➢ बुद्ध का जीवनबुद्धा
- बौद्ध धर्म के संस्थापक गौतम के नाम से भी जाने जाने वाले सिद्धार्थ का जन्म लगभग 2500 साल पहले हुआ था।
- बुद्ध एक छोटे गण से संबंधित थे जिन्हें शाक्य गण के रूप में जाना जाता था और एक क्षत्रिय थे।
- जब वह एक युवा व्यक्ति था, तो उसने ज्ञान की तलाश में अपने घर के आराम को छोड़ दिया।
- He wandered for several years, meeting and holding discussions with other thinkers.
- He finally decided to find his own path to realization and meditated for days on end under a peepal tree at Bodh Gaya in Bihar, where he attained enlightenment.
- After that, he was known as the Buddha or the Wise One.
- He then went to Sarnath, near Varanasi, where he taught for the first time.
- He spent the rest of his life traveling on foot, going from place to place, teaching people, till he passed away at Kusinara.
➢ Buddha’s Teachings
- The Buddha taught that life is full of suffering and unhappiness. This is caused because we have cravings and desires (which often cannot be fulfilled). Sometimes, even if we get what we want, we are not satisfied, and want even more (or want other things).
- The Buddha described this as thirst or tanha. He taught that this constant craving could be removed by the following moderation in everything.
- He also taught people to be kind and to respect the lives of others, including animals. He believed that the results of our actions (called karma), whether good or bad, affect us both in this life and the next.
- The Buddha taught in the language of the ordinary people, Prakrit, so that everybody could understand his message.
- Upanishad literally means ‘approaching and sitting near’ and the texts contain conversations between teachers and students. Often, ideas were presented through simple dialogues.
- Most Upanishadic thinkers were men, especially brahmins and rajas.
- Around the time that the Buddha was preaching and perhaps a little earlier, other thinkers also tried to find answers to difficult questions. Some of them wanted to know about life after death, others wanted to know why sacrifices should be performed.
- Many of these thinkers felt that there was something permanent in the universe that would last even after death.
- They described this as the atman or the individual soul and the brahman or the universal soul. They believed that ultimately, both the atman and the brahman were one.
- Many of their ideas were recorded in the Upanishads. These were part of the later Vedic texts.
➢ Life of Mahavir
- The most famous thinker of the Jainas, Vardhamana Mahavira, also spread his message around this time, i.e. 2500 years ago. He was a Kshatriya prince of the Lichchhavis, a group that was part of the Vajji sangha. At the age of thirty, he left home and went to live in a forest. For twelve years he led a hard and lonely life, at the end of which he attained enlightenment.
- He taught a simple doctrine: men and women who wished to know the truth must leave their homes.
- They must follow very strictly the rules of ahimsa, which means not hurting or killing living beings. “All beings,” said Mahavira “long to live. To all things life is dear.”
- Ordinary people could understand the teachings of Mahavira and his followers, they used Prakrit.
- There were several forms of Prakrit, used in different parts of the country, and named after the regions in which they were used. For example, the Prakrit spoken in Magadha was known as Magadhi.
- Followers of Mahavira, who were known as Jainas, had to lead very simple lives, begging for food. They had to be absolutely honest and were especially asked not to steal. Also, they had to observe celibacy. And men had to give up everything, including their clothes.
- Jainism was supported mainly by traders.
- Farmers, who had to kill insects to protect their crops, found it more difficult to follow the rules. Over hundreds of years, Jainism spread to different parts of north India, and to Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka.
- The teachings of Mahavira and his followers were transmitted orally for several centuries. They were written down in the form in which they are presently available at a place called Valabhi, in Gujarat, about 1500 years ago.
- Buddha and Mahavir felt that those who left their home could only get true knowledge.
- They arranged for them to stay together in the sangha, an association of those who left their homes.
- The rules made for the Buddhist sangha were written down in a book called the Vinaya Pitaka.
From this, we know that there were separate branches for men and women. All men could join the sangha. However, children had to take the permission of their parents and slaves that of their masters. Those who worked for the king had to take his permission and debtors that of creditors. Women had to take their husbands’ permission.
- Men and women who joined the sangha led simple lives. They meditated for most of the time and went to cities and villages to beg for food during fixed hours. That is why they were known as bhikkhus (the Prakrit word for beggar) and bhikkhunis.
- They taught others and helped one another. They also held meetings to settle any quarrels that took place within the sangha.
- Those who joined the sangha included brahmins, Kshatriyas, merchants, laborers, barbers, courtesans, and slaves.
- Many of them wrote down the teachings of the Buddha. Some of them also composed beautiful poems, describing their life in the sangha.
- Both Jaina and Buddhist monks went from place to place throughout the year, teaching people.
- For permanent shelter monasteries were built.
- These were known as viharas. The earliest viharas were made of wood, and then of brick.
- Some stayed even in caves that were dug out in hills, especially in western India very often, the land on which the vihara was built was donated by a rich merchant or a landowner, or the king.
- The local people came with gifts of food, clothing, and medicines for the monks and nuns. In return, they taught the people.
- सदियों से, बौद्ध धर्म उपमहाद्वीप के कई हिस्सों और उससे आगे तक फैला हुआ था।
➢ ashramas: चार ashramas पहचाना गया
- ब्रह्मचर्य: ब्राह्मण, क्षत्रिय और वैश्य पुरुषों से अपेक्षा की जाती थी कि वे अपने जीवन के प्रारंभिक वर्षों के दौरान वेद का अध्ययन करें और वेदों का अध्ययन करें।
- गृहस्थ: उन्हें घरवालों की तरह शादी करनी थी और रहना था।
- वानप्रस्थ: उन्हें जंगल में रहना और ध्यान करना था।
- संन्यासी: उन्हें सब कुछ त्याग कर संन्यासी बनना पड़ा।
आश्रमों की प्रणाली ने पुरुषों को अपने जीवन का कुछ हिस्सा ध्यान में बिताने की अनुमति दी।
आमतौर पर, महिलाओं को वेदों का अध्ययन करने की अनुमति नहीं थी, और उन्हें अपने पति द्वारा चुने गए आश्रमों का पालन करना पड़ता था।
मन में नक्शे बनाना