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 Page 1


T
here are certain organisations which are set up
for providing service to its members and the
public in general. Such organisations include clubs,
charitable institutions, schools, religious
organisations, trade unions, welfare societies and
societies for the promotion of art and culture. These
organisations have service as the main objective and
not the profit as is the case of organisations in
business. Normally, these organisations do not
undertake any business activity, and are managed
by trustees who are fully accountable to their
members and the society for the utilization of the
funds raised for meeting the objectives of the
organisation. Hence, they also have to maintain
proper accounts and prepare the financial statement
which take the form of Receipt and Payment
Account; Income and Expenditure Account; and
Balance Sheet. at the end of for every accounting
period (normally a financial year).
This is also a legal requirement and helps them
to keep track of their income and expenditure, the
nature of which is different from those of the business
organisations. In this chapter  we shall learn about
the accounting aspects relating to not-for-profit
organisation.
1.1 Meaning and Characteristics of Not-for-Profit
Organisation
Not-for-Profit Organisations refer to the
organisations that are for used for the welfare of the
society and are set up as charitable institutions
Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisation
1
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter,
you will be able to;
•Explain the meaning and
characteristics of  accounting
not-for-profit organisations;
?Identiy the need for, and
nature of accounting records
relating to not-for-profit
organisations;
?List the principal financial
statements prepared by not-
for-profit organisations and
explain their nature;
?Prepare the Receipt and
Payment Account from a
given date;
?Explain the procedure of
preparing the Income and
Expenditure Account from a
given Receipt and Payment
Account and some
additional information;
?Distinguish between the
Receipt and Payment
Account and the
Income and Expenditure
Account;
?Prepare Income and
Expenditure Account and
Balance Sheet from a  given
Receipt and Payment
Account and the relevant
additional information;
? Explain treatment of certain
peculiar items of receipts
and payments such as
subscriptions from members,
special funds, legacies, sale
of old fixed assets, etc.
Page 2


T
here are certain organisations which are set up
for providing service to its members and the
public in general. Such organisations include clubs,
charitable institutions, schools, religious
organisations, trade unions, welfare societies and
societies for the promotion of art and culture. These
organisations have service as the main objective and
not the profit as is the case of organisations in
business. Normally, these organisations do not
undertake any business activity, and are managed
by trustees who are fully accountable to their
members and the society for the utilization of the
funds raised for meeting the objectives of the
organisation. Hence, they also have to maintain
proper accounts and prepare the financial statement
which take the form of Receipt and Payment
Account; Income and Expenditure Account; and
Balance Sheet. at the end of for every accounting
period (normally a financial year).
This is also a legal requirement and helps them
to keep track of their income and expenditure, the
nature of which is different from those of the business
organisations. In this chapter  we shall learn about
the accounting aspects relating to not-for-profit
organisation.
1.1 Meaning and Characteristics of Not-for-Profit
Organisation
Not-for-Profit Organisations refer to the
organisations that are for used for the welfare of the
society and are set up as charitable institutions
Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisation
1
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter,
you will be able to;
•Explain the meaning and
characteristics of  accounting
not-for-profit organisations;
?Identiy the need for, and
nature of accounting records
relating to not-for-profit
organisations;
?List the principal financial
statements prepared by not-
for-profit organisations and
explain their nature;
?Prepare the Receipt and
Payment Account from a
given date;
?Explain the procedure of
preparing the Income and
Expenditure Account from a
given Receipt and Payment
Account and some
additional information;
?Distinguish between the
Receipt and Payment
Account and the
Income and Expenditure
Account;
?Prepare Income and
Expenditure Account and
Balance Sheet from a  given
Receipt and Payment
Account and the relevant
additional information;
? Explain treatment of certain
peculiar items of receipts
and payments such as
subscriptions from members,
special funds, legacies, sale
of old fixed assets, etc.
2 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts
which function without any profit motive. Their  main aim is to provide service
to a specific group or the public at large. Normally, they do not manufacture,
purchase or sell goods and may not have credit transactions. Hence they need
not maintain many books of account (as the trading concerns do) and Trading
and Profit and Loss Account. The funds raised by such organisations are credited
to capital fund or general fund. The major sources of their income usually are
subscriptions from their members donations, grants-in-aid, income from
investments, etc. The main objective of keeping records in such organisations is
to meet the statutory requirement and help them in exercising control over
utilisation of their funds. They also have to prepare the financial statements at
the end of each accounting period (usually a financial year) and ascertain their
income and expenditure and the financial position, and submit them to the
statutory authority called Registrar of Societies.
The main characteristics of such organisations are:
1. Such organisations are formed for providing service to a specific group or
public at large such as education, health care, recreation, sports and so
on without any consideration of caste, creed and colour. Its sole aim is to
provide service either free of cost or at nominal cost, and not to earn profit.
2. These are organised as charitable trusts/societies and subscribers to
such organisation are called members.
3. Their affairs are usually managed by a managing/executive committee
elected by its members.
4. The main sources of income of such organisations are: (i) subscriptions
from members, (ii) donations, (iii) legacies, (iv) grant-in-aid, (v) income
from investments, etc.
5. The funds raised by such organisations through various sources are
credited to capital fund or general fund.
6. The surplus generated in the form of excess of income over expenditure
is not distributed amongst the members. It is simply added in the
capital fund.
7. The Not-for-Profit Organisations earn their reputation on the basis of
their contributions to the welfare of the society rather than on the
customers’ or owners’ satisfaction.
8. The accounting information provided by such organisations is meant for
the present and potential contributors meet the statutory requirement.
1.2 Accounting Records of Not-for-Profit Organisations
As stated earlier , normally such organisations are not engaged in any trading or
business activities. The main sources of their income are subscriptions from
members, donations, financial assistance from government and income from
investments. Most of their transactions are in cash or through the bank. These
Page 3


T
here are certain organisations which are set up
for providing service to its members and the
public in general. Such organisations include clubs,
charitable institutions, schools, religious
organisations, trade unions, welfare societies and
societies for the promotion of art and culture. These
organisations have service as the main objective and
not the profit as is the case of organisations in
business. Normally, these organisations do not
undertake any business activity, and are managed
by trustees who are fully accountable to their
members and the society for the utilization of the
funds raised for meeting the objectives of the
organisation. Hence, they also have to maintain
proper accounts and prepare the financial statement
which take the form of Receipt and Payment
Account; Income and Expenditure Account; and
Balance Sheet. at the end of for every accounting
period (normally a financial year).
This is also a legal requirement and helps them
to keep track of their income and expenditure, the
nature of which is different from those of the business
organisations. In this chapter  we shall learn about
the accounting aspects relating to not-for-profit
organisation.
1.1 Meaning and Characteristics of Not-for-Profit
Organisation
Not-for-Profit Organisations refer to the
organisations that are for used for the welfare of the
society and are set up as charitable institutions
Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisation
1
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter,
you will be able to;
•Explain the meaning and
characteristics of  accounting
not-for-profit organisations;
?Identiy the need for, and
nature of accounting records
relating to not-for-profit
organisations;
?List the principal financial
statements prepared by not-
for-profit organisations and
explain their nature;
?Prepare the Receipt and
Payment Account from a
given date;
?Explain the procedure of
preparing the Income and
Expenditure Account from a
given Receipt and Payment
Account and some
additional information;
?Distinguish between the
Receipt and Payment
Account and the
Income and Expenditure
Account;
?Prepare Income and
Expenditure Account and
Balance Sheet from a  given
Receipt and Payment
Account and the relevant
additional information;
? Explain treatment of certain
peculiar items of receipts
and payments such as
subscriptions from members,
special funds, legacies, sale
of old fixed assets, etc.
2 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts
which function without any profit motive. Their  main aim is to provide service
to a specific group or the public at large. Normally, they do not manufacture,
purchase or sell goods and may not have credit transactions. Hence they need
not maintain many books of account (as the trading concerns do) and Trading
and Profit and Loss Account. The funds raised by such organisations are credited
to capital fund or general fund. The major sources of their income usually are
subscriptions from their members donations, grants-in-aid, income from
investments, etc. The main objective of keeping records in such organisations is
to meet the statutory requirement and help them in exercising control over
utilisation of their funds. They also have to prepare the financial statements at
the end of each accounting period (usually a financial year) and ascertain their
income and expenditure and the financial position, and submit them to the
statutory authority called Registrar of Societies.
The main characteristics of such organisations are:
1. Such organisations are formed for providing service to a specific group or
public at large such as education, health care, recreation, sports and so
on without any consideration of caste, creed and colour. Its sole aim is to
provide service either free of cost or at nominal cost, and not to earn profit.
2. These are organised as charitable trusts/societies and subscribers to
such organisation are called members.
3. Their affairs are usually managed by a managing/executive committee
elected by its members.
4. The main sources of income of such organisations are: (i) subscriptions
from members, (ii) donations, (iii) legacies, (iv) grant-in-aid, (v) income
from investments, etc.
5. The funds raised by such organisations through various sources are
credited to capital fund or general fund.
6. The surplus generated in the form of excess of income over expenditure
is not distributed amongst the members. It is simply added in the
capital fund.
7. The Not-for-Profit Organisations earn their reputation on the basis of
their contributions to the welfare of the society rather than on the
customers’ or owners’ satisfaction.
8. The accounting information provided by such organisations is meant for
the present and potential contributors meet the statutory requirement.
1.2 Accounting Records of Not-for-Profit Organisations
As stated earlier , normally such organisations are not engaged in any trading or
business activities. The main sources of their income are subscriptions from
members, donations, financial assistance from government and income from
investments. Most of their transactions are in cash or through the bank. These
3 Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisation
institutions are required by law to keep proper accounting records and keep
proper control over the utilization of their funds. This is why they usually keep
a cash book in which all receipts and payments are duly recorded. They also
maintain a ledger containing the accounts of all incomes, expenses, assets and
liabilities which facilitates the preparation of financial statements at the end of
the accounting period. In addition, they are required to maintain a stock register
to keep complete record of all fixed assets and the consumables.
They do not maintain any capital account. Instead they maintain capital
fund which is also called general fund that goes on accumulating due to surpluses
generated, life membership fee, donation, legacies, etc. received from year to
year . In fact, a proper system of accounting is desirable to avoid or minimise the
chances of misappropriations or embezzlement of the funds contributed by the
members and other donors.
Final Accounts or Financial Statements: The Not-for-Profit Organisations are
also required to prepare financial statements at the end of the each accounting
period. Although these organisations are non-profit making entities and they are
not required to make Trading and Profit & Loss Account but it is necessary to
know whether the income during the year was sufficient to meet the expenses or
not. Not only that they have to provide the necessary financial information to
members, donors, and contributors and also to the Registrar of Societies. For this
purpose, they have to prepare their final accounts at the end of the accounting
period and the general principles of accounting are fully applicable in their
preparation on as stated earlier , the final accounts of a ‘not-for-profit organisation’
consist of the following:
(i) Receipt and Payment Account
(ii) Income and Expenditure Account, and
(iii) Balance Sheet.
The Receipt and Payment Account is the summary of cash and bank
transactions which helps the preparation of Income and Expenditure Account
and the Balance Sheet. Besides, it is a legal requirement as the Receipts and
Payments Account has also to be submitted to the Registrar of Societies along
with the Income and Expenditure Account, and the Balance Sheet.
Income and Expenditure Account is akin to Profit and Loss Account. The
Not-for-Profit Organisations usually prepare the Income and Expenditure
Account and a Balance Sheet with the help of Receipt and Payment Account.
However, this does not simply that they do not make a trial balance. In order to
check the accuracy of the ledger accounts, they also prepare a trial balance
which facilitate the preparation of accurate Receipt and Payment Account as
well as the Income and Expenditure Account and the Balance Sheet.
In fact, if an organisation has followed the double entry system they
must prepare a trial balance for checking the accuracy of the ledger accounts
and it will also.
Page 4


T
here are certain organisations which are set up
for providing service to its members and the
public in general. Such organisations include clubs,
charitable institutions, schools, religious
organisations, trade unions, welfare societies and
societies for the promotion of art and culture. These
organisations have service as the main objective and
not the profit as is the case of organisations in
business. Normally, these organisations do not
undertake any business activity, and are managed
by trustees who are fully accountable to their
members and the society for the utilization of the
funds raised for meeting the objectives of the
organisation. Hence, they also have to maintain
proper accounts and prepare the financial statement
which take the form of Receipt and Payment
Account; Income and Expenditure Account; and
Balance Sheet. at the end of for every accounting
period (normally a financial year).
This is also a legal requirement and helps them
to keep track of their income and expenditure, the
nature of which is different from those of the business
organisations. In this chapter  we shall learn about
the accounting aspects relating to not-for-profit
organisation.
1.1 Meaning and Characteristics of Not-for-Profit
Organisation
Not-for-Profit Organisations refer to the
organisations that are for used for the welfare of the
society and are set up as charitable institutions
Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisation
1
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter,
you will be able to;
•Explain the meaning and
characteristics of  accounting
not-for-profit organisations;
?Identiy the need for, and
nature of accounting records
relating to not-for-profit
organisations;
?List the principal financial
statements prepared by not-
for-profit organisations and
explain their nature;
?Prepare the Receipt and
Payment Account from a
given date;
?Explain the procedure of
preparing the Income and
Expenditure Account from a
given Receipt and Payment
Account and some
additional information;
?Distinguish between the
Receipt and Payment
Account and the
Income and Expenditure
Account;
?Prepare Income and
Expenditure Account and
Balance Sheet from a  given
Receipt and Payment
Account and the relevant
additional information;
? Explain treatment of certain
peculiar items of receipts
and payments such as
subscriptions from members,
special funds, legacies, sale
of old fixed assets, etc.
2 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts
which function without any profit motive. Their  main aim is to provide service
to a specific group or the public at large. Normally, they do not manufacture,
purchase or sell goods and may not have credit transactions. Hence they need
not maintain many books of account (as the trading concerns do) and Trading
and Profit and Loss Account. The funds raised by such organisations are credited
to capital fund or general fund. The major sources of their income usually are
subscriptions from their members donations, grants-in-aid, income from
investments, etc. The main objective of keeping records in such organisations is
to meet the statutory requirement and help them in exercising control over
utilisation of their funds. They also have to prepare the financial statements at
the end of each accounting period (usually a financial year) and ascertain their
income and expenditure and the financial position, and submit them to the
statutory authority called Registrar of Societies.
The main characteristics of such organisations are:
1. Such organisations are formed for providing service to a specific group or
public at large such as education, health care, recreation, sports and so
on without any consideration of caste, creed and colour. Its sole aim is to
provide service either free of cost or at nominal cost, and not to earn profit.
2. These are organised as charitable trusts/societies and subscribers to
such organisation are called members.
3. Their affairs are usually managed by a managing/executive committee
elected by its members.
4. The main sources of income of such organisations are: (i) subscriptions
from members, (ii) donations, (iii) legacies, (iv) grant-in-aid, (v) income
from investments, etc.
5. The funds raised by such organisations through various sources are
credited to capital fund or general fund.
6. The surplus generated in the form of excess of income over expenditure
is not distributed amongst the members. It is simply added in the
capital fund.
7. The Not-for-Profit Organisations earn their reputation on the basis of
their contributions to the welfare of the society rather than on the
customers’ or owners’ satisfaction.
8. The accounting information provided by such organisations is meant for
the present and potential contributors meet the statutory requirement.
1.2 Accounting Records of Not-for-Profit Organisations
As stated earlier , normally such organisations are not engaged in any trading or
business activities. The main sources of their income are subscriptions from
members, donations, financial assistance from government and income from
investments. Most of their transactions are in cash or through the bank. These
3 Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisation
institutions are required by law to keep proper accounting records and keep
proper control over the utilization of their funds. This is why they usually keep
a cash book in which all receipts and payments are duly recorded. They also
maintain a ledger containing the accounts of all incomes, expenses, assets and
liabilities which facilitates the preparation of financial statements at the end of
the accounting period. In addition, they are required to maintain a stock register
to keep complete record of all fixed assets and the consumables.
They do not maintain any capital account. Instead they maintain capital
fund which is also called general fund that goes on accumulating due to surpluses
generated, life membership fee, donation, legacies, etc. received from year to
year . In fact, a proper system of accounting is desirable to avoid or minimise the
chances of misappropriations or embezzlement of the funds contributed by the
members and other donors.
Final Accounts or Financial Statements: The Not-for-Profit Organisations are
also required to prepare financial statements at the end of the each accounting
period. Although these organisations are non-profit making entities and they are
not required to make Trading and Profit & Loss Account but it is necessary to
know whether the income during the year was sufficient to meet the expenses or
not. Not only that they have to provide the necessary financial information to
members, donors, and contributors and also to the Registrar of Societies. For this
purpose, they have to prepare their final accounts at the end of the accounting
period and the general principles of accounting are fully applicable in their
preparation on as stated earlier , the final accounts of a ‘not-for-profit organisation’
consist of the following:
(i) Receipt and Payment Account
(ii) Income and Expenditure Account, and
(iii) Balance Sheet.
The Receipt and Payment Account is the summary of cash and bank
transactions which helps the preparation of Income and Expenditure Account
and the Balance Sheet. Besides, it is a legal requirement as the Receipts and
Payments Account has also to be submitted to the Registrar of Societies along
with the Income and Expenditure Account, and the Balance Sheet.
Income and Expenditure Account is akin to Profit and Loss Account. The
Not-for-Profit Organisations usually prepare the Income and Expenditure
Account and a Balance Sheet with the help of Receipt and Payment Account.
However, this does not simply that they do not make a trial balance. In order to
check the accuracy of the ledger accounts, they also prepare a trial balance
which facilitate the preparation of accurate Receipt and Payment Account as
well as the Income and Expenditure Account and the Balance Sheet.
In fact, if an organisation has followed the double entry system they
must prepare a trial balance for checking the accuracy of the ledger accounts
and it will also.
4 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts
1.3 Receipt and Payment Account
It is prepared at the end of the accounting year on the basis of cash receipts and
cash payments recorded in the cash book. It simply is a summary of cash and
bank transactions under various heads. For example, subscriptions received
from the members on different dates which appear on the debit side of the cash
book, shall be shown on the receipts side of the Receipt and Payment Account
as one item with its total amount. Similarly, salary, rent, electricity charges paid
from time to time as recorded on the credit side of the cash book but the total
salary paid, total rent paid, total electricity charges paid during the year appear
on the payment side  of the Receipt and Payment Account. Thus, Receipt and
Payment Account gives summarised picture of various receipts and payments,
irrespective of whether they pertain to the current period, previous period or
succeeding period or whether they are of capital or revenue nature. It may be
noted that this account does not show any non-item like depreciation.  The
opening balance in Receipt and Payment Account represents cash in hand/
cash at bank which is shown on its receipts side and the closing balance of this
account represents cash in hand and bank balance as at the end of the year,
which appear on the credit side of the Receipt and Payment Account. However,
if it is bank overdraft at the end it shall be shown on its debit side as the last
item. Let us look at the cash book given in example how the total amount of
each item of receipt and payment has been worked out.
Example 1
Cash Book (Columnar)
Dr.                    Cr.
Date Details L.F. Bank Office Date Details L.F. Bank Office
Amount Amount Amount Amount
(Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.)
2006 2006
April 1 Balance b/d 35,000 20,000 April 15 Insurance premium 15,000
April 10 Subscriptions 1,20,000 May 12 Printing and 10,750
stationery
April 10 Entrance fees 13,000 May 20 Postage and 430
May 20 Life membership 12,000 courier fees
fees June 16 Telephone 810
June 12 Locker rent 42,000 expenses
July 23 Life membership 8,000 July 10 Wages and salaries 22,000
 fees July 15 Rates and Taxes 17,000
Aug. 20 Donation for 60,000 July 30 Govt. securities 1,00,000
building Aug. 13 Printing and 15,000
Sept. 13 Subscriptions 30,000 statienary
(2005-2006) Aug. 15 Postage and 480
Sept. 13 Subscription 45,000 courier service
Sept. 10 Lighting 12,250
Page 5


T
here are certain organisations which are set up
for providing service to its members and the
public in general. Such organisations include clubs,
charitable institutions, schools, religious
organisations, trade unions, welfare societies and
societies for the promotion of art and culture. These
organisations have service as the main objective and
not the profit as is the case of organisations in
business. Normally, these organisations do not
undertake any business activity, and are managed
by trustees who are fully accountable to their
members and the society for the utilization of the
funds raised for meeting the objectives of the
organisation. Hence, they also have to maintain
proper accounts and prepare the financial statement
which take the form of Receipt and Payment
Account; Income and Expenditure Account; and
Balance Sheet. at the end of for every accounting
period (normally a financial year).
This is also a legal requirement and helps them
to keep track of their income and expenditure, the
nature of which is different from those of the business
organisations. In this chapter  we shall learn about
the accounting aspects relating to not-for-profit
organisation.
1.1 Meaning and Characteristics of Not-for-Profit
Organisation
Not-for-Profit Organisations refer to the
organisations that are for used for the welfare of the
society and are set up as charitable institutions
Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisation
1
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter,
you will be able to;
•Explain the meaning and
characteristics of  accounting
not-for-profit organisations;
?Identiy the need for, and
nature of accounting records
relating to not-for-profit
organisations;
?List the principal financial
statements prepared by not-
for-profit organisations and
explain their nature;
?Prepare the Receipt and
Payment Account from a
given date;
?Explain the procedure of
preparing the Income and
Expenditure Account from a
given Receipt and Payment
Account and some
additional information;
?Distinguish between the
Receipt and Payment
Account and the
Income and Expenditure
Account;
?Prepare Income and
Expenditure Account and
Balance Sheet from a  given
Receipt and Payment
Account and the relevant
additional information;
? Explain treatment of certain
peculiar items of receipts
and payments such as
subscriptions from members,
special funds, legacies, sale
of old fixed assets, etc.
2 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts
which function without any profit motive. Their  main aim is to provide service
to a specific group or the public at large. Normally, they do not manufacture,
purchase or sell goods and may not have credit transactions. Hence they need
not maintain many books of account (as the trading concerns do) and Trading
and Profit and Loss Account. The funds raised by such organisations are credited
to capital fund or general fund. The major sources of their income usually are
subscriptions from their members donations, grants-in-aid, income from
investments, etc. The main objective of keeping records in such organisations is
to meet the statutory requirement and help them in exercising control over
utilisation of their funds. They also have to prepare the financial statements at
the end of each accounting period (usually a financial year) and ascertain their
income and expenditure and the financial position, and submit them to the
statutory authority called Registrar of Societies.
The main characteristics of such organisations are:
1. Such organisations are formed for providing service to a specific group or
public at large such as education, health care, recreation, sports and so
on without any consideration of caste, creed and colour. Its sole aim is to
provide service either free of cost or at nominal cost, and not to earn profit.
2. These are organised as charitable trusts/societies and subscribers to
such organisation are called members.
3. Their affairs are usually managed by a managing/executive committee
elected by its members.
4. The main sources of income of such organisations are: (i) subscriptions
from members, (ii) donations, (iii) legacies, (iv) grant-in-aid, (v) income
from investments, etc.
5. The funds raised by such organisations through various sources are
credited to capital fund or general fund.
6. The surplus generated in the form of excess of income over expenditure
is not distributed amongst the members. It is simply added in the
capital fund.
7. The Not-for-Profit Organisations earn their reputation on the basis of
their contributions to the welfare of the society rather than on the
customers’ or owners’ satisfaction.
8. The accounting information provided by such organisations is meant for
the present and potential contributors meet the statutory requirement.
1.2 Accounting Records of Not-for-Profit Organisations
As stated earlier , normally such organisations are not engaged in any trading or
business activities. The main sources of their income are subscriptions from
members, donations, financial assistance from government and income from
investments. Most of their transactions are in cash or through the bank. These
3 Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisation
institutions are required by law to keep proper accounting records and keep
proper control over the utilization of their funds. This is why they usually keep
a cash book in which all receipts and payments are duly recorded. They also
maintain a ledger containing the accounts of all incomes, expenses, assets and
liabilities which facilitates the preparation of financial statements at the end of
the accounting period. In addition, they are required to maintain a stock register
to keep complete record of all fixed assets and the consumables.
They do not maintain any capital account. Instead they maintain capital
fund which is also called general fund that goes on accumulating due to surpluses
generated, life membership fee, donation, legacies, etc. received from year to
year . In fact, a proper system of accounting is desirable to avoid or minimise the
chances of misappropriations or embezzlement of the funds contributed by the
members and other donors.
Final Accounts or Financial Statements: The Not-for-Profit Organisations are
also required to prepare financial statements at the end of the each accounting
period. Although these organisations are non-profit making entities and they are
not required to make Trading and Profit & Loss Account but it is necessary to
know whether the income during the year was sufficient to meet the expenses or
not. Not only that they have to provide the necessary financial information to
members, donors, and contributors and also to the Registrar of Societies. For this
purpose, they have to prepare their final accounts at the end of the accounting
period and the general principles of accounting are fully applicable in their
preparation on as stated earlier , the final accounts of a ‘not-for-profit organisation’
consist of the following:
(i) Receipt and Payment Account
(ii) Income and Expenditure Account, and
(iii) Balance Sheet.
The Receipt and Payment Account is the summary of cash and bank
transactions which helps the preparation of Income and Expenditure Account
and the Balance Sheet. Besides, it is a legal requirement as the Receipts and
Payments Account has also to be submitted to the Registrar of Societies along
with the Income and Expenditure Account, and the Balance Sheet.
Income and Expenditure Account is akin to Profit and Loss Account. The
Not-for-Profit Organisations usually prepare the Income and Expenditure
Account and a Balance Sheet with the help of Receipt and Payment Account.
However, this does not simply that they do not make a trial balance. In order to
check the accuracy of the ledger accounts, they also prepare a trial balance
which facilitate the preparation of accurate Receipt and Payment Account as
well as the Income and Expenditure Account and the Balance Sheet.
In fact, if an organisation has followed the double entry system they
must prepare a trial balance for checking the accuracy of the ledger accounts
and it will also.
4 Accountancy – Not-for-Profit Organisation and Partnership Accounts
1.3 Receipt and Payment Account
It is prepared at the end of the accounting year on the basis of cash receipts and
cash payments recorded in the cash book. It simply is a summary of cash and
bank transactions under various heads. For example, subscriptions received
from the members on different dates which appear on the debit side of the cash
book, shall be shown on the receipts side of the Receipt and Payment Account
as one item with its total amount. Similarly, salary, rent, electricity charges paid
from time to time as recorded on the credit side of the cash book but the total
salary paid, total rent paid, total electricity charges paid during the year appear
on the payment side  of the Receipt and Payment Account. Thus, Receipt and
Payment Account gives summarised picture of various receipts and payments,
irrespective of whether they pertain to the current period, previous period or
succeeding period or whether they are of capital or revenue nature. It may be
noted that this account does not show any non-item like depreciation.  The
opening balance in Receipt and Payment Account represents cash in hand/
cash at bank which is shown on its receipts side and the closing balance of this
account represents cash in hand and bank balance as at the end of the year,
which appear on the credit side of the Receipt and Payment Account. However,
if it is bank overdraft at the end it shall be shown on its debit side as the last
item. Let us look at the cash book given in example how the total amount of
each item of receipt and payment has been worked out.
Example 1
Cash Book (Columnar)
Dr.                    Cr.
Date Details L.F. Bank Office Date Details L.F. Bank Office
Amount Amount Amount Amount
(Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.) (Rs.)
2006 2006
April 1 Balance b/d 35,000 20,000 April 15 Insurance premium 15,000
April 10 Subscriptions 1,20,000 May 12 Printing and 10,750
stationery
April 10 Entrance fees 13,000 May 20 Postage and 430
May 20 Life membership 12,000 courier fees
fees June 16 Telephone 810
June 12 Locker rent 42,000 expenses
July 23 Life membership 8,000 July 10 Wages and salaries 22,000
 fees July 15 Rates and Taxes 17,000
Aug. 20 Donation for 60,000 July 30 Govt. securities 1,00,000
building Aug. 13 Printing and 15,000
Sept. 13 Subscriptions 30,000 statienary
(2005-2006) Aug. 15 Postage and 480
Sept. 13 Subscription 45,000 courier service
Sept. 10 Lighting 12,250
5 Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisation
Sept. 14 Entrance fees 10,000 Sept 13 Telephone expenses 830
Nov. 9 Subscription 35,000 Oct. 1 Wages and salaries 10,000 12,000
Oct. 18 Printing and 13,000
Nov. 9 Subscription 10,000 stationary
(2007-2008) Oct. 31 Govt. securities 1,00,000
2007 Dec. 31 W ages and Salaries 22,000
Feb. 07 Subscription 25,000 2007
Jan. 21 Courier charges 240
Mar. 28 Interest on 18,000 Feb. 2 Telephone 960
government expenses
securities Mar. 10 Postage and 850
Courier fees
Mar. 27 Lighting 14,000
Mar. 27 Wages and Salaries 22,000
Mar. 31 Balance c/d 70,000 23,400
4,21,000 62,000 4,21,000 62,000
Part A
Item wise Aggregation of various Receipts
Subscriptions (2006–2007)
Date Amount (Rs.)
April 10, 2006 1,20,000
Sept. 13, 2006 45,000
Nov. 9, 2006 35,000
Feb. 7, 2007 25,000
Total 2,25,000
Subscriptions (2005–06)
Date Amount (Rs.)
Sept. 13, 2006 30,000
Total 30,000
Subscription
Date Amount (Rs)
Nov. 9, 2006 10,000
Total 10,000
Entrance Fees
Date Amount (Rs)
April 10, 2006 13,000
Sept.14, 2006 10,000
Total 23,000
Read More
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FAQs on NCERT Textbook - Accounting for Not for Profit Organisation - SSC CGL Tier 2 - Study Material, Online Tests, Previous Year

1. What is a not-for-profit organization?
Ans. A not-for-profit organization is an entity that operates for purposes other than making a profit. It is primarily focused on achieving social, educational, charitable, or other similar objectives. The surplus generated by a not-for-profit organization is reinvested in the organization to further its mission rather than being distributed to shareholders or owners.
2. How are not-for-profit organizations different from for-profit organizations?
Ans. Not-for-profit organizations differ from for-profit organizations in several ways: - Purpose: Not-for-profit organizations aim to serve a social cause or provide a public benefit, while for-profit organizations primarily aim to generate profits for their shareholders or owners. - Distribution of Surplus: Not-for-profit organizations reinvest any surplus generated back into the organization to support their mission, whereas for-profit organizations distribute profits to shareholders or owners. - Tax Exemptions: Not-for-profit organizations may qualify for tax exemptions, while for-profit organizations are subject to various taxes based on their profits. - Governance: Not-for-profit organizations are governed by a board of directors or trustees, while for-profit organizations are typically managed by owners or shareholders.
3. How are financial statements prepared for not-for-profit organizations?
Ans. Financial statements for not-for-profit organizations include an Income and Expenditure Account and a Balance Sheet. The Income and Expenditure Account summarizes the organization's revenues and expenses over a specific period, similar to the profit and loss statement of a for-profit organization. The Balance Sheet presents the organization's assets, liabilities, and net assets (equity) at a specific point in time. Additionally, not-for-profit organizations may also prepare a Cash Flow Statement to show the inflow and outflow of cash during the period.
4. Can a not-for-profit organization generate surplus?
Ans. Yes, a not-for-profit organization can generate a surplus. However, the surplus cannot be distributed to its members or stakeholders. Instead, it must be reinvested back into the organization to support its mission and objectives. The surplus can be used to fund future projects, expand services, acquire assets, or strengthen the financial stability of the organization.
5. How is the financial health of a not-for-profit organization assessed?
Ans. The financial health of a not-for-profit organization can be assessed through various financial indicators, including: - Liquidity: It measures the organization's ability to meet short-term obligations. Common ratios used for liquidity analysis include the current ratio and the quick ratio. - Solvency: It assesses the organization's long-term financial stability by examining its ability to meet long-term obligations. The debt-to-equity ratio and interest coverage ratio are commonly used solvency ratios. - Efficiency: It evaluates how effectively the organization utilizes its resources. Efficiency ratios such as program expense ratio and fundraising expense ratio can provide insights into the organization's operational effectiveness. - Profitability: Although not-for-profit organizations do not aim for profits, profitability ratios like the operating margin can indicate the organization's ability to generate excess revenues over expenses.
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