Congestion Control
What is congestion?
A state occurring in network layer when the message traffic is so heavy that it slows down network response time.
Effects of Congestion
Congestion control algorithms
Let us consider an example to understand
Imagine a bucket with a small hole in the bottom.No matter at what rate water enters the bucket, the outflow is at constant rate.When the bucket is full with water additional water entering spills over the sides and is lost.
Similarly, each network interface contains a leaky bucket and the following steps are involved in leaky bucket algorithm:
Need of token bucket Algorithm:
The leaky bucket algorithm enforces output pattern at the average rate, no matter how bursty the traffic is. So in order to deal with the bursty traffic we need a flexible algorithm so that the data is not lost. One such algorithm is token bucket algorithm.
Steps of this algorithm can be described as follows:
Let’s understand with an example,
In figure (A) we see a bucket holding three tokens, with five packets waiting to be transmitted.For a packet to be transmitted, it must capture and destroy one token. In figure (B) We see that three of the five packets have gotten through, but the other two are stuck waiting for more tokens to be generated.
Let’s understand with an example,
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