As we all know , our history can be divided into 3 different stages-
# ANCIENT HISTORY
# MEDIEVAL HISTORY
# MODERN HISTORY
Some will ask you to focus on modern history only, but i will urge you to focus on all 3 stages so that if the questions are asked from any part, you are able to answer that.
So, we will start with ANCIENT HISTORY....which again has some subtopics to cover-
#3 INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
#4 VEDIC LITERATURE AND CIVILIZATION
#5 BUDDHISM AND JAINISM
#6 MAGADHA /MAURYA PERIOD
#7 POST MAURYAN PERIOD
#8 GUPTA AND HARSHA PERIOD
So, before we start , two terms are most frequently used in our history books -
BC - before christ ( before the birth of christ )
AD- anno domini( in the year of christ)
Now our first topic is -
As the name indicates , sources is how we got to know about our history .
* Through Archaeology - It is a study of excavated things.
Lord Curzon made Archaeological Survey Of India(Delhi).
Carbon dating - to estimate the age of materials like wood , leather etc.
( C-12 is the stable isotope of carbon which is present in atmosphere. C-14 is its unstable form. When organism dies, it contains standard ratio of C-14 to C-12 , but C-14 decays with no possibility of replenishment , so proportion of C-14 decreases at a known rate . And in this way, half life is determined.)
* Through Numismatics - study of coins of old times. ( different metals were used and different names of the kings were written.)
* Through Epigraphy /Palaentology- It is the study of inscriptions (different languages.) eg Ashokan inscriptions - Sarnath Pillars.
* Through Literature- it is by the means of calendars -
Shaksamvat calendar ( written in saka era )
Official calendar of India , Hindu Calendar-1st month Chaitra (March 22); last month Phalguna(Feb 20).
*Through Prashasti( Eulogy)- It is by the means of good things written about a king.
eg- Ain-I-Akbari by Abu Fazal.
SO, this was all from sources...now our next topic is-
This period has 6 different ages.
* Ice Age/ Pleistocene - It is around 5lakh years ago.
There was NO LIFE till this period. ( whole earth was covered with ice sheets.)
*Holocene- LIFE appeared in this age.
Homonids are the progenitures of mankind.( Homo sapiens are existing branch of homonids.)
*Stone age- Prehistoric man started using stone for utilitarian purpose. This age is further categorised into 3 different ages:-
# PALEOLITHIC (OLD STONE AGE)- people were hunters and food gatherers.
They started use of fire.
Eg - Bhimbhetka caves (homosapien caves, M.P)
Kurnool caves ( Andhra pradesh , indicate use of fire).
Further , this age can be categorised into 3-
lower paleolithic- chopping tools were used.
middle paleolithic- homoerectus appeared and scrapper tools were used.
upper paleolithic- homosapiens appeared and sharp tools were used.
# MESOLITHIC (MIDDLE STONE AGE)- more sharp stone tools were used.
Domestication of animals started.
Small tools were made (microliths).
eg Bagor in Rajasthan ( largest mesolithic site in India , Krishna River.)
#NEOLITHIC (NEW STONE AGE)- very few stone tools used
development of agriculture. eg - Mehargarh (Baluchistan in Pakistan )
*Chalcolithic age(copper stone age)- 1st metal was discovered- copper
eg- Brahmgiri , Mysore, Karnataka.
*Bronze Age- copper and tin used to make Bronze.
used by Indus Valley Civilisation People.
*Iron Age- large stones found megaliths.
Iron was discovered.
trade concept started.