Active Voice: Verb expresses the action of subject upon object.
Passive voice: Verb expresses something is done to the person denoted by subject.
Formula: Object + Helping Verb + Verb 3rd Form + By + Subject
1.Rama helps Hari.(Active Voice)
Hari is helped By Rama.(Passive Voice)
2.Who did this? (Active voice)
By whom was this done?
NOTE: The passive voice is formed with the suitable tense of verb ‘be’ followed by the past participle.
Below are the structure of the active and passive voice for the different tenses:
1. Simple Present
Active voice: Subject+V1+Object
Passive Voice: Object +is/am/are+V3 + Subject
2. Present Continuous
Active voice: Subject +is/am/are+V1+ing+Object
Passive Voice: Object +is/am/are+being+V3+by+Subject
3. Present Perfect
Active voice: Subject +has/have+V3+Object
Passive Voice: Object+ has/have+been+V3+by+Subject
4. Simple Past
Active voice: Subject+V2+Object
Passive Voice: Object +was/were+V3+by+Subject
5. Past Continuous
Active voice: Subject +was/were+V1+ing+Object
Passive Voice: Object +was/were+being+V3+by+Subject
6. Past Perfect
Active voice: Subject+Had+V3+Object
Passive Voice: Object+Had+been+V3+by+Subject
7. Simple Future
Active voice: Subject +Will/Shall+V1+Object
Passive Voice: Object +Will/Shall+Be+V3+By+Subject
8. Future Continuous
Active voice: Subject +Will/Shall+be+V1+ing+Object
Passive Voice: We can Not make Passive Voice
9. Future Perfect
Active voice: Subject +Shall/will+have+V3+Object
Passive Voice: Object +Shall/will+have+been+V3+by+Subject
Special Case For Modals:
1. In Simple Tense:
Active voice: Subject +Modal+V1+Object
Passive Voice: Object+Modal+Be+V3+By+Subject
2. In Continuous Tense:
Active voice: Subject+Modal+be+V1+Ing+Object
Passive Voice: We can Not make Passive Voice
3. In Perfect Tense:
Active voice: Subject+Modal+Have+V3+Object
Passive Voice: Object+Modal+Have+Been+V3+By+Subject
1. Always Use ‘Being ‘ In passive voice of Continuous tense( i.e +Ing Form).
2. Always Use ‘Been‘ In passive voice of perfect tense( i.e have/had+V3).
Active Voice: The Mason Is building the wall.
Passive Voice: The wall is being built by the Mason.
Active Voice: He will finish The work in a fortnight.
Passive Voice: The work will be finished by him in a fortnight.
Active Voice: Who did this?
Passive Voice: By whom was this done?
Active Voice: The cat killed the mouse.
Passive Voice: the mouse was killed by cat.
Key Points to remember while converting active to passive Voice for the verbs containing Prepositions:
Tired of, engulfed in, decorated with, filled with, annoyed at, amazed at, Contained in, started at, Known to, Surprised at
The Fire engulfed the office.(Active voice)
The office was engulfed in by the fire.(Passive Voice)
How to Make Passive Voice of Interrogative Sentences (WH family):
While Changing Active Voice to Passive Voice of Interrogative sentences, we need to start sentence with helping verb that suites object. Examples below:
Who wrote this book? (Active voice)
By whom was this book written? (Passive voice)
Why did your brother write such a letter? (Active Voice)
Why was such a letter written by your brother? (Passive Voice)
For Imperative Sentences:
Shut The door.(Active voice)
Let the door be shut (Passive Voice)
Help the elders.(Active voice)
The elders should be helped.(Passive Voice)
For Has/Have/Had to:
Active voice: Subject+has/have/Had+to+V1+Object
Passive Voice: Object+has/have/had+to+be+V3+By+Subject
I have to lift this weight.(Active Voice)
This weight has to be lifted by me.(Passive Voice)
Close the door.(AV)
Let the door be closed.(PV)
Do not disturb him.(AV)
Let him not be disturbed.(PV)
Do not tell the truth.(AV)
Let not the truth be told.(PV)
Will the government build a bridge?(AV)
Will a bridge be built by the government?(PV)
Let it be repaired.(PV)
Examples From The Previous Competitive Exams:
1. Question: He opens the door.
Answer: The door is opened by him.
2. Question: I am going to bring him here.
Answer: He is going to be brought here by me.
3. Question: They believe Veerappan to be dangerous.
Answer: Veerappan is believed to be dangerous.
4. Question: Let him be told to do it.
Answer: Tell him to do it.
5. Question: Your promises are to be kept by you.
Answer: You are to keep your promises.
6. Question: Many types of fish were being sold by then at the market.
Answer: They were selling many types of fish at the market.
7. Question: We have cycled more than ten kilometre.
Answer: More than ten kilometre have been cycled by us.
8. Question: Please see that the room is swept and mopped before I return.
Answer: Please see that somebody sweeps and mops the room before I return.
9. Question: Let the window be opened.
Answer: Open the window.
10. Question: Many factors within our nation affect the economy.
Answer: The economy is affected by many factors within our nation.
11. Question: I know that he did the work.
Answer: That the work was done by him is known to me.
12. Question: He was caught by the police for littering up the streets.
Answer: The police caught him for littering up the street.
13. Question: The task should have been completed by the student.
Answer: The student should have complete the task.
14. Question: The painting would have been stolen if he hadn’t helped.
Answer: Someone would have stolen the painting if he hadn’t helped.
15. Question: Parents love their children.
Answer: Children are loved by their parents.
16. Question: The lady is treading on the flowers.
Answer: The flowers are being trod on by the lady.
17. Question: The historical society built the museum.
Answer: The museum was built by the historical society.
18. Question: My last venture undid me completely.
Answer: I was completely undone by my last venture.
19. Question: He has sent me a present.
Answer: A present has been sent to me by him.
20. Question: The child upset the salt over everything.
Answer: The salt was upset over everything by the child.
21. Question: It is time to water the plants.
Answer: It is time for the plants to be watered.
22. Question: Shut the door.
Answer: Let the door be shut.
23. Question: Did he plan an excursion to mountains?
Answer: Was an excursion to mountains planned by him?
24. Question: Our vehicle had been stolen from our garage by the same burglary team.
Answer: The same burglary team had stolen our vehicle from our garage.
25. Question: We shall write a novel.
Answer: A novel will be written by us.
26. Question: I shall be obliged to go.
Answer: Circumstances will oblige me to go.
27. Question: I didn’t speak even a single word in the meeting.
Answer: Even a single word was not spoken by me in the meeting.
28. Question: The situation could hardly have been altered by the interference of the police force.
Answer: The interference of the police force could hardly have altered the situation.
29. Question: Rajesh could not complete his paper because he had a headache.
Answer: The paper could not be completed by Rajesh because he had a headache.
30. Question: Who tore the curtains yesterday?
Answer: By whom were the curtains teared yesterday?
31. Question: These days most of the students do their assignments with the help of the internet.
Answer: These days the assignments are done with the help of the internet by most of the students.
32. Question: Who had laughed at you?
Answer: By whom had you been laughed at?
33. Question: Who gave you the money?
Answer: By whom were you given the money?
34. Question: Ratan is performing an experiment.
Answer: An experiment is being performed by Ratan.
35. Question: That too many cooks spoil the broth is known to all.
Answer: All know that too many cooks spoil the broth.
36. Question: The judge ordered the murderer to be hanged.
Answer: It was ordered by the judge to hang the murderer.
37. Question: Kindly offer your remarks.
Answer: You are requested to offer your remarks.
38. Question: We prohibit smoking.
Answer: Smoking is prohibited.
39. Question: The Swiss regarded him as an imposter and called him a villain.
Answer: He was regarded as an imposter and was called a villain by the Swiss.
40. Question: Sita learns her lessons daily.
Answer: Her lessons are learnt daily by Sita.