Page 1 TRIANGLES SIMILAR FIGURES: ? Two figures having the same shape and not necessarily the same size are called similar figures. ? Congruent figures are similar but similar figures need not be congruent. ? Two polygons of the same number of sides are similar, if (1) Their corresponding angles are equal and (2) Their corresponding sides are in the same ratio (or proportion). ? The sum of the ratio of the corresponding sides is referred to as the scale factor (or the representative fraction) for the polygons. ? If one polygon is similar to another polygon and this second polygon is similar to a third polygon, then the first polygon is similar to the third polygon. SIMILARITY OF TRIANGLES: ? Two triangles are similar, if (1) Their corresponding sides are in the same ratio (or proportion) and (2) Their corresponding angles are equal. ? Basic Proportionality Theorem or Thales Theorem: If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect the other two sides in distinct points, the other two sides are divided in the same ratio. If in Fig. 1, in ABC, a line ‘l’ parallel to BC intersects AB at D and AC at E, then A A D E B C B D E B C C D E B C D D E B C E D E B C Fig. 1 l Page 2 TRIANGLES SIMILAR FIGURES: ? Two figures having the same shape and not necessarily the same size are called similar figures. ? Congruent figures are similar but similar figures need not be congruent. ? Two polygons of the same number of sides are similar, if (1) Their corresponding angles are equal and (2) Their corresponding sides are in the same ratio (or proportion). ? The sum of the ratio of the corresponding sides is referred to as the scale factor (or the representative fraction) for the polygons. ? If one polygon is similar to another polygon and this second polygon is similar to a third polygon, then the first polygon is similar to the third polygon. SIMILARITY OF TRIANGLES: ? Two triangles are similar, if (1) Their corresponding sides are in the same ratio (or proportion) and (2) Their corresponding angles are equal. ? Basic Proportionality Theorem or Thales Theorem: If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect the other two sides in distinct points, the other two sides are divided in the same ratio. If in Fig. 1, in ABC, a line ‘l’ parallel to BC intersects AB at D and AC at E, then A A D E B C B D E B C C D E B C D D E B C E D E B C Fig. 1 l ? Converse of Basic Proportionality Theorem: If a line divides any two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, then the line is parallel to the third side. If in Fig. 1, in ABC, a line ‘l’ intersects AB at D and AC at E such that , then DE BC. CRITERIA FOR SIMILARITY OF TRIANGLES: ? If in two triangles, corresponding angles are equal, then their corresponding sides are in the same ratio (or proportion) and hence the two triangles are similar. This criterion is referred to as the AAA (Angle- Angle-Angle) criterion of similarity of two triangles. Similarly, if two angles of one triangle are respectively equal to two angles of another triangle, (then by angle sum property their third angle will also be equal) the two triangles are similar. This is referred to as the AA (Angle-Angle) similarity criterion for two triangles. ? If in two triangles, sides of one triangle are proportional to (i.e., in the same ratio of) the sides of the other triangle, then their corresponding angles are equal and hence the two triangles are similar. This criterion is referred to as the SSS (Side- Side - Side) criterion of similarity of two triangles. ? If one angle of a triangle is equal to one angle of the other triangle and the sides including these angles are proportional, then the two triangles are similar. This criterion is referred to as the SAS (Side- Angle - Side) criterion of similarity of two triangles. AREAS OF SIMILAR TRIANGLES: ? Theorem Statement: The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of squares of their corresponding sides. Page 3 TRIANGLES SIMILAR FIGURES: ? Two figures having the same shape and not necessarily the same size are called similar figures. ? Congruent figures are similar but similar figures need not be congruent. ? Two polygons of the same number of sides are similar, if (1) Their corresponding angles are equal and (2) Their corresponding sides are in the same ratio (or proportion). ? The sum of the ratio of the corresponding sides is referred to as the scale factor (or the representative fraction) for the polygons. ? If one polygon is similar to another polygon and this second polygon is similar to a third polygon, then the first polygon is similar to the third polygon. SIMILARITY OF TRIANGLES: ? Two triangles are similar, if (1) Their corresponding sides are in the same ratio (or proportion) and (2) Their corresponding angles are equal. ? Basic Proportionality Theorem or Thales Theorem: If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect the other two sides in distinct points, the other two sides are divided in the same ratio. If in Fig. 1, in ABC, a line ‘l’ parallel to BC intersects AB at D and AC at E, then A A D E B C B D E B C C D E B C D D E B C E D E B C Fig. 1 l ? Converse of Basic Proportionality Theorem: If a line divides any two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, then the line is parallel to the third side. If in Fig. 1, in ABC, a line ‘l’ intersects AB at D and AC at E such that , then DE BC. CRITERIA FOR SIMILARITY OF TRIANGLES: ? If in two triangles, corresponding angles are equal, then their corresponding sides are in the same ratio (or proportion) and hence the two triangles are similar. This criterion is referred to as the AAA (Angle- Angle-Angle) criterion of similarity of two triangles. Similarly, if two angles of one triangle are respectively equal to two angles of another triangle, (then by angle sum property their third angle will also be equal) the two triangles are similar. This is referred to as the AA (Angle-Angle) similarity criterion for two triangles. ? If in two triangles, sides of one triangle are proportional to (i.e., in the same ratio of) the sides of the other triangle, then their corresponding angles are equal and hence the two triangles are similar. This criterion is referred to as the SSS (Side- Side - Side) criterion of similarity of two triangles. ? If one angle of a triangle is equal to one angle of the other triangle and the sides including these angles are proportional, then the two triangles are similar. This criterion is referred to as the SAS (Side- Angle - Side) criterion of similarity of two triangles. AREAS OF SIMILAR TRIANGLES: ? Theorem Statement: The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of squares of their corresponding sides. PYTHAGORAS THEOREM: ? Theorem Statement: In a right triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides. ? Converse of Pythagoras Theorem- In a triangle, if square of one side is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides, then the angle opposite the first side is a right angle. ? If a perpendicular drawn from the hypotenuse to the vertex of a right triangle, the triangles on both sides of the perpendicular are similar to the whole triangle and to each other. INTERNAL BISECTOR OF AN ANGLE OF A TRIANGLE: ? The internal bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite side internally in the ratio of the sides containing the angle. ? If a line segment drawn from the vertex of an angle of a triangle to its opposite side divides it in the ratio of the sides containing the angle, then the line segment bisects the angle.Read More

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