in our lives. We also explored how living in 
different regions has an effect on the work people 
do, the kinds of plants, trees, crops or things that 
become important to them. In this chapter we will 
look at the different ways in which people earn 
their living in villages. And here too, as in the first 
two chapters, we will examine whether people 
have equal opportunities to earn a living. We will 
look at the similarities in their life situations and 
the problems that they face.
Chapter 7
Rural
Livelihoods
1. Describe the work that you see people doing in the above 
pictures. 
2. Identify the different types of work that are related to farming 
and those that are not. List these in a table.
3. In your notebook draw some pictures of work that you have 
seen people do in rural areas and write a few sentences that 
describe the work
Unit_IV Ch 7.indd   60 14-11-2022   04:32:52 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
Rural Livelihoods / 61 
morning and snacks like vadai, bonda 
and mysorepak in the evening. Near  
the teashops in a corner lives a 
blacksmith family whose home serves  
as their workshop. Next to their home 
is a cycle hire and repair shop. Two 
families earn a living by washing 
clothes. There are some people 
who go to the nearby town to work 
as construction workers and lorry  
drivers.
The village is surrounded by low  
hills. Paddy is the main crop that 
is grown in irrigated lands. Most of 
the families earn a living through 
agriculture.
Kalpattu village
K
alpattu is a village that’s close 
to the sea coast in Tamil Nadu. 
People here do many kinds of work.  
As in other villages, here too there 
is non-farm work such as making 
baskets, utensils, pots, bricks, 
bullock-carts etc.
There are people who provide  
services such as blacksmiths, nurses, 
teachers, washermen, weavers,  
barbers, cycle repair mechanics and  
so on. There are also some  
shopkeepers and traders. In the main 
street, which looks like a bazaar, you 
Transplanting paddy is back-breaking work.
will find a variety of small shops such 
as tea shops, grocery shops, barber 
shops, a cloth shop, a tailor and 
two fertiliser and seed shops. There 
are four teashops, which sell tiffin – 
such as idli, dosai and upama in the 
There are some 
coconut groves around. 
Cotton, sugar cane and 
plantain are also grown, 
and there are mango 
orchards. Let us now 
meet some people who 
work in the fields in 
Kalpattu and see what 
we can learn about 
farming from them.
Thulasi
All of us here work on 
Ramalingam’s land. 
He has twenty acres 
of paddy fields in 
Kalpattu. Even before I was married 
I used to work on paddy fields in my 
parental village. I work from 8.30 in 
the morning till 4.30 in the evening 
and Karuthamma, Ramalingam’s wife, 
supervises us.
Unit_IV Ch 7.indd   61 14-11-2022   04:32:54 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
62 / Social and Political Life
This is one of the few times in the 
year that I find regular work. Now I 
am transplanting the paddy, when the 
plants have grown a bit Ramalingam 
will call us again for weeding and then 
finally once again for the harvesting.
When I was young I could do this 
work with no difficulty. But now as I 
grow  older  I  find  bending  for  long 
hours with my feet in water very painful.  
Ramalingam pays Rs 40 per day. This 
is a little less than what labourers get 
in my home village, but I come here 
because I can depend on him to call me 
whenever there is work. Unlike others, 
he does not go looking for cheaper labour 
from other villages.
My husband, Raman is also a 
labourer. We don’t own any land. 
During this time of the year he sprays 
pesticides. When there is no work on 
the farm he finds work outside, either 
loading sand from the river or stone 
from the quarry nearby. This is sent 
by truck to be used in nearby towns to 
make houses.
Apart from working on the land, I 
do all the tasks at home. I cook food for 
my family, clean the house and wash 
clothes. I go with other women to the 
nearby forest to collect firewood. About 
one kilometre away we have a village 
borewell from where I fetch water. My 
husband helps in getting materials such 
as groceries for the house.
Our school-going daughters are the 
joy of our lives. Last year, one of them 
fell ill and had to be taken to the hospital 
in town. We had to sell our cow to pay 
back the money we borrowed from 
Ramalingam for her treatment.
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
Harvesting
Weeding
Transplanting
Preparing 
saplings
December
Based on the above diagram would 
you say that Thulasi earns money 
throughout the year?
1. Describe the work that 
Thulasi does. How is it 
different from the work 
Raman does?
2. Thulasi gets paid very little 
money for the work she 
does. Why do you think 
agricultural labourers like 
her are forced to accept low 
wages?
3. In what ways would her way 
of earning a living have been 
different if Thulasi owned 
some farm land? Discuss.
4. What are the crops grown in 
your  region or nearby rural 
area? What kinds of  work  do  
agricultural labourers do?
Unit_IV Ch 7.indd   62 14-11-2022   04:32:54 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
Rural Livelihoods / 63 
As you saw in Thulasi’s story poor 
families in rural areas often spend a  
lot of time every day collecting  
firewood, getting water and grazing 
their cattle.
Even though they do not earn any 
money from these activities they have 
to do them for the household. The 
family needs to spend time doing this 
as they are not able to survive on the 
little money they earn.
Nearly two-fifth of all rural families 
are agricultural labourers in our 
country. There are some who have 
small plots of land while others like 
Thulasi are landless.
Not being able to earn money 
throughout the year forces people 
in many rural areas to travel long 
distances in search of work. This 
travel, or migration, takes place during 
particular seasons.
Sekar
We have to carry this paddy to our 
house. My family has just finished  
harvesting our field. We don’t own 
much land, only two acres. We manage 
to do all the work on our own. At  
times, especially during the harvest I 
take the help of other small farmers  
and in turn help them harvest their  
field.
The trader gave me seeds and 
fertilisers as a loan. To pay back this 
loan I have to sell my paddy to him at 
a somewhat lower price than what I 
would get in the market. He has sent 
his agent to remind farmers who have 
taken loans that they will sell the paddy 
only to him.
I will probably get 60 bags of paddy 
from my field. Some of this I will sell to 
settle the loan. The rest will be used in 
my home. But whatever I have will last 
only  eight months. So I need to earn 
some money. I work in Ramalingam’s 
rice mill.  Here I help him collect paddy 
from other farmers in the neighbouring 
villages.
We also have a hybrid cow, whose 
milk we sell in the local milk cooperative. 
This way we get a little extra money for 
our everyday needs.
On being in Debt
As you’ve read above, very often 
farmers like Sekar need to borrow 
money to purchase basic things 
like seeds, fertilisers and pesticides. 
Often they borrow this money from 
moneylenders. If the seeds are not of 
good quality or pests attack their crop 
there can be a major crop failure. 
Unit_IV Ch 7.indd   63 14-11-2022   04:32:54 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
Read More
132 videos|662 docs|304 tests

FAQs on NCERT Textbook: Rural Livelihoods - Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

1. What is rural livelihood?
Ans. Rural livelihood refers to the means of earning a livelihood that is prevalent in rural areas. It includes agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing, forestry, and other non-farm activities such as handicrafts and small-scale industries.
2. How does the government support rural livelihoods?
Ans. The Government supports rural livelihoods through various measures such as providing subsidies, credit facilities, creating rural infrastructure, providing training and skill development, and implementing various rural development programs.
3. What are the challenges faced by rural livelihoods in India?
Ans. The challenges faced by rural livelihoods in India include lack of access to credit and finance, low productivity, lack of access to markets, poor infrastructure, and climate change.
4. How does climate change impact rural livelihoods?
Ans. Climate change impacts rural livelihoods by affecting crop yields, livestock productivity, and access to water. It also leads to natural disasters such as floods and droughts, which can cause significant damage to rural livelihoods.
5. What role do women play in rural livelihoods?
Ans. Women play a significant role in rural livelihoods, primarily in agriculture and animal husbandry. They also undertake non-farm activities such as handicrafts and small-scale industries. However, they often face gender-based discrimination and lack of access to resources, which hinders their participation in rural livelihoods.
132 videos|662 docs|304 tests
Download as PDF
Explore Courses for UPSC exam

How to Prepare for UPSC

Read our guide to prepare for UPSC which is created by Toppers & the best Teachers
Signup for Free!
Signup to see your scores go up within 7 days! Learn & Practice with 1000+ FREE Notes, Videos & Tests.
10M+ students study on EduRev
Download the FREE EduRev App
Track your progress, build streaks, highlight & save important lessons and more!
Related Searches

Extra Questions

,

Viva Questions

,

past year papers

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Free

,

Semester Notes

,

NCERT Textbook: Rural Livelihoods | Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

,

NCERT Textbook: Rural Livelihoods | Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

,

Summary

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

pdf

,

practice quizzes

,

video lectures

,

NCERT Textbook: Rural Livelihoods | Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

,

Objective type Questions

,

ppt

,

Sample Paper

,

MCQs

,

study material

,

Important questions

,

mock tests for examination

,

Exam

;