Commerce Exam  >  Commerce Notes  >  Accountancy Class 11  >  NCERT Textbook - Financial Statements - II

NCERT Textbook - Financial Statements - II | Accountancy Class 11 - Commerce PDF Download

Download, print and study this document offline
Please wait while the PDF view is loading
 Page 1


318 Accountancy
Financial Statements - II 9
I
n chapter 8, you learnt about the preparation of  
simple final accounts in the format of trading 
and profit and loss account and balance sheet. The 
preparation of simple final accounts pre-supposes 
the absence of any accounting complexities 
which are normal to business operations. These 
complexities arise due to the fact that the process of 
determining income and financial position is based 
on the accrual basis of accounting. This emphasises 
that while ascertaining the profitability, the revenues 
be considered on earned basis and not on receipt 
basis, and the expenses be considered on incurred 
basis and not on paid basis. Hence, many items 
need some adjustment while preparing the financial 
statements. In this chapter we shall discuss all items 
which require adjustments and the way these are 
brought into the books of account and incorporated 
in the final accounts.
9.1 Need for Adjustments
According to accrual concept of accounting, the 
profit or loss for an accounting year is not based 
on the revenues realised in cash and the expenses 
paid in cash during that year. There may exist some 
receipts and expenses in the current year which 
partially relate to the previous year or to the next 
year. Also, there may exist incomes and expenses 
relating to the current year that still need to be 
brought into books of account. Such items duly 
adjusted, the final accounts will not reflect the true 
and fair view of the state of affairs of the business.
Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, 
you will be able to :
•	 describe 	 the 	 need 	 for	
adjustments while 
preparing 	 the 	 financial 	
statements;
•	 explain 	 the	 accounting 	
treatment of adj ust ­ ments for outstanding 
and 	 prepaid 	 expenses,	
accrued and advance 
receipts of incomes;
•	 d iscuss 	 th e 	 ad just 	 -	
ments to be made re­ garding depreci a ­ tion, 
bad debts, provi sion 
for doubtful debts, pro­ vision for discount on 
debtors;
•	 explain 	 the 	 concepts	
and adjustment of 
m anager ’ s com m i ss i on 
and interest on capital;
•	 pr epar e 	 pr ofit 	 and	 l oss 	
account and balance 
sheet with adjust­ 
m ents.
Ch-09.indd   318 9/13/2022   5:00:26 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 2


318 Accountancy
Financial Statements - II 9
I
n chapter 8, you learnt about the preparation of  
simple final accounts in the format of trading 
and profit and loss account and balance sheet. The 
preparation of simple final accounts pre-supposes 
the absence of any accounting complexities 
which are normal to business operations. These 
complexities arise due to the fact that the process of 
determining income and financial position is based 
on the accrual basis of accounting. This emphasises 
that while ascertaining the profitability, the revenues 
be considered on earned basis and not on receipt 
basis, and the expenses be considered on incurred 
basis and not on paid basis. Hence, many items 
need some adjustment while preparing the financial 
statements. In this chapter we shall discuss all items 
which require adjustments and the way these are 
brought into the books of account and incorporated 
in the final accounts.
9.1 Need for Adjustments
According to accrual concept of accounting, the 
profit or loss for an accounting year is not based 
on the revenues realised in cash and the expenses 
paid in cash during that year. There may exist some 
receipts and expenses in the current year which 
partially relate to the previous year or to the next 
year. Also, there may exist incomes and expenses 
relating to the current year that still need to be 
brought into books of account. Such items duly 
adjusted, the final accounts will not reflect the true 
and fair view of the state of affairs of the business.
Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, 
you will be able to :
•	 describe 	 the 	 need 	 for	
adjustments while 
preparing 	 the 	 financial 	
statements;
•	 explain 	 the	 accounting 	
treatment of adj ust ­ ments for outstanding 
and 	 prepaid 	 expenses,	
accrued and advance 
receipts of incomes;
•	 d iscuss 	 th e 	 ad just 	 -	
ments to be made re­ garding depreci a ­ tion, 
bad debts, provi sion 
for doubtful debts, pro­ vision for discount on 
debtors;
•	 explain 	 the 	 concepts	
and adjustment of 
m anager ’ s com m i ss i on 
and interest on capital;
•	 pr epar e 	 pr ofit 	 and	 l oss 	
account and balance 
sheet with adjust­ 
m ents.
Ch-09.indd   318 9/13/2022   5:00:26 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
319 Financial Statements - II
For example, an amount of ` 1,200 paid on July 01, 2016 towards insurance 
premium. Any general insurance premium paid usually covers a period of 12 
months. Suppose the accounting year ends on March 31,
 
2017, it would mean 
that one fourth of the insurance premium is paid on July 01, 2016 relate to 
the next accounting year 2017-18. Therefore, while preparing the financial 
statements for 2016-17, the expense on insurance premium that should be 
debited to the profit and loss account is ` 900 (` 1,200 – ` 300).
Let us take another example. The salaries for the month of March, 2017 were 
paid on April 07, 2017. This means that the salaries account of 2016-17 does 
not include the salaries for the month of March 2017. Such unpaid salaries is 
termed as salaries outstanding which have to be brought into books of account 
and is debited to profit and loss account along with the salaries already paid 
for the month of April, 2016 up to Feburary, 2017.
Similarly, adjustments may also become necessary in respect of certain 
incomes received in advance or those which have accrued but are still to be 
received. Apart from these, there are certain items which are not recorded on 
day-to-day basis such as depreciation on fixed assets, interest on capital, etc. 
These are adjusted at the time of preparing financial statements. The purpose 
of making various adjustments is to ensure that the final accounts reveal the 
true profit or loss and the true financial position of the business. The items 
which usually need adjustments are:
 1. Closing stock
 2. Outstanding/expenses
 3. Prepaid/Unexpired expenses
 4. Accrued income
 5. Income received in advance
 6. Depreciation
 7. Bad debts
 8. Provision for doubtful debts
 9. Provision for discount on debtors
 10. Manager’s commission   
 11. Interest on capital
It may be noted that when we prepare the financial statements, we are 
provided with the trial balance and some other additional information in 
respect of the adjustments to be made. All adjustments are reflected in the 
final accounts at two places to complete the double entry. Our earlier example 
in chapter 8 (Page no. 294) which represents the trial balance of Ankit is 
reproduced in figure 9.1:
Ch-09.indd   319 9/13/2022   5:00:26 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 3


318 Accountancy
Financial Statements - II 9
I
n chapter 8, you learnt about the preparation of  
simple final accounts in the format of trading 
and profit and loss account and balance sheet. The 
preparation of simple final accounts pre-supposes 
the absence of any accounting complexities 
which are normal to business operations. These 
complexities arise due to the fact that the process of 
determining income and financial position is based 
on the accrual basis of accounting. This emphasises 
that while ascertaining the profitability, the revenues 
be considered on earned basis and not on receipt 
basis, and the expenses be considered on incurred 
basis and not on paid basis. Hence, many items 
need some adjustment while preparing the financial 
statements. In this chapter we shall discuss all items 
which require adjustments and the way these are 
brought into the books of account and incorporated 
in the final accounts.
9.1 Need for Adjustments
According to accrual concept of accounting, the 
profit or loss for an accounting year is not based 
on the revenues realised in cash and the expenses 
paid in cash during that year. There may exist some 
receipts and expenses in the current year which 
partially relate to the previous year or to the next 
year. Also, there may exist incomes and expenses 
relating to the current year that still need to be 
brought into books of account. Such items duly 
adjusted, the final accounts will not reflect the true 
and fair view of the state of affairs of the business.
Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, 
you will be able to :
•	 describe 	 the 	 need 	 for	
adjustments while 
preparing 	 the 	 financial 	
statements;
•	 explain 	 the	 accounting 	
treatment of adj ust ­ ments for outstanding 
and 	 prepaid 	 expenses,	
accrued and advance 
receipts of incomes;
•	 d iscuss 	 th e 	 ad just 	 -	
ments to be made re­ garding depreci a ­ tion, 
bad debts, provi sion 
for doubtful debts, pro­ vision for discount on 
debtors;
•	 explain 	 the 	 concepts	
and adjustment of 
m anager ’ s com m i ss i on 
and interest on capital;
•	 pr epar e 	 pr ofit 	 and	 l oss 	
account and balance 
sheet with adjust­ 
m ents.
Ch-09.indd   318 9/13/2022   5:00:26 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
319 Financial Statements - II
For example, an amount of ` 1,200 paid on July 01, 2016 towards insurance 
premium. Any general insurance premium paid usually covers a period of 12 
months. Suppose the accounting year ends on March 31,
 
2017, it would mean 
that one fourth of the insurance premium is paid on July 01, 2016 relate to 
the next accounting year 2017-18. Therefore, while preparing the financial 
statements for 2016-17, the expense on insurance premium that should be 
debited to the profit and loss account is ` 900 (` 1,200 – ` 300).
Let us take another example. The salaries for the month of March, 2017 were 
paid on April 07, 2017. This means that the salaries account of 2016-17 does 
not include the salaries for the month of March 2017. Such unpaid salaries is 
termed as salaries outstanding which have to be brought into books of account 
and is debited to profit and loss account along with the salaries already paid 
for the month of April, 2016 up to Feburary, 2017.
Similarly, adjustments may also become necessary in respect of certain 
incomes received in advance or those which have accrued but are still to be 
received. Apart from these, there are certain items which are not recorded on 
day-to-day basis such as depreciation on fixed assets, interest on capital, etc. 
These are adjusted at the time of preparing financial statements. The purpose 
of making various adjustments is to ensure that the final accounts reveal the 
true profit or loss and the true financial position of the business. The items 
which usually need adjustments are:
 1. Closing stock
 2. Outstanding/expenses
 3. Prepaid/Unexpired expenses
 4. Accrued income
 5. Income received in advance
 6. Depreciation
 7. Bad debts
 8. Provision for doubtful debts
 9. Provision for discount on debtors
 10. Manager’s commission   
 11. Interest on capital
It may be noted that when we prepare the financial statements, we are 
provided with the trial balance and some other additional information in 
respect of the adjustments to be made. All adjustments are reflected in the 
final accounts at two places to complete the double entry. Our earlier example 
in chapter 8 (Page no. 294) which represents the trial balance of Ankit is 
reproduced in figure 9.1:
Ch-09.indd   319 9/13/2022   5:00:26 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
320 Accountancy
Trial Balance of Ankit as on March 31, 2017
 Account Title  Elements L.F. Debit Credit
    Amount Amount
    ` `
 Cash   Assets   1,000   
 Bank    Assets   5,000  
 Wages   Expense   8,000  
 Salaries   Expense   25,000  
 Furniture   Assets   15,000   Rent of building   Expense   13,000  
 Debtors   Assets   15,500  
 Bad debts   Expense   4,500  
 Purchases   Expense   75,000  
 Capital       12,000   
 Equity 
 Sales   Revenue     1,25,000 
 Creditors   Liabilities     15,000 
 Long-term loan (raised on 1.4.2013)   Liabilities     5,000 
 Commission received   Revenue     5,000 
 Total     1,62,000  1,62,000  
Additional Information : The stock on March 31, 2017 was ` 15,000.
Figure 9.1 : Showing the trial balance of Ankit
We will now study about the items of adjustments and you will observe 
how these adjustments are helpful in the preparation  of financial statements 
in order to reflect the true profit and loss and financial position of the firm.
9.2 Closing Stock
As per the example in chapter 9 (Page no. 336), the closing stock represents 
the cost of unsold goods lying in the stores at the end of the accounting period. 
The adjustment with regard to the closing stock is done by (i) by crediting it to 
the trading and profit and loss account, and (ii) by showing it on the asset side 
of the balance sheet. The adjustment entry to be recorded in this regard is :
Closing stock A/c Dr.
 To Trading A/c
The closing stock of the year becomes the opening stock of the next year 
and is reflected in the trial balance of the next year. The trading and profit 
Ch-09.indd   320 9/13/2022   5:00:26 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 4


318 Accountancy
Financial Statements - II 9
I
n chapter 8, you learnt about the preparation of  
simple final accounts in the format of trading 
and profit and loss account and balance sheet. The 
preparation of simple final accounts pre-supposes 
the absence of any accounting complexities 
which are normal to business operations. These 
complexities arise due to the fact that the process of 
determining income and financial position is based 
on the accrual basis of accounting. This emphasises 
that while ascertaining the profitability, the revenues 
be considered on earned basis and not on receipt 
basis, and the expenses be considered on incurred 
basis and not on paid basis. Hence, many items 
need some adjustment while preparing the financial 
statements. In this chapter we shall discuss all items 
which require adjustments and the way these are 
brought into the books of account and incorporated 
in the final accounts.
9.1 Need for Adjustments
According to accrual concept of accounting, the 
profit or loss for an accounting year is not based 
on the revenues realised in cash and the expenses 
paid in cash during that year. There may exist some 
receipts and expenses in the current year which 
partially relate to the previous year or to the next 
year. Also, there may exist incomes and expenses 
relating to the current year that still need to be 
brought into books of account. Such items duly 
adjusted, the final accounts will not reflect the true 
and fair view of the state of affairs of the business.
Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, 
you will be able to :
•	 describe 	 the 	 need 	 for	
adjustments while 
preparing 	 the 	 financial 	
statements;
•	 explain 	 the	 accounting 	
treatment of adj ust ­ ments for outstanding 
and 	 prepaid 	 expenses,	
accrued and advance 
receipts of incomes;
•	 d iscuss 	 th e 	 ad just 	 -	
ments to be made re­ garding depreci a ­ tion, 
bad debts, provi sion 
for doubtful debts, pro­ vision for discount on 
debtors;
•	 explain 	 the 	 concepts	
and adjustment of 
m anager ’ s com m i ss i on 
and interest on capital;
•	 pr epar e 	 pr ofit 	 and	 l oss 	
account and balance 
sheet with adjust­ 
m ents.
Ch-09.indd   318 9/13/2022   5:00:26 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
319 Financial Statements - II
For example, an amount of ` 1,200 paid on July 01, 2016 towards insurance 
premium. Any general insurance premium paid usually covers a period of 12 
months. Suppose the accounting year ends on March 31,
 
2017, it would mean 
that one fourth of the insurance premium is paid on July 01, 2016 relate to 
the next accounting year 2017-18. Therefore, while preparing the financial 
statements for 2016-17, the expense on insurance premium that should be 
debited to the profit and loss account is ` 900 (` 1,200 – ` 300).
Let us take another example. The salaries for the month of March, 2017 were 
paid on April 07, 2017. This means that the salaries account of 2016-17 does 
not include the salaries for the month of March 2017. Such unpaid salaries is 
termed as salaries outstanding which have to be brought into books of account 
and is debited to profit and loss account along with the salaries already paid 
for the month of April, 2016 up to Feburary, 2017.
Similarly, adjustments may also become necessary in respect of certain 
incomes received in advance or those which have accrued but are still to be 
received. Apart from these, there are certain items which are not recorded on 
day-to-day basis such as depreciation on fixed assets, interest on capital, etc. 
These are adjusted at the time of preparing financial statements. The purpose 
of making various adjustments is to ensure that the final accounts reveal the 
true profit or loss and the true financial position of the business. The items 
which usually need adjustments are:
 1. Closing stock
 2. Outstanding/expenses
 3. Prepaid/Unexpired expenses
 4. Accrued income
 5. Income received in advance
 6. Depreciation
 7. Bad debts
 8. Provision for doubtful debts
 9. Provision for discount on debtors
 10. Manager’s commission   
 11. Interest on capital
It may be noted that when we prepare the financial statements, we are 
provided with the trial balance and some other additional information in 
respect of the adjustments to be made. All adjustments are reflected in the 
final accounts at two places to complete the double entry. Our earlier example 
in chapter 8 (Page no. 294) which represents the trial balance of Ankit is 
reproduced in figure 9.1:
Ch-09.indd   319 9/13/2022   5:00:26 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
320 Accountancy
Trial Balance of Ankit as on March 31, 2017
 Account Title  Elements L.F. Debit Credit
    Amount Amount
    ` `
 Cash   Assets   1,000   
 Bank    Assets   5,000  
 Wages   Expense   8,000  
 Salaries   Expense   25,000  
 Furniture   Assets   15,000   Rent of building   Expense   13,000  
 Debtors   Assets   15,500  
 Bad debts   Expense   4,500  
 Purchases   Expense   75,000  
 Capital       12,000   
 Equity 
 Sales   Revenue     1,25,000 
 Creditors   Liabilities     15,000 
 Long-term loan (raised on 1.4.2013)   Liabilities     5,000 
 Commission received   Revenue     5,000 
 Total     1,62,000  1,62,000  
Additional Information : The stock on March 31, 2017 was ` 15,000.
Figure 9.1 : Showing the trial balance of Ankit
We will now study about the items of adjustments and you will observe 
how these adjustments are helpful in the preparation  of financial statements 
in order to reflect the true profit and loss and financial position of the firm.
9.2 Closing Stock
As per the example in chapter 9 (Page no. 336), the closing stock represents 
the cost of unsold goods lying in the stores at the end of the accounting period. 
The adjustment with regard to the closing stock is done by (i) by crediting it to 
the trading and profit and loss account, and (ii) by showing it on the asset side 
of the balance sheet. The adjustment entry to be recorded in this regard is :
Closing stock A/c Dr.
 To Trading A/c
The closing stock of the year becomes the opening stock of the next year 
and is reflected in the trial balance of the next year. The trading and profit 
Ch-09.indd   320 9/13/2022   5:00:26 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
321 Financial Statements - II
and loss account of Ankit for the year ended March 31, 2017 and his balance 
sheet as on that date shall appear as follows :
Trading and Profit and Loss Account of Ankit 
for the year ended March 31, 2017
Dr. Cr.
Expenses/Losses 	 	 	 Amount 	  Revenues/Gains	 	 	 Amount
   `   ` 
Purchases   75,000  Sales       1,25,000 
Wages   8,000  Closing stock   15,000 
Gross profit c/d   57,000        1,40,000     1,40,000 Salaries   25,000  Gross profit b/d   57,000 
Rent of building   13,000  Commission received   5,000 
Bad debts   4,500     
Net profit (transferred to  19,500 
Ankit’s capital account)         62,000     62,000 
Sometimes the opening and closing stock are adjusted through purchases 
account. In that case, the entry recorded is as follows :
Closing stock A/c  Dr.
 To Purchases A/c
This entry reduces the amount in the purchases account and is also 
known as adjusted purchases which is shown on the debit side of the trading 
and profit and loss account. In this context,  it may be noted, that the closing 
stock will not be shown on the credit side of the trading and profit and loss as 
it has been already been adjusted through the purchases account. Not only, 
in such a situation, even the opening stock will not be separately reflected in 
the trading and profit and loss account, as it is also adjusted in purchases by 
recording the following entry:
Purchases A/c  Dr.
 To Opening stock A/c  
Another important point to be noted in this context is that when the 
opening and closing stocks are adjusted through purchases, the trial 
balance does not show any opening stock. Instead, the closing stock 
shall appear in the trial balance (not as additional information or as an 
adjustment item) and so also the adjusted purchases. In such a situation, 
the adjusted purchases shall be debited to the trading and profit and 
loss account.
Ch-09.indd   321 9/13/2022   5:00:26 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 5


318 Accountancy
Financial Statements - II 9
I
n chapter 8, you learnt about the preparation of  
simple final accounts in the format of trading 
and profit and loss account and balance sheet. The 
preparation of simple final accounts pre-supposes 
the absence of any accounting complexities 
which are normal to business operations. These 
complexities arise due to the fact that the process of 
determining income and financial position is based 
on the accrual basis of accounting. This emphasises 
that while ascertaining the profitability, the revenues 
be considered on earned basis and not on receipt 
basis, and the expenses be considered on incurred 
basis and not on paid basis. Hence, many items 
need some adjustment while preparing the financial 
statements. In this chapter we shall discuss all items 
which require adjustments and the way these are 
brought into the books of account and incorporated 
in the final accounts.
9.1 Need for Adjustments
According to accrual concept of accounting, the 
profit or loss for an accounting year is not based 
on the revenues realised in cash and the expenses 
paid in cash during that year. There may exist some 
receipts and expenses in the current year which 
partially relate to the previous year or to the next 
year. Also, there may exist incomes and expenses 
relating to the current year that still need to be 
brought into books of account. Such items duly 
adjusted, the final accounts will not reflect the true 
and fair view of the state of affairs of the business.
Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, 
you will be able to :
•	 describe 	 the 	 need 	 for	
adjustments while 
preparing 	 the 	 financial 	
statements;
•	 explain 	 the	 accounting 	
treatment of adj ust ­ ments for outstanding 
and 	 prepaid 	 expenses,	
accrued and advance 
receipts of incomes;
•	 d iscuss 	 th e 	 ad just 	 -	
ments to be made re­ garding depreci a ­ tion, 
bad debts, provi sion 
for doubtful debts, pro­ vision for discount on 
debtors;
•	 explain 	 the 	 concepts	
and adjustment of 
m anager ’ s com m i ss i on 
and interest on capital;
•	 pr epar e 	 pr ofit 	 and	 l oss 	
account and balance 
sheet with adjust­ 
m ents.
Ch-09.indd   318 9/13/2022   5:00:26 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
319 Financial Statements - II
For example, an amount of ` 1,200 paid on July 01, 2016 towards insurance 
premium. Any general insurance premium paid usually covers a period of 12 
months. Suppose the accounting year ends on March 31,
 
2017, it would mean 
that one fourth of the insurance premium is paid on July 01, 2016 relate to 
the next accounting year 2017-18. Therefore, while preparing the financial 
statements for 2016-17, the expense on insurance premium that should be 
debited to the profit and loss account is ` 900 (` 1,200 – ` 300).
Let us take another example. The salaries for the month of March, 2017 were 
paid on April 07, 2017. This means that the salaries account of 2016-17 does 
not include the salaries for the month of March 2017. Such unpaid salaries is 
termed as salaries outstanding which have to be brought into books of account 
and is debited to profit and loss account along with the salaries already paid 
for the month of April, 2016 up to Feburary, 2017.
Similarly, adjustments may also become necessary in respect of certain 
incomes received in advance or those which have accrued but are still to be 
received. Apart from these, there are certain items which are not recorded on 
day-to-day basis such as depreciation on fixed assets, interest on capital, etc. 
These are adjusted at the time of preparing financial statements. The purpose 
of making various adjustments is to ensure that the final accounts reveal the 
true profit or loss and the true financial position of the business. The items 
which usually need adjustments are:
 1. Closing stock
 2. Outstanding/expenses
 3. Prepaid/Unexpired expenses
 4. Accrued income
 5. Income received in advance
 6. Depreciation
 7. Bad debts
 8. Provision for doubtful debts
 9. Provision for discount on debtors
 10. Manager’s commission   
 11. Interest on capital
It may be noted that when we prepare the financial statements, we are 
provided with the trial balance and some other additional information in 
respect of the adjustments to be made. All adjustments are reflected in the 
final accounts at two places to complete the double entry. Our earlier example 
in chapter 8 (Page no. 294) which represents the trial balance of Ankit is 
reproduced in figure 9.1:
Ch-09.indd   319 9/13/2022   5:00:26 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
320 Accountancy
Trial Balance of Ankit as on March 31, 2017
 Account Title  Elements L.F. Debit Credit
    Amount Amount
    ` `
 Cash   Assets   1,000   
 Bank    Assets   5,000  
 Wages   Expense   8,000  
 Salaries   Expense   25,000  
 Furniture   Assets   15,000   Rent of building   Expense   13,000  
 Debtors   Assets   15,500  
 Bad debts   Expense   4,500  
 Purchases   Expense   75,000  
 Capital       12,000   
 Equity 
 Sales   Revenue     1,25,000 
 Creditors   Liabilities     15,000 
 Long-term loan (raised on 1.4.2013)   Liabilities     5,000 
 Commission received   Revenue     5,000 
 Total     1,62,000  1,62,000  
Additional Information : The stock on March 31, 2017 was ` 15,000.
Figure 9.1 : Showing the trial balance of Ankit
We will now study about the items of adjustments and you will observe 
how these adjustments are helpful in the preparation  of financial statements 
in order to reflect the true profit and loss and financial position of the firm.
9.2 Closing Stock
As per the example in chapter 9 (Page no. 336), the closing stock represents 
the cost of unsold goods lying in the stores at the end of the accounting period. 
The adjustment with regard to the closing stock is done by (i) by crediting it to 
the trading and profit and loss account, and (ii) by showing it on the asset side 
of the balance sheet. The adjustment entry to be recorded in this regard is :
Closing stock A/c Dr.
 To Trading A/c
The closing stock of the year becomes the opening stock of the next year 
and is reflected in the trial balance of the next year. The trading and profit 
Ch-09.indd   320 9/13/2022   5:00:26 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
321 Financial Statements - II
and loss account of Ankit for the year ended March 31, 2017 and his balance 
sheet as on that date shall appear as follows :
Trading and Profit and Loss Account of Ankit 
for the year ended March 31, 2017
Dr. Cr.
Expenses/Losses 	 	 	 Amount 	  Revenues/Gains	 	 	 Amount
   `   ` 
Purchases   75,000  Sales       1,25,000 
Wages   8,000  Closing stock   15,000 
Gross profit c/d   57,000        1,40,000     1,40,000 Salaries   25,000  Gross profit b/d   57,000 
Rent of building   13,000  Commission received   5,000 
Bad debts   4,500     
Net profit (transferred to  19,500 
Ankit’s capital account)         62,000     62,000 
Sometimes the opening and closing stock are adjusted through purchases 
account. In that case, the entry recorded is as follows :
Closing stock A/c  Dr.
 To Purchases A/c
This entry reduces the amount in the purchases account and is also 
known as adjusted purchases which is shown on the debit side of the trading 
and profit and loss account. In this context,  it may be noted, that the closing 
stock will not be shown on the credit side of the trading and profit and loss as 
it has been already been adjusted through the purchases account. Not only, 
in such a situation, even the opening stock will not be separately reflected in 
the trading and profit and loss account, as it is also adjusted in purchases by 
recording the following entry:
Purchases A/c  Dr.
 To Opening stock A/c  
Another important point to be noted in this context is that when the 
opening and closing stocks are adjusted through purchases, the trial 
balance does not show any opening stock. Instead, the closing stock 
shall appear in the trial balance (not as additional information or as an 
adjustment item) and so also the adjusted purchases. In such a situation, 
the adjusted purchases shall be debited to the trading and profit and 
loss account.
Ch-09.indd   321 9/13/2022   5:00:26 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
322 Accountancy
The closing stock shall be shown on the assets side of the balance sheet as 
shown below:
Balance Sheet of Ankit as at March 31, 2017
Liabilities   Amount  Assets   Amount   `   `
Owners funds     Non ­ Current Assets   
Capital 12,000   Furniture   15,000 
 Add  Net profit  19,500  31,500  Current Assets   
Non ­ Current Liabilities     Debtors   15,500 
Long-term loan   5,000  Bank   5,000 
Current Liabilities     Cash   1,000 
Creditors   15,000  Closing stock   15,000 
   51,500     51,500 9.3 Outstanding Expenses
It is quite common for a business enterprise to have some unpaid expenses 
in the normal course of business operations at the end of an accounting year. 
Such items usually are wages, salaries, interest on loan, etc.
When expenses of an accounting period remain unpaid at the end of an 
accounting period, they are termed as outstanding	 expenses. As they relate to 
the earning of revenue during the current accounting year, it is logical that 
they should be duly charged against revenue for computation of the correct 
amount of profit or loss. The entry to bring such expenses into account is :
Concerned expense A/c  Dr.
 To Outstanding expense A/c
The above entry opens a new account called Outstanding 	 Expenses which is 
shown on the liabilities side of the balance sheet. The amount of outstanding 
expenses is added to the total of expenses under a particular head for the 
purpose of preparing trading and profit and loss account. 
For example, refer to Ankit’s trial balance (refer figure 10.1). You will notice 
that wages are shown at ` 8,000. Let us assume that Ankit owes `500 as 
wages relating to the year 2016-17 to one of his employees. In that case, the 
correct expense on wages amounts to ` 8,500 instead of ` 8,000. Ankit must 
show ` 8,500 as expense on account of wages in the trading and profit and 
loss account and recognise a current liability of ` 500 towards the sum owed 
to his staff. It will be referred to as wages outstanding and it  will be adjusted 
to wages account by recording the following journal entry:
Wages A/c Dr. 500
 To Wages outstanding A/c   500
Ch-09.indd   322 9/13/2022   5:00:26 PM
Rationalised 2023-24
Read More
82 videos|105 docs|42 tests

Up next

FAQs on NCERT Textbook - Financial Statements - II - Accountancy Class 11 - Commerce

1. What is the purpose of financial statements?
Ans. The purpose of financial statements is to provide information about the financial performance, financial position, and cash flows of a business entity. These statements are important for decision-making by various stakeholders such as investors, lenders, suppliers, and government authorities.
2. What are the main components of financial statements?
Ans. The main components of financial statements are the balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement, and statement of changes in equity. The balance sheet provides information about the financial position of a company, while the income statement shows the company's financial performance over a specific period. The cash flow statement highlights the cash inflows and outflows, and the statement of changes in equity shows the changes in shareholders' equity.
3. How are financial statements prepared?
Ans. Financial statements are prepared by following a set of accounting principles and guidelines. The process involves recording financial transactions, adjusting them for accruals and deferrals, and summarizing the information in the form of financial statements. These statements are typically prepared by accountants or financial professionals using accounting software or spreadsheets.
4. What is the importance of analyzing financial statements?
Ans. Analyzing financial statements is crucial for evaluating a company's financial health, performance, and future prospects. It helps in assessing profitability, liquidity, solvency, and efficiency of operations. By analyzing financial statements, investors can make informed investment decisions, creditors can assess creditworthiness, and management can identify areas for improvement and strategic decision-making.
5. How do financial statements help in evaluating the profitability of a company?
Ans. Financial statements provide key information for evaluating the profitability of a company. The income statement shows the revenue generated and expenses incurred during a specific period, resulting in the net income or loss. By analyzing the income statement, one can assess the company's revenue growth, gross profit margin, operating profit margin, and net profit margin. These indicators help in understanding the profitability of the company and comparing it with industry peers.
82 videos|105 docs|42 tests
Download as PDF

Up next

Explore Courses for Commerce exam
Signup for Free!
Signup to see your scores go up within 7 days! Learn & Practice with 1000+ FREE Notes, Videos & Tests.
10M+ students study on EduRev
Related Searches

Free

,

video lectures

,

practice quizzes

,

Sample Paper

,

ppt

,

Objective type Questions

,

mock tests for examination

,

MCQs

,

Viva Questions

,

NCERT Textbook - Financial Statements - II | Accountancy Class 11 - Commerce

,

past year papers

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Semester Notes

,

study material

,

NCERT Textbook - Financial Statements - II | Accountancy Class 11 - Commerce

,

Important questions

,

NCERT Textbook - Financial Statements - II | Accountancy Class 11 - Commerce

,

Extra Questions

,

Summary

,

pdf

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Exam

;