शब्दार्थ एवं टिप्पणी - भारत की खोज, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 8

Created by: Trisha Vashisht

Class 8 : शब्दार्थ एवं टिप्पणी - भारत की खोज, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


lgpj µ lkFk pyus ;k jgus okyk] lkFkh]
vuqpj] lsod
nqjfHklaf/ µ cqjs mís'; ls dh xbZ xqIr
ea=k.kk] oqQpØ
xsVs µ fo'ofo[;kr teZu dfo] miU;kldkj]
ukVddkj] nk'kZfud ,oa owQVuhfrK
vfHkHkwr µ o'k esa fd;k gqvk] vkozQkar]
ihfM+r] ijkftr
;a=k.kkµ ;kruk] ihM+k] Dys'k
gSjrvaxs”kµ foLe;tud
nardFkk µ fdonarh] tuJqfr
feFkd µ izkphu iqjkdFkkvksa dk rRo tks
uohu fLFkfr;ksa esa u, vFkZ dk ogu
djs
HkXuko'ks"k µ [kaMgj
fHkfÙkfp=k µ nhokj ij cuk gqvk fp=k
vfHkfyf[kr µ fy[kk ;k [kksnk gqvk] fu;fer
:i ls fy[kdj lqjf{kr j[kk gqvk] vfHkys[k
osQ :i esa yk;k gqvk
Hkk";dkj µ ewy xzaFk dh O;k[;k djus
okyk] Hkk"; fy[kusokyk
'kCnkFkZ ,oa fVIi.kh
lkeatL; µ laxfr] vuqowQyrk] fo"kerk u
gksuk] esy
'kk'or µ fuR;] fujarj] lrr] LFkk;h
fujarjrk µyxkrkj] cjkcj] loZnk
foy{k.krk µ vykSfdd] vlk/kj.k] fHkUu
fpÉksa okyk] ftlesa dksbZ fo'ks"k y{k.k u gks]
og voLFkk ftldk dksbZ dkj.k u gks
lkFkZd µ vFkZiw.kZ] mi;ksxh] ykHknk;d]
egÙoiw.kZ
vfu"Vdj µ gkfudkjd
iqjkxkFkk µ izkphu iz'kalk xhr ;k dFkk,¡
lhekar µ  lhekorhZ LFkku
ekudhdj.k µ fdlh oLrq osQ mRiknu]
fuekZ.k vkfn dk ,slk :i fLFkj djuk
ftlls mldh vPNkbZ ;k 'kq¼rk vkfn osQ
laca/ esa lansg dh txg u jg tk,
vo;o µ 'kjhj ;k 'kjhj dk dksbZ
Hkkx(gkFk&ik¡o vkfn)] vax
volkn µ lqLrh] f'kfFkyrk] mnklh
mn~?kkfVr µ [kksyk] m?kkM+k gqvk
uokxarqd µ u;k vfrfFk] vtuch
2018-19
Page 2


lgpj µ lkFk pyus ;k jgus okyk] lkFkh]
vuqpj] lsod
nqjfHklaf/ µ cqjs mís'; ls dh xbZ xqIr
ea=k.kk] oqQpØ
xsVs µ fo'ofo[;kr teZu dfo] miU;kldkj]
ukVddkj] nk'kZfud ,oa owQVuhfrK
vfHkHkwr µ o'k esa fd;k gqvk] vkozQkar]
ihfM+r] ijkftr
;a=k.kkµ ;kruk] ihM+k] Dys'k
gSjrvaxs”kµ foLe;tud
nardFkk µ fdonarh] tuJqfr
feFkd µ izkphu iqjkdFkkvksa dk rRo tks
uohu fLFkfr;ksa esa u, vFkZ dk ogu
djs
HkXuko'ks"k µ [kaMgj
fHkfÙkfp=k µ nhokj ij cuk gqvk fp=k
vfHkfyf[kr µ fy[kk ;k [kksnk gqvk] fu;fer
:i ls fy[kdj lqjf{kr j[kk gqvk] vfHkys[k
osQ :i esa yk;k gqvk
Hkk";dkj µ ewy xzaFk dh O;k[;k djus
okyk] Hkk"; fy[kusokyk
'kCnkFkZ ,oa fVIi.kh
lkeatL; µ laxfr] vuqowQyrk] fo"kerk u
gksuk] esy
'kk'or µ fuR;] fujarj] lrr] LFkk;h
fujarjrk µyxkrkj] cjkcj] loZnk
foy{k.krk µ vykSfdd] vlk/kj.k] fHkUu
fpÉksa okyk] ftlesa dksbZ fo'ks"k y{k.k u gks]
og voLFkk ftldk dksbZ dkj.k u gks
lkFkZd µ vFkZiw.kZ] mi;ksxh] ykHknk;d]
egÙoiw.kZ
vfu"Vdj µ gkfudkjd
iqjkxkFkk µ izkphu iz'kalk xhr ;k dFkk,¡
lhekar µ  lhekorhZ LFkku
ekudhdj.k µ fdlh oLrq osQ mRiknu]
fuekZ.k vkfn dk ,slk :i fLFkj djuk
ftlls mldh vPNkbZ ;k 'kq¼rk vkfn osQ
laca/ esa lansg dh txg u jg tk,
vo;o µ 'kjhj ;k 'kjhj dk dksbZ
Hkkx(gkFk&ik¡o vkfn)] vax
volkn µ lqLrh] f'kfFkyrk] mnklh
mn~?kkfVr µ [kksyk] m?kkM+k gqvk
uokxarqd µ u;k vfrfFk] vtuch
2018-19
Hkkjr dh [kkst
124
dchys µ oqQy] oa'k] taxyh vknfe;ksa dk
O;fDr fo'ks"k dks usrk ;k ljnkj ekuus okyk
lewg
eSDlewyj µ teZuh esa tUes izkP; fo/k
fo'ks"kK ftlus izkphu Hkkjrh; /eZxzaFkksa osQ
vuqokn&laiknu dk dk;Z fd;k
g"kksZUekn µ g"kZ esa lq/&cq/ [kks nsuk
HkkSfrdokn µ (eSVhfj;kfy”e)iapHkwr fufeZr
;g lalkj gh lR; gSµ;g fl¼kar izfrikfnr
djus okyk er
vossLrk µ I
+
kQkjlh Hkk"kk esa bldk vFkZ
^izkFkZuk* gSA vosLrk tjFkq"Vª /eZ dh izkFkfed
jpuk gS
czkãh µ og izkphu fyfi ftlls nsoukxjh
vkSj vU; vk/qfud Hkkjrh; fyfi;ksa dh
mRifÙk gqqbZ
[kjks"Vh ([kjks"Bh) µ ,d izkphu fyfi tks
I
+
kQkjlh dh rjg nk,¡ ls ck,¡ fy[kh tkrh Fkh
vkSj ekS;Zdky esa if'peksÙkj Hkkjr esa pyrh
FkhA
iflZiksfyl µ izkphu dky osQ 'kfDr'kkyh
ikjfld lkezkT; dh jkt/kuh tks vk/qfud
bZjku esa fLFkr gS
,p- th- osYl µ foKku&dFkk miU;klksa
osQ izfl¼ vaxzs”k ys[kdA bUgsa ,sls miU;klksa
dk firk Hkh dgk tkrk gSA
vkWDll (v{kq) unh µ vewnfj;k osQ uke
ls Hkh izfl¼ ;g unh nf{k.k&if'pe ,f'k;k
dh lcls yach unh gSA ;g unh v-IkQxkfuLrku]
r”kkfdLrku] rqoZQesfuLrku o m”kcsfdLrku tSls
ns'kksa esa cgrh gSA
;wb&fp;ksa µ ;wph eè; ,f'k;k osQ gfjr
eSnkuksa osQ [kkukcnks'k yksx Fks tks phu
osQ iM+ksl esa jgrs FksA Hkkjr esa 'kklu djus
okys oqQ"kk.k ;wb&fp;ksa  osQ gh ,d oqQy ls
lacafèkr FksA
”kjFkq"Vª /eZ &  bls ikjlh /eZ osQ uke ls
Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA bZjku esa mn~Hkwr bl /eZ osQ
iSxacj tjFkq"Vª FksA
xksch jsfxLrku µ ,f'k;k dk lcls cM+k
jsfxLrku tks phu vkSj eaxksfy;k esa iSQyk
gqvk gSA
tkok vkSj ckyh µ tkok vkSj ckyh baMksusf'k;k
osQ }hi gSaA tkok esa izkphu dky esa ¯gnw jkT;
FkkA ckyh Hkh ¯gnw laLÑfr dk osaQnz FkkA
vaxdksj vkSj cksjkscqnqj µ daiwfp;k esa
vadksjokV dk ¯gnw efUnj vkSj cksjkscqnqj esa
fo'o dk lcls cM+k ckS¼ eafnj gSA ;s
nf{k.k&iwoZ ,f'k;k ij Hkkjrh; laLÑfr osQ
izHkko osQ laqnj mnkgj.k gSaA
ey; izk;}hi µ (eyk;k) cekZ osQ nf{k.k
eas fLFkr ,d izk;}hi
paik µ vk/qfud mÙkjh fo;ruke dh lhek&
iV~Vh lfgr nf{k.kh fo;ruke esa izkphu dky
esa paik jkT; FkkA paik dk jktk 'kSo Fkk vkSj
ogk¡ dh jktdh; Hkk"kk laLÑr FkhA
2018-19
Page 3


lgpj µ lkFk pyus ;k jgus okyk] lkFkh]
vuqpj] lsod
nqjfHklaf/ µ cqjs mís'; ls dh xbZ xqIr
ea=k.kk] oqQpØ
xsVs µ fo'ofo[;kr teZu dfo] miU;kldkj]
ukVddkj] nk'kZfud ,oa owQVuhfrK
vfHkHkwr µ o'k esa fd;k gqvk] vkozQkar]
ihfM+r] ijkftr
;a=k.kkµ ;kruk] ihM+k] Dys'k
gSjrvaxs”kµ foLe;tud
nardFkk µ fdonarh] tuJqfr
feFkd µ izkphu iqjkdFkkvksa dk rRo tks
uohu fLFkfr;ksa esa u, vFkZ dk ogu
djs
HkXuko'ks"k µ [kaMgj
fHkfÙkfp=k µ nhokj ij cuk gqvk fp=k
vfHkfyf[kr µ fy[kk ;k [kksnk gqvk] fu;fer
:i ls fy[kdj lqjf{kr j[kk gqvk] vfHkys[k
osQ :i esa yk;k gqvk
Hkk";dkj µ ewy xzaFk dh O;k[;k djus
okyk] Hkk"; fy[kusokyk
'kCnkFkZ ,oa fVIi.kh
lkeatL; µ laxfr] vuqowQyrk] fo"kerk u
gksuk] esy
'kk'or µ fuR;] fujarj] lrr] LFkk;h
fujarjrk µyxkrkj] cjkcj] loZnk
foy{k.krk µ vykSfdd] vlk/kj.k] fHkUu
fpÉksa okyk] ftlesa dksbZ fo'ks"k y{k.k u gks]
og voLFkk ftldk dksbZ dkj.k u gks
lkFkZd µ vFkZiw.kZ] mi;ksxh] ykHknk;d]
egÙoiw.kZ
vfu"Vdj µ gkfudkjd
iqjkxkFkk µ izkphu iz'kalk xhr ;k dFkk,¡
lhekar µ  lhekorhZ LFkku
ekudhdj.k µ fdlh oLrq osQ mRiknu]
fuekZ.k vkfn dk ,slk :i fLFkj djuk
ftlls mldh vPNkbZ ;k 'kq¼rk vkfn osQ
laca/ esa lansg dh txg u jg tk,
vo;o µ 'kjhj ;k 'kjhj dk dksbZ
Hkkx(gkFk&ik¡o vkfn)] vax
volkn µ lqLrh] f'kfFkyrk] mnklh
mn~?kkfVr µ [kksyk] m?kkM+k gqvk
uokxarqd µ u;k vfrfFk] vtuch
2018-19
Hkkjr dh [kkst
124
dchys µ oqQy] oa'k] taxyh vknfe;ksa dk
O;fDr fo'ks"k dks usrk ;k ljnkj ekuus okyk
lewg
eSDlewyj µ teZuh esa tUes izkP; fo/k
fo'ks"kK ftlus izkphu Hkkjrh; /eZxzaFkksa osQ
vuqokn&laiknu dk dk;Z fd;k
g"kksZUekn µ g"kZ esa lq/&cq/ [kks nsuk
HkkSfrdokn µ (eSVhfj;kfy”e)iapHkwr fufeZr
;g lalkj gh lR; gSµ;g fl¼kar izfrikfnr
djus okyk er
vossLrk µ I
+
kQkjlh Hkk"kk esa bldk vFkZ
^izkFkZuk* gSA vosLrk tjFkq"Vª /eZ dh izkFkfed
jpuk gS
czkãh µ og izkphu fyfi ftlls nsoukxjh
vkSj vU; vk/qfud Hkkjrh; fyfi;ksa dh
mRifÙk gqqbZ
[kjks"Vh ([kjks"Bh) µ ,d izkphu fyfi tks
I
+
kQkjlh dh rjg nk,¡ ls ck,¡ fy[kh tkrh Fkh
vkSj ekS;Zdky esa if'peksÙkj Hkkjr esa pyrh
FkhA
iflZiksfyl µ izkphu dky osQ 'kfDr'kkyh
ikjfld lkezkT; dh jkt/kuh tks vk/qfud
bZjku esa fLFkr gS
,p- th- osYl µ foKku&dFkk miU;klksa
osQ izfl¼ vaxzs”k ys[kdA bUgsa ,sls miU;klksa
dk firk Hkh dgk tkrk gSA
vkWDll (v{kq) unh µ vewnfj;k osQ uke
ls Hkh izfl¼ ;g unh nf{k.k&if'pe ,f'k;k
dh lcls yach unh gSA ;g unh v-IkQxkfuLrku]
r”kkfdLrku] rqoZQesfuLrku o m”kcsfdLrku tSls
ns'kksa esa cgrh gSA
;wb&fp;ksa µ ;wph eè; ,f'k;k osQ gfjr
eSnkuksa osQ [kkukcnks'k yksx Fks tks phu
osQ iM+ksl esa jgrs FksA Hkkjr esa 'kklu djus
okys oqQ"kk.k ;wb&fp;ksa  osQ gh ,d oqQy ls
lacafèkr FksA
”kjFkq"Vª /eZ &  bls ikjlh /eZ osQ uke ls
Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA bZjku esa mn~Hkwr bl /eZ osQ
iSxacj tjFkq"Vª FksA
xksch jsfxLrku µ ,f'k;k dk lcls cM+k
jsfxLrku tks phu vkSj eaxksfy;k esa iSQyk
gqvk gSA
tkok vkSj ckyh µ tkok vkSj ckyh baMksusf'k;k
osQ }hi gSaA tkok esa izkphu dky esa ¯gnw jkT;
FkkA ckyh Hkh ¯gnw laLÑfr dk osaQnz FkkA
vaxdksj vkSj cksjkscqnqj µ daiwfp;k esa
vadksjokV dk ¯gnw efUnj vkSj cksjkscqnqj esa
fo'o dk lcls cM+k ckS¼ eafnj gSA ;s
nf{k.k&iwoZ ,f'k;k ij Hkkjrh; laLÑfr osQ
izHkko osQ laqnj mnkgj.k gSaA
ey; izk;}hi µ (eyk;k) cekZ osQ nf{k.k
eas fLFkr ,d izk;}hi
paik µ vk/qfud mÙkjh fo;ruke dh lhek&
iV~Vh lfgr nf{k.kh fo;ruke esa izkphu dky
esa paik jkT; FkkA paik dk jktk 'kSo Fkk vkSj
ogk¡ dh jktdh; Hkk"kk laLÑr FkhA
2018-19
'kCnkFkZ ,oa fVIi.kh
125
Jhfot;µ Jhfot; jkT; nf{k.k&iwoZ ,f'k;k
dk izkphu dky dk egÙoiw.kZ jkT; FkkA blesa
ey; izk;}hi] tkok] lqek=kk Hkh 'kkfey FksA
fujHkz µ ftlesa ckny u gksa] es?k jfgr
vklo µ e|] jl] iq"ijl] iQykfn osQ
[kehj ls rS;kj fd;k gqvk voZQ
HkLe µ fprk dh jk[k] nok osQ dke osQ
fy, iwQ¡dh gqbZ /krq vkfn
gkosZ µ fofy;e gkosZ fczfV'k fpfdRlk'kkL=kh
vkSj 'kjhj fØ;k oSKkfud FksA budh #f/j
ifjlapj.k dh [kkst us fpfdRlk'kkL=k dks
u;k vk;ke fn;kA
Hks"kt µ nok] mipkj] vkjksX; ykHk djkus
okyk
[kxksy'kkL=k µ vkdk'kh; u{k=kksa] xzgksa vkfn
dk o.kZu djus okyk foKku
jk"VªowQV µ {kf=k; jktoa'k] jkBkSj
xkfFkd dyk (;wjksi) µ LFkkiR; dyk
dh ,d 'kSyh ftldk mn~xe 12oha lnh osQ
eè; izQkal esa gqvk vkSj 16oha lnh osQ eè;
rd if'peh ;wjksi esa fo|eku FkhA
vf/jkt µ lezkV
oqQLrqarqfu;k µ eè;dky esa rqdhZ lkezkT;
dh jkt/kuh
jksE;ka jksyk µ izfl¼ izQkalhlh ys[kd vkSj
ukVddkj] egkRek xka/h osQ thouh ys[kd
loZxzklh µ lc [kk tkus okyk] [kxzkl xzg.k
loZO;kih µ loZO;kid] lHkh txg O;kIr
ÅtkZ µ  cy] dk;Z djus dh {kerk] mRlkg
vkàku µ iqdkjuk] cqykuk] yydkj
vYila[;d µ de tula[;k okyk (leqnk;)
vfHk'kki µ 'kki] fdlh dk cqjk eukuk]
ykaNu] feF;k vkjksi] cqjkbZ
fuf"Ø; µ dksbZ dke&/ke u djus okyk] tks
dqN Hkh u djs&/js] ftlesa ;k ftlls dk;Z ;k
O;kikj u gks] fozQ;kjfgr
fuo`fÙkekxhZ µ eks{k ;k eqfDr osQ ekxZ ij
pyus okyk
fojklr µ  mÙkjkf/dkj esa feyusokuk eky
lfou; voKk vkanksyu µ vU;k;iw.kZ ljdkjh
dkuwu dh uezrkiwoZd voekuuk osQ fy, vkanksyu
laj{k.k µ j{kk djus dh fozQ;k ] fgI+kQk”kr
fe=k 'kfDr;k¡ µ f}rh; fo'o;q¼ esa /qjh&jk"Vªksa
osQ fo#¼ yM+us okys ns'kksa dk lewgA fczVsu
izQkal] lksfo;r la?k vkSj la;qDr jkT; vesfjdk
bl lewg osQ cM+s ns'k FksA
dk;kdYi µ 'kjhj dk u;k ;k toku gks
tkuk] pksyk cny tkuk
yaxjxkg µ yaxj djus] tgk”kksa ds Bgjus dk
LFkku
oqaQfBr µ dqan ;k HkksFkjk fd;k gqvk] fujk'k
2018-19
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