सैंपल पेपर - 9, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 8

Created by: Trisha Vashisht

Class 8 : सैंपल पेपर - 9, हिंदी, कक्षा - 8 Class 8 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


d{kk& vkBoh  @ fo’k; & fgUnh
            
¼[k.M d½
iz-1 fuEufyf[kr xn~;ka”k  dks i<+dj iwNs x, iz”uksa dk mRrj nhft,A         ¼5½
f”k{kk euq’; dks efLr’d dk mfpr iz;ksx djuk fl[kkrh gSA og f”k{kk tks euq’; dks ikB~; iqLrdksa ds 
vfrfjDr dqN xaHkhj fparu u ns] O;FkZ gSA ;fn gekjh f”k{kk lqlaLd`r] lH; lPpfj= ,oa vPNs ukxfjd ugha 
cuk ldrh rks mlls D;k ykHk lân;] lPpfj= ijarq vui<+ etnwj ml Lukrd ls dgha vPNk gS tks funZ;h 
vkSj pfj=ghu gSA lalkj ds lHkh oSHko rFkk lq[k&lk/ku Hkh euq’; dks rc rd lq[kh ugha cukrs tc rd 
euq’; dks vkfRed Kku u gksA gekjs dqN vf/kdkj gSaA rks dqN mRrjnkf;Ro Hkh gSaA f”kf{kr O;fDr dks 
mRrjnkf;Roksa dk Hkh mruk gh /;ku j[kuk pkfg, ftruk fd vf/kdkjksa dkA
   1- fdl izdkj dh f”k{kk O;FkZ gS\
   2- f”kf{kr O;fDr dks fdl ckr dk /;ku j[kuk pkfg,\
   3- u;s “kCn cukdj fyf[k,&
¼1½ vkRek $ bd ¼2½ lr~ $ pfj=
   4- foykse “kCn fyf[k,&
¼1½ lH; ¼2½ f”kf{kr
   5- fuEufyf[kr “kCnksa dk iz;ksx djds okD; fuekZ.k dhft,&
¼1½ ukxfjd ¼2½ pfj=ghu
iz-2 ßfuEufyf[kr in~;ka”k dks i<+dj iwNs x, iz”uksa dk mRrj nhft,Þ&    ¼5½
ßlc ekuo ,d leku cusa] lc esa vkyksd mlh dk gSA
lcesa fo”okl mlh dk gS] lcesa mn~;ksx mlh dk gsA
gS ,d jke] jgeku ,d gS] ,d tkfr og ekuoA
ml ij fo”okl djks lkFkh] og fuR;] lR; v{kj /ku gSÞ
   
1- *lc ekuo ,d leku cus*& iafDr esa dfo dk D;k dguk gS\
¼d½ izR;sd euq’; dh “kkjhfjd cukoV ,d tSlh gSA
¼[k½ lHkh bZ”oj dh gh nsus gSA
Page 2


d{kk& vkBoh  @ fo’k; & fgUnh
            
¼[k.M d½
iz-1 fuEufyf[kr xn~;ka”k  dks i<+dj iwNs x, iz”uksa dk mRrj nhft,A         ¼5½
f”k{kk euq’; dks efLr’d dk mfpr iz;ksx djuk fl[kkrh gSA og f”k{kk tks euq’; dks ikB~; iqLrdksa ds 
vfrfjDr dqN xaHkhj fparu u ns] O;FkZ gSA ;fn gekjh f”k{kk lqlaLd`r] lH; lPpfj= ,oa vPNs ukxfjd ugha 
cuk ldrh rks mlls D;k ykHk lân;] lPpfj= ijarq vui<+ etnwj ml Lukrd ls dgha vPNk gS tks funZ;h 
vkSj pfj=ghu gSA lalkj ds lHkh oSHko rFkk lq[k&lk/ku Hkh euq’; dks rc rd lq[kh ugha cukrs tc rd 
euq’; dks vkfRed Kku u gksA gekjs dqN vf/kdkj gSaA rks dqN mRrjnkf;Ro Hkh gSaA f”kf{kr O;fDr dks 
mRrjnkf;Roksa dk Hkh mruk gh /;ku j[kuk pkfg, ftruk fd vf/kdkjksa dkA
   1- fdl izdkj dh f”k{kk O;FkZ gS\
   2- f”kf{kr O;fDr dks fdl ckr dk /;ku j[kuk pkfg,\
   3- u;s “kCn cukdj fyf[k,&
¼1½ vkRek $ bd ¼2½ lr~ $ pfj=
   4- foykse “kCn fyf[k,&
¼1½ lH; ¼2½ f”kf{kr
   5- fuEufyf[kr “kCnksa dk iz;ksx djds okD; fuekZ.k dhft,&
¼1½ ukxfjd ¼2½ pfj=ghu
iz-2 ßfuEufyf[kr in~;ka”k dks i<+dj iwNs x, iz”uksa dk mRrj nhft,Þ&    ¼5½
ßlc ekuo ,d leku cusa] lc esa vkyksd mlh dk gSA
lcesa fo”okl mlh dk gS] lcesa mn~;ksx mlh dk gsA
gS ,d jke] jgeku ,d gS] ,d tkfr og ekuoA
ml ij fo”okl djks lkFkh] og fuR;] lR; v{kj /ku gSÞ
   
1- *lc ekuo ,d leku cus*& iafDr esa dfo dk D;k dguk gS\
¼d½ izR;sd euq’; dh “kkjhfjd cukoV ,d tSlh gSA
¼[k½ lHkh bZ”oj dh gh nsus gSA
¼x½ mi;qZDr
¼?k½ izR;sd euq’;ksa esa xq.kksa dh lekurk gksrh gSaA
   2- lalkj ds izkf.k;ksa esa vkyksd fdldk gS\
   3- *jke] jgeku ,d gS** & ls D;k vk”k; gS\
   4- izLrqr in~;ka”k esa dfo euq’;ksa ds fy, dkSulh tkfr dk cks/k dj jgk gS\
   5- izLrqr in~;ka”k esa *izdk”k vkSj psruk* vFkZ ds fy, iz;qDr “kCn fyf[k,A
¼[k.M [k½
fuEufyf[kr iz”uksa ds mRrj nhft,&
iz-3 dks’Bd esa fn, x, “kCnksa ls laKk dk mfpr :i cukdj fjDr LFkku dh iwfrZ dhft,&   ¼1½
    1- -------------------------- chekfj;ksa dh tM+ gSA ¼eksVk½
    2- ek¡ dh ----------------------- dk dksbZ eksy ugha gSA     ¼ee½
iz-4 fuEufyf[kr okD;ksa esa js[kkafdr “kCnksa dk fyax ifjorZu djds okD; iqu% fyf[k,&       
     1- f”k{kd us Nk= dks i<+k;kA         ¼1½
     2- Jheku vki dgk¡ ls vk jgs gSa\
iz-5 js[kkafdr in esa opu dk izdkj fyf[k, &            ¼1½
     1- eg¡xkbZ ds nkSj esa gj oLrq ds nke c<+ x, gSA   ¼,dopu@cgqopu½
     2- **ekuo&tkfr dk mRFkku gh lekt dk mRFkku gSA   ¼,dopu@cgqopu½
iz-6 fuEufyf[kr esa ls dkSu&lk fdz;k fo”ks’k.k dk Hksn ugh gS\                   ¼1½
     1- ¼d½ dkyokpd ¼[k½ jhfrokpd ¼x½ la[;kokpd ¼?k½ LFkkuokpd
     2- *vpkud ckfj”k gksus yxhA* & okD; esa js[kkafdr in gS&
¼d½ dkyokpd fdz;k fo”ks’k.k
¼[k½ jhfrokpd fdz;k fo”ks’k.k
¼x½ LFkkuokpd fdz;k fo”ks’k.k
¼?k½ ifj.kke okpd fdz;k fo”ks’k.k
iz-7 **&lq/kk us xhr xk;k vkSj u`R; fd;k**& okD; essa                       ¼1½
     1- jpuk ds vk/kkj ij okD; dk Hksn fyf[k,A
     2- gtkj ckj rqels dgk gS fd tks dkyhu cukvks] mls l¡Hkky dj j[k nksA 
  okD; dk Hksn fyf[k,&
Page 3


d{kk& vkBoh  @ fo’k; & fgUnh
            
¼[k.M d½
iz-1 fuEufyf[kr xn~;ka”k  dks i<+dj iwNs x, iz”uksa dk mRrj nhft,A         ¼5½
f”k{kk euq’; dks efLr’d dk mfpr iz;ksx djuk fl[kkrh gSA og f”k{kk tks euq’; dks ikB~; iqLrdksa ds 
vfrfjDr dqN xaHkhj fparu u ns] O;FkZ gSA ;fn gekjh f”k{kk lqlaLd`r] lH; lPpfj= ,oa vPNs ukxfjd ugha 
cuk ldrh rks mlls D;k ykHk lân;] lPpfj= ijarq vui<+ etnwj ml Lukrd ls dgha vPNk gS tks funZ;h 
vkSj pfj=ghu gSA lalkj ds lHkh oSHko rFkk lq[k&lk/ku Hkh euq’; dks rc rd lq[kh ugha cukrs tc rd 
euq’; dks vkfRed Kku u gksA gekjs dqN vf/kdkj gSaA rks dqN mRrjnkf;Ro Hkh gSaA f”kf{kr O;fDr dks 
mRrjnkf;Roksa dk Hkh mruk gh /;ku j[kuk pkfg, ftruk fd vf/kdkjksa dkA
   1- fdl izdkj dh f”k{kk O;FkZ gS\
   2- f”kf{kr O;fDr dks fdl ckr dk /;ku j[kuk pkfg,\
   3- u;s “kCn cukdj fyf[k,&
¼1½ vkRek $ bd ¼2½ lr~ $ pfj=
   4- foykse “kCn fyf[k,&
¼1½ lH; ¼2½ f”kf{kr
   5- fuEufyf[kr “kCnksa dk iz;ksx djds okD; fuekZ.k dhft,&
¼1½ ukxfjd ¼2½ pfj=ghu
iz-2 ßfuEufyf[kr in~;ka”k dks i<+dj iwNs x, iz”uksa dk mRrj nhft,Þ&    ¼5½
ßlc ekuo ,d leku cusa] lc esa vkyksd mlh dk gSA
lcesa fo”okl mlh dk gS] lcesa mn~;ksx mlh dk gsA
gS ,d jke] jgeku ,d gS] ,d tkfr og ekuoA
ml ij fo”okl djks lkFkh] og fuR;] lR; v{kj /ku gSÞ
   
1- *lc ekuo ,d leku cus*& iafDr esa dfo dk D;k dguk gS\
¼d½ izR;sd euq’; dh “kkjhfjd cukoV ,d tSlh gSA
¼[k½ lHkh bZ”oj dh gh nsus gSA
¼x½ mi;qZDr
¼?k½ izR;sd euq’;ksa esa xq.kksa dh lekurk gksrh gSaA
   2- lalkj ds izkf.k;ksa esa vkyksd fdldk gS\
   3- *jke] jgeku ,d gS** & ls D;k vk”k; gS\
   4- izLrqr in~;ka”k esa dfo euq’;ksa ds fy, dkSulh tkfr dk cks/k dj jgk gS\
   5- izLrqr in~;ka”k esa *izdk”k vkSj psruk* vFkZ ds fy, iz;qDr “kCn fyf[k,A
¼[k.M [k½
fuEufyf[kr iz”uksa ds mRrj nhft,&
iz-3 dks’Bd esa fn, x, “kCnksa ls laKk dk mfpr :i cukdj fjDr LFkku dh iwfrZ dhft,&   ¼1½
    1- -------------------------- chekfj;ksa dh tM+ gSA ¼eksVk½
    2- ek¡ dh ----------------------- dk dksbZ eksy ugha gSA     ¼ee½
iz-4 fuEufyf[kr okD;ksa esa js[kkafdr “kCnksa dk fyax ifjorZu djds okD; iqu% fyf[k,&       
     1- f”k{kd us Nk= dks i<+k;kA         ¼1½
     2- Jheku vki dgk¡ ls vk jgs gSa\
iz-5 js[kkafdr in esa opu dk izdkj fyf[k, &            ¼1½
     1- eg¡xkbZ ds nkSj esa gj oLrq ds nke c<+ x, gSA   ¼,dopu@cgqopu½
     2- **ekuo&tkfr dk mRFkku gh lekt dk mRFkku gSA   ¼,dopu@cgqopu½
iz-6 fuEufyf[kr esa ls dkSu&lk fdz;k fo”ks’k.k dk Hksn ugh gS\                   ¼1½
     1- ¼d½ dkyokpd ¼[k½ jhfrokpd ¼x½ la[;kokpd ¼?k½ LFkkuokpd
     2- *vpkud ckfj”k gksus yxhA* & okD; esa js[kkafdr in gS&
¼d½ dkyokpd fdz;k fo”ks’k.k
¼[k½ jhfrokpd fdz;k fo”ks’k.k
¼x½ LFkkuokpd fdz;k fo”ks’k.k
¼?k½ ifj.kke okpd fdz;k fo”ks’k.k
iz-7 **&lq/kk us xhr xk;k vkSj u`R; fd;k**& okD; essa                       ¼1½
     1- jpuk ds vk/kkj ij okD; dk Hksn fyf[k,A
     2- gtkj ckj rqels dgk gS fd tks dkyhu cukvks] mls l¡Hkky dj j[k nksA 
  okD; dk Hksn fyf[k,&
iz-8 mn~ns”; fo/ks;                       ¼1½
     1- lekpkj&i= esa vuks[kh ?kVuk Nih gSA
     2- “kkS;Z /;kuiwoZd iqLrd i<+ jgk gSA
iz-9 fueufyf[kr “kCnksa dk laf/k foPNsn djds laf/k dk uke fyf[k, &         ¼2½
    1-egs”oj &
fucZy &
    2-fuEufyf[kr laf/k&foPNsn dh laf/k dhft, %&
nso $ _f’k ¾
rr~ $ e; ¾
iz-10 foykse “kCn feyku djds fyf[k,&             ¼2½
    1-,sfPNd & mUufr
    2-d`rK & funZ;
    3-n;kyq & vfuok;Z
    4-voufr & d`r/u
iz-11 dks’Bd esa fn, x, “kCnksa esa ls mfpr “kCn Nk¡Vdj [kkyh LFkku esa Hkfj, &   ¼2½
    1-vkt cgqr “khry -------------------------- cg jgh gSA ¼vuy@vfuy½
    2-nq;ksZ/ku dh lHkk esa nzkSinzh dk -------------------------- gj.k fd;k x;k FkkA  ¼phj@fpj½
iz-12 fuEufyf[kr “kCnksa esa ls ewy “kCn o milxZ vyx djds fyf[k, &     ¼1½
    1-vi”kCn ¾
    2-dq:i ¾
iz-13 fuEufyf[kr izR;;ksa rFkk “kCnksa dks tksM+dj muls cuus okys u, “kCn fyf[k, & ¼1½
    1-lekt $ bd ¾
    2-ys[k $ vd ¾
iz-14 fuEufyf[kr lkekfld inksa dk foxzg djd lekl dk uke fyf[k, &   ¼2½
    1-tUe & e`R;q ¾
    2-uojkf= ¾
Page 4


d{kk& vkBoh  @ fo’k; & fgUnh
            
¼[k.M d½
iz-1 fuEufyf[kr xn~;ka”k  dks i<+dj iwNs x, iz”uksa dk mRrj nhft,A         ¼5½
f”k{kk euq’; dks efLr’d dk mfpr iz;ksx djuk fl[kkrh gSA og f”k{kk tks euq’; dks ikB~; iqLrdksa ds 
vfrfjDr dqN xaHkhj fparu u ns] O;FkZ gSA ;fn gekjh f”k{kk lqlaLd`r] lH; lPpfj= ,oa vPNs ukxfjd ugha 
cuk ldrh rks mlls D;k ykHk lân;] lPpfj= ijarq vui<+ etnwj ml Lukrd ls dgha vPNk gS tks funZ;h 
vkSj pfj=ghu gSA lalkj ds lHkh oSHko rFkk lq[k&lk/ku Hkh euq’; dks rc rd lq[kh ugha cukrs tc rd 
euq’; dks vkfRed Kku u gksA gekjs dqN vf/kdkj gSaA rks dqN mRrjnkf;Ro Hkh gSaA f”kf{kr O;fDr dks 
mRrjnkf;Roksa dk Hkh mruk gh /;ku j[kuk pkfg, ftruk fd vf/kdkjksa dkA
   1- fdl izdkj dh f”k{kk O;FkZ gS\
   2- f”kf{kr O;fDr dks fdl ckr dk /;ku j[kuk pkfg,\
   3- u;s “kCn cukdj fyf[k,&
¼1½ vkRek $ bd ¼2½ lr~ $ pfj=
   4- foykse “kCn fyf[k,&
¼1½ lH; ¼2½ f”kf{kr
   5- fuEufyf[kr “kCnksa dk iz;ksx djds okD; fuekZ.k dhft,&
¼1½ ukxfjd ¼2½ pfj=ghu
iz-2 ßfuEufyf[kr in~;ka”k dks i<+dj iwNs x, iz”uksa dk mRrj nhft,Þ&    ¼5½
ßlc ekuo ,d leku cusa] lc esa vkyksd mlh dk gSA
lcesa fo”okl mlh dk gS] lcesa mn~;ksx mlh dk gsA
gS ,d jke] jgeku ,d gS] ,d tkfr og ekuoA
ml ij fo”okl djks lkFkh] og fuR;] lR; v{kj /ku gSÞ
   
1- *lc ekuo ,d leku cus*& iafDr esa dfo dk D;k dguk gS\
¼d½ izR;sd euq’; dh “kkjhfjd cukoV ,d tSlh gSA
¼[k½ lHkh bZ”oj dh gh nsus gSA
¼x½ mi;qZDr
¼?k½ izR;sd euq’;ksa esa xq.kksa dh lekurk gksrh gSaA
   2- lalkj ds izkf.k;ksa esa vkyksd fdldk gS\
   3- *jke] jgeku ,d gS** & ls D;k vk”k; gS\
   4- izLrqr in~;ka”k esa dfo euq’;ksa ds fy, dkSulh tkfr dk cks/k dj jgk gS\
   5- izLrqr in~;ka”k esa *izdk”k vkSj psruk* vFkZ ds fy, iz;qDr “kCn fyf[k,A
¼[k.M [k½
fuEufyf[kr iz”uksa ds mRrj nhft,&
iz-3 dks’Bd esa fn, x, “kCnksa ls laKk dk mfpr :i cukdj fjDr LFkku dh iwfrZ dhft,&   ¼1½
    1- -------------------------- chekfj;ksa dh tM+ gSA ¼eksVk½
    2- ek¡ dh ----------------------- dk dksbZ eksy ugha gSA     ¼ee½
iz-4 fuEufyf[kr okD;ksa esa js[kkafdr “kCnksa dk fyax ifjorZu djds okD; iqu% fyf[k,&       
     1- f”k{kd us Nk= dks i<+k;kA         ¼1½
     2- Jheku vki dgk¡ ls vk jgs gSa\
iz-5 js[kkafdr in esa opu dk izdkj fyf[k, &            ¼1½
     1- eg¡xkbZ ds nkSj esa gj oLrq ds nke c<+ x, gSA   ¼,dopu@cgqopu½
     2- **ekuo&tkfr dk mRFkku gh lekt dk mRFkku gSA   ¼,dopu@cgqopu½
iz-6 fuEufyf[kr esa ls dkSu&lk fdz;k fo”ks’k.k dk Hksn ugh gS\                   ¼1½
     1- ¼d½ dkyokpd ¼[k½ jhfrokpd ¼x½ la[;kokpd ¼?k½ LFkkuokpd
     2- *vpkud ckfj”k gksus yxhA* & okD; esa js[kkafdr in gS&
¼d½ dkyokpd fdz;k fo”ks’k.k
¼[k½ jhfrokpd fdz;k fo”ks’k.k
¼x½ LFkkuokpd fdz;k fo”ks’k.k
¼?k½ ifj.kke okpd fdz;k fo”ks’k.k
iz-7 **&lq/kk us xhr xk;k vkSj u`R; fd;k**& okD; essa                       ¼1½
     1- jpuk ds vk/kkj ij okD; dk Hksn fyf[k,A
     2- gtkj ckj rqels dgk gS fd tks dkyhu cukvks] mls l¡Hkky dj j[k nksA 
  okD; dk Hksn fyf[k,&
iz-8 mn~ns”; fo/ks;                       ¼1½
     1- lekpkj&i= esa vuks[kh ?kVuk Nih gSA
     2- “kkS;Z /;kuiwoZd iqLrd i<+ jgk gSA
iz-9 fueufyf[kr “kCnksa dk laf/k foPNsn djds laf/k dk uke fyf[k, &         ¼2½
    1-egs”oj &
fucZy &
    2-fuEufyf[kr laf/k&foPNsn dh laf/k dhft, %&
nso $ _f’k ¾
rr~ $ e; ¾
iz-10 foykse “kCn feyku djds fyf[k,&             ¼2½
    1-,sfPNd & mUufr
    2-d`rK & funZ;
    3-n;kyq & vfuok;Z
    4-voufr & d`r/u
iz-11 dks’Bd esa fn, x, “kCnksa esa ls mfpr “kCn Nk¡Vdj [kkyh LFkku esa Hkfj, &   ¼2½
    1-vkt cgqr “khry -------------------------- cg jgh gSA ¼vuy@vfuy½
    2-nq;ksZ/ku dh lHkk esa nzkSinzh dk -------------------------- gj.k fd;k x;k FkkA  ¼phj@fpj½
iz-12 fuEufyf[kr “kCnksa esa ls ewy “kCn o milxZ vyx djds fyf[k, &     ¼1½
    1-vi”kCn ¾
    2-dq:i ¾
iz-13 fuEufyf[kr izR;;ksa rFkk “kCnksa dks tksM+dj muls cuus okys u, “kCn fyf[k, & ¼1½
    1-lekt $ bd ¾
    2-ys[k $ vd ¾
iz-14 fuEufyf[kr lkekfld inksa dk foxzg djd lekl dk uke fyf[k, &   ¼2½
    1-tUe & e`R;q ¾
    2-uojkf= ¾
iz-15 nh xbZ oxZ i LFkku ij
     fyf[k, %&                    ¼2½
lq r uh j t uh
j u j ? u Hk
l ;k n ? uh fx
fj ? ? nk fe uh
1- iq= 2- iq=h 3- ckny 4- euq’;
5- jkr 6- vkdk”k 7- ty 8- fctyh
iz-16 fuEufyf[kr iafDr;ksa esa iz;qDr vyadkjksa ds uke crkb,%&              ¼1½
1- nhuca/kq nqf[k;ksa dk nq[k dc nwj djksxs\
2- fu/kZu ds /ku&lh rqe vkbZA
iz-17 fuEufyf[kr mnkgj.k esa ls vfr”k;ksfDr vyadkj dk mnkgj.k gS&         ¼1½
¼d½ uhy xxu&lk “kkar gn; gks jgk FkkA
¼[k½ vk, egar olar
¼x½ bruk jks;k Fkk eSa ml fnu] rky&ryS;k lc Hkj Mkys
¼?k½ pk: panz dh papy fdj.ksA
¼[k.M x½
iz-18 fuEufyf[kr “kCnksa dk vFkZ fyf[k, &                        ¼2½
1- cqyan ---------------  2- v/ksM+ ------------------- 3- :>ku -------------  4- xksnku ---------------
iz-19 *fdlus] fdlls dgk& mRrj nhft,&                        ¼2½
1-**ns[kks budkj u djuk] ugh arks eSa rqEgsa viuk eq¡g fQj u fn[kkÅ¡xk**A 
¼d½ ltu us lqHkkxh ls ¼[k½ lqHkkxh us ltu ls
2-**;g ok;jl “kjhj esa izos”k dSls djrk gS**\
¼d½ vkfny us MkW- v¸;j ls ¼[k½ ek/kqjh us MkW- v¸;j ls
iz-20 fuEufyf[kr “kCnksa dk lgh o.kZZ foPNsn djds fyf[k, &                  ¼2½
1- nqcZy
2- lkIrkfgd
iz-21 fuEufyf[kr iafDr;ksa dk lizlax HkkokFkZ fyf[k, &                ¼2½
**lc rjg ls vkt ftrus ns”k gSa Qwys&Qys
Page 5


d{kk& vkBoh  @ fo’k; & fgUnh
            
¼[k.M d½
iz-1 fuEufyf[kr xn~;ka”k  dks i<+dj iwNs x, iz”uksa dk mRrj nhft,A         ¼5½
f”k{kk euq’; dks efLr’d dk mfpr iz;ksx djuk fl[kkrh gSA og f”k{kk tks euq’; dks ikB~; iqLrdksa ds 
vfrfjDr dqN xaHkhj fparu u ns] O;FkZ gSA ;fn gekjh f”k{kk lqlaLd`r] lH; lPpfj= ,oa vPNs ukxfjd ugha 
cuk ldrh rks mlls D;k ykHk lân;] lPpfj= ijarq vui<+ etnwj ml Lukrd ls dgha vPNk gS tks funZ;h 
vkSj pfj=ghu gSA lalkj ds lHkh oSHko rFkk lq[k&lk/ku Hkh euq’; dks rc rd lq[kh ugha cukrs tc rd 
euq’; dks vkfRed Kku u gksA gekjs dqN vf/kdkj gSaA rks dqN mRrjnkf;Ro Hkh gSaA f”kf{kr O;fDr dks 
mRrjnkf;Roksa dk Hkh mruk gh /;ku j[kuk pkfg, ftruk fd vf/kdkjksa dkA
   1- fdl izdkj dh f”k{kk O;FkZ gS\
   2- f”kf{kr O;fDr dks fdl ckr dk /;ku j[kuk pkfg,\
   3- u;s “kCn cukdj fyf[k,&
¼1½ vkRek $ bd ¼2½ lr~ $ pfj=
   4- foykse “kCn fyf[k,&
¼1½ lH; ¼2½ f”kf{kr
   5- fuEufyf[kr “kCnksa dk iz;ksx djds okD; fuekZ.k dhft,&
¼1½ ukxfjd ¼2½ pfj=ghu
iz-2 ßfuEufyf[kr in~;ka”k dks i<+dj iwNs x, iz”uksa dk mRrj nhft,Þ&    ¼5½
ßlc ekuo ,d leku cusa] lc esa vkyksd mlh dk gSA
lcesa fo”okl mlh dk gS] lcesa mn~;ksx mlh dk gsA
gS ,d jke] jgeku ,d gS] ,d tkfr og ekuoA
ml ij fo”okl djks lkFkh] og fuR;] lR; v{kj /ku gSÞ
   
1- *lc ekuo ,d leku cus*& iafDr esa dfo dk D;k dguk gS\
¼d½ izR;sd euq’; dh “kkjhfjd cukoV ,d tSlh gSA
¼[k½ lHkh bZ”oj dh gh nsus gSA
¼x½ mi;qZDr
¼?k½ izR;sd euq’;ksa esa xq.kksa dh lekurk gksrh gSaA
   2- lalkj ds izkf.k;ksa esa vkyksd fdldk gS\
   3- *jke] jgeku ,d gS** & ls D;k vk”k; gS\
   4- izLrqr in~;ka”k esa dfo euq’;ksa ds fy, dkSulh tkfr dk cks/k dj jgk gS\
   5- izLrqr in~;ka”k esa *izdk”k vkSj psruk* vFkZ ds fy, iz;qDr “kCn fyf[k,A
¼[k.M [k½
fuEufyf[kr iz”uksa ds mRrj nhft,&
iz-3 dks’Bd esa fn, x, “kCnksa ls laKk dk mfpr :i cukdj fjDr LFkku dh iwfrZ dhft,&   ¼1½
    1- -------------------------- chekfj;ksa dh tM+ gSA ¼eksVk½
    2- ek¡ dh ----------------------- dk dksbZ eksy ugha gSA     ¼ee½
iz-4 fuEufyf[kr okD;ksa esa js[kkafdr “kCnksa dk fyax ifjorZu djds okD; iqu% fyf[k,&       
     1- f”k{kd us Nk= dks i<+k;kA         ¼1½
     2- Jheku vki dgk¡ ls vk jgs gSa\
iz-5 js[kkafdr in esa opu dk izdkj fyf[k, &            ¼1½
     1- eg¡xkbZ ds nkSj esa gj oLrq ds nke c<+ x, gSA   ¼,dopu@cgqopu½
     2- **ekuo&tkfr dk mRFkku gh lekt dk mRFkku gSA   ¼,dopu@cgqopu½
iz-6 fuEufyf[kr esa ls dkSu&lk fdz;k fo”ks’k.k dk Hksn ugh gS\                   ¼1½
     1- ¼d½ dkyokpd ¼[k½ jhfrokpd ¼x½ la[;kokpd ¼?k½ LFkkuokpd
     2- *vpkud ckfj”k gksus yxhA* & okD; esa js[kkafdr in gS&
¼d½ dkyokpd fdz;k fo”ks’k.k
¼[k½ jhfrokpd fdz;k fo”ks’k.k
¼x½ LFkkuokpd fdz;k fo”ks’k.k
¼?k½ ifj.kke okpd fdz;k fo”ks’k.k
iz-7 **&lq/kk us xhr xk;k vkSj u`R; fd;k**& okD; essa                       ¼1½
     1- jpuk ds vk/kkj ij okD; dk Hksn fyf[k,A
     2- gtkj ckj rqels dgk gS fd tks dkyhu cukvks] mls l¡Hkky dj j[k nksA 
  okD; dk Hksn fyf[k,&
iz-8 mn~ns”; fo/ks;                       ¼1½
     1- lekpkj&i= esa vuks[kh ?kVuk Nih gSA
     2- “kkS;Z /;kuiwoZd iqLrd i<+ jgk gSA
iz-9 fueufyf[kr “kCnksa dk laf/k foPNsn djds laf/k dk uke fyf[k, &         ¼2½
    1-egs”oj &
fucZy &
    2-fuEufyf[kr laf/k&foPNsn dh laf/k dhft, %&
nso $ _f’k ¾
rr~ $ e; ¾
iz-10 foykse “kCn feyku djds fyf[k,&             ¼2½
    1-,sfPNd & mUufr
    2-d`rK & funZ;
    3-n;kyq & vfuok;Z
    4-voufr & d`r/u
iz-11 dks’Bd esa fn, x, “kCnksa esa ls mfpr “kCn Nk¡Vdj [kkyh LFkku esa Hkfj, &   ¼2½
    1-vkt cgqr “khry -------------------------- cg jgh gSA ¼vuy@vfuy½
    2-nq;ksZ/ku dh lHkk esa nzkSinzh dk -------------------------- gj.k fd;k x;k FkkA  ¼phj@fpj½
iz-12 fuEufyf[kr “kCnksa esa ls ewy “kCn o milxZ vyx djds fyf[k, &     ¼1½
    1-vi”kCn ¾
    2-dq:i ¾
iz-13 fuEufyf[kr izR;;ksa rFkk “kCnksa dks tksM+dj muls cuus okys u, “kCn fyf[k, & ¼1½
    1-lekt $ bd ¾
    2-ys[k $ vd ¾
iz-14 fuEufyf[kr lkekfld inksa dk foxzg djd lekl dk uke fyf[k, &   ¼2½
    1-tUe & e`R;q ¾
    2-uojkf= ¾
iz-15 nh xbZ oxZ i LFkku ij
     fyf[k, %&                    ¼2½
lq r uh j t uh
j u j ? u Hk
l ;k n ? uh fx
fj ? ? nk fe uh
1- iq= 2- iq=h 3- ckny 4- euq’;
5- jkr 6- vkdk”k 7- ty 8- fctyh
iz-16 fuEufyf[kr iafDr;ksa esa iz;qDr vyadkjksa ds uke crkb,%&              ¼1½
1- nhuca/kq nqf[k;ksa dk nq[k dc nwj djksxs\
2- fu/kZu ds /ku&lh rqe vkbZA
iz-17 fuEufyf[kr mnkgj.k esa ls vfr”k;ksfDr vyadkj dk mnkgj.k gS&         ¼1½
¼d½ uhy xxu&lk “kkar gn; gks jgk FkkA
¼[k½ vk, egar olar
¼x½ bruk jks;k Fkk eSa ml fnu] rky&ryS;k lc Hkj Mkys
¼?k½ pk: panz dh papy fdj.ksA
¼[k.M x½
iz-18 fuEufyf[kr “kCnksa dk vFkZ fyf[k, &                        ¼2½
1- cqyan ---------------  2- v/ksM+ ------------------- 3- :>ku -------------  4- xksnku ---------------
iz-19 *fdlus] fdlls dgk& mRrj nhft,&                        ¼2½
1-**ns[kks budkj u djuk] ugh arks eSa rqEgsa viuk eq¡g fQj u fn[kkÅ¡xk**A 
¼d½ ltu us lqHkkxh ls ¼[k½ lqHkkxh us ltu ls
2-**;g ok;jl “kjhj esa izos”k dSls djrk gS**\
¼d½ vkfny us MkW- v¸;j ls ¼[k½ ek/kqjh us MkW- v¸;j ls
iz-20 fuEufyf[kr “kCnksa dk lgh o.kZZ foPNsn djds fyf[k, &                  ¼2½
1- nqcZy
2- lkIrkfgd
iz-21 fuEufyf[kr iafDr;ksa dk lizlax HkkokFkZ fyf[k, &                ¼2½
**lc rjg ls vkt ftrus ns”k gSa Qwys&Qys
cqn~f/k] fon~
os cukus ls mUgh ds cu x, brus Hkys
os lHkh gS gkFk ls ,sls liwrksa ds iysAA
yksx tc ,sls le; ik dj tue ysaxs dHkh
ns”k dh vkSj tkfr dh gksxh HkykbZ Hkh rHkhAA
vFkok
vkn”kksZ ls vkn”kZ fHkMs+] izKk izKk ij VwV jghA
izfrek izfrek ls yM+rh gS] /kjrh dh fdLer QwV jgh
vkorksZ dk gS fo’ke tky fu:ik; cqn~f/k pdjkrh gSA
foKku ;ku ij p<+h gqbZ] lH;rk Mwcus tkrh gSA
iz-22 fuEufyf[kr y?kwRrjkRed iz”uksa ds mRrj nhft, %&            ¼6 ?½¾3½
    1- **fpyfpykrh /kwi dks tks pk¡nuh nsrs cuk** iafDr esa dfo fdls lacksf/kr dj jgk gS\
    2- orZeku esa dkSu&lh leL;k,¡ gekjs ns”k ds fy, ,d pqukSrh cuh gqbZ\ rFkk blds lek/kku ds fy, 
      D;k djuk pkfg,\
    3- vkt isM+ gfj;kyh vkSj izse dk LFkku fdlus ys fy;k gS\
    4- gekjs lekt esa iq= dks iq=h ls vf/kd egRro D;ksa fn;k tkrk gS\ vius fopkj crkb,A
    5- fln~/kkFkZ dks fuokZ.k dh izsj.kk fdlls vkSj dSls feyh\
    6- Nand dkSu Fkk\ fln~/kkFkZ us mls D;ksa txk;k\
iz-23 fuEufyf[kr “kCnksa dk Lojfpr okD;ksa esa iz;ksx dhft, &                ¼2½
1- rhFkZ;k=k 2- fopkjoku
3- nhiekyk 4- vk”khokZn
iz-24 [kkyh LFkku Hkfj, %&          ¼1½
¼drZO;fu’B] rRoKku] miu;u] ;”kks/kjk½
    1-fln~/kkFkZ dk fookg ------------------- uked :iorh dU;k ds lkFk lEiUu gqvkA
    2-dqekjkoLFkk chr tkus ds ckn egkjkt us fof/kiwoZd fln~/kkFkZ dk ---------- laLdkj fd;kA
    3-;g ckyd lkalkfjd lq[kksa dk R;kx dj vius ri ls ------------------------ izkIr djsxkA
    4-egkjkuh ek;k ,d --------------------------- vkSj /keZijk;.k efgyk FkhA
iz-25 fuEufyf[kr iz”uksa dk mRrj foLrkj ls fyf[k, &              ¼4 ?1½¾6½
    1-;qodksa ds fy, MkW- dyke dk D;k lans”k gS\
    2-**vlk/; ,M~l ikB ds vk/kkj ij crkb, fd gesa ,M~l ds jksxh ds lkFk dSlk 
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