Advanced Cutting Tool Materials Notes | EduRev

: Advanced Cutting Tool Materials Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Module 
 1      
Fundamentals of 
machine design 
Page 2


Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Module 
 1      
Fundamentals of 
machine design 
Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lesson  
2      
Engineering Materials 
Page 3


Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Module 
 1      
Fundamentals of 
machine design 
Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lesson  
2      
Engineering Materials 
Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur 
 
 
 
Instructional Objectives 
 
At the end of this lesson,  students should know 
 
• Properties and applications of common engineering materials. 
• Types and uses of ferrous metals such as cast iron, wrought iron and steel. 
• Types and uses of some common non-ferrous metals. 
• Types and uses of some non-metals. 
• Important mechanical properties of materials. 
 
 
1.2.1 Introduction 
Choice of materials for a machine element depends very much on its properties, 
cost, availability and such other factors. It is therefore important to have some 
idea of the common engineering materials and their properties before learning 
the details of design procedure. This topic is in the domain of material science or 
metallurgy but some relevant discussions are necessary at this stage. 
 Common engineering materials are normally classified as metals and non-
metals. Metals may conveniently be divided into ferrous and non-ferrous metals. 
Important ferrous metals for the present purpose are: 
(i)  cast iron  (ii)  wrought iron  (iii) steel. 
Some of the important non-ferrous metals used in engineering design are: 
(a) Light metal group such as aluminium and its alloys, magnesium and 
manganese alloys. 
(b) Copper based alloys such as brass (Cu-Zn), bronze (Cu-Sn). 
(c) White metal group such as nickel, silver, white bearing metals eg. 
SnSb7Cu3, Sn60Sb11Pb, zinc etc. 
Cast iron, wrought iron and steel will now be discussed under separate headings. 
 
 
 
Page 4


Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Module 
 1      
Fundamentals of 
machine design 
Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lesson  
2      
Engineering Materials 
Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur 
 
 
 
Instructional Objectives 
 
At the end of this lesson,  students should know 
 
• Properties and applications of common engineering materials. 
• Types and uses of ferrous metals such as cast iron, wrought iron and steel. 
• Types and uses of some common non-ferrous metals. 
• Types and uses of some non-metals. 
• Important mechanical properties of materials. 
 
 
1.2.1 Introduction 
Choice of materials for a machine element depends very much on its properties, 
cost, availability and such other factors. It is therefore important to have some 
idea of the common engineering materials and their properties before learning 
the details of design procedure. This topic is in the domain of material science or 
metallurgy but some relevant discussions are necessary at this stage. 
 Common engineering materials are normally classified as metals and non-
metals. Metals may conveniently be divided into ferrous and non-ferrous metals. 
Important ferrous metals for the present purpose are: 
(i)  cast iron  (ii)  wrought iron  (iii) steel. 
Some of the important non-ferrous metals used in engineering design are: 
(a) Light metal group such as aluminium and its alloys, magnesium and 
manganese alloys. 
(b) Copper based alloys such as brass (Cu-Zn), bronze (Cu-Sn). 
(c) White metal group such as nickel, silver, white bearing metals eg. 
SnSb7Cu3, Sn60Sb11Pb, zinc etc. 
Cast iron, wrought iron and steel will now be discussed under separate headings. 
 
 
 
Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur 
1.2.2  Ferrous materials 
Cast iron- It is an alloy of iron, carbon and silicon and it is hard and brittle. 
Carbon content may be within 1.7% to 3% and carbon may be present as free 
carbon or iron carbide Fe
3
C. In general the types of cast iron are (a) grey cast 
iron and (b) white cast iron (c) malleable cast iron (d) spheroidal or nodular cast 
iron (e) austenitic cast iron (f) abrasion resistant cast iron. 
(a) Grey cast iron- Carbon here is mainly in the form of graphite. This type of 
cast iron is inexpensive and has high compressive strength. Graphite is an 
excellent solid lubricant and this makes it easily machinable but brittle. Some 
examples of this type of cast iron are FG20, FG35 or FG35Si15. The 
numbers indicate ultimate tensile strength in MPa and 15 indicates 0.15% 
silicon.  
(b) White cast iron- In these cast irons carbon is present in the form of iron 
carbide (Fe
3
C) which is hard and brittle. The presence of iron carbide 
increases hardness and makes it difficult to machine. Consequently these 
cast irons are abrasion resistant. 
(c) Malleable cast iron- These are white cast irons rendered malleable by 
annealing. These are tougher than grey cast iron and they can be twisted or 
bent without fracture. They have excellent machining properties and are 
inexpensive. Malleable cast iron are used for making parts where forging is 
expensive such as hubs for wagon wheels, brake supports. Depending on the 
method of processing they may be designated as black heart BM32, BM30 or 
white heart WM42, WM35 etc. 
(d) Spheroidal or nodular graphite cast iron- In these cast irons graphite is 
present in the form of spheres or nodules. They have high tensile strength 
and good elongation properties. They are designated as, for example, 
SG50/7, SG80/2 etc where the first number gives the tensile strength in MPa 
and the second number indicates percentage elongation. 
(e) Austenitic cast iron- Depending on the form of graphite present these cast 
iron can be classified broadly under two headings:                                  
      Austenitic flake graphite iron designated, for example, AFGNi16Cu7Cr2 
Page 5


Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Module 
 1      
Fundamentals of 
machine design 
Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lesson  
2      
Engineering Materials 
Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur 
 
 
 
Instructional Objectives 
 
At the end of this lesson,  students should know 
 
• Properties and applications of common engineering materials. 
• Types and uses of ferrous metals such as cast iron, wrought iron and steel. 
• Types and uses of some common non-ferrous metals. 
• Types and uses of some non-metals. 
• Important mechanical properties of materials. 
 
 
1.2.1 Introduction 
Choice of materials for a machine element depends very much on its properties, 
cost, availability and such other factors. It is therefore important to have some 
idea of the common engineering materials and their properties before learning 
the details of design procedure. This topic is in the domain of material science or 
metallurgy but some relevant discussions are necessary at this stage. 
 Common engineering materials are normally classified as metals and non-
metals. Metals may conveniently be divided into ferrous and non-ferrous metals. 
Important ferrous metals for the present purpose are: 
(i)  cast iron  (ii)  wrought iron  (iii) steel. 
Some of the important non-ferrous metals used in engineering design are: 
(a) Light metal group such as aluminium and its alloys, magnesium and 
manganese alloys. 
(b) Copper based alloys such as brass (Cu-Zn), bronze (Cu-Sn). 
(c) White metal group such as nickel, silver, white bearing metals eg. 
SnSb7Cu3, Sn60Sb11Pb, zinc etc. 
Cast iron, wrought iron and steel will now be discussed under separate headings. 
 
 
 
Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur 
1.2.2  Ferrous materials 
Cast iron- It is an alloy of iron, carbon and silicon and it is hard and brittle. 
Carbon content may be within 1.7% to 3% and carbon may be present as free 
carbon or iron carbide Fe
3
C. In general the types of cast iron are (a) grey cast 
iron and (b) white cast iron (c) malleable cast iron (d) spheroidal or nodular cast 
iron (e) austenitic cast iron (f) abrasion resistant cast iron. 
(a) Grey cast iron- Carbon here is mainly in the form of graphite. This type of 
cast iron is inexpensive and has high compressive strength. Graphite is an 
excellent solid lubricant and this makes it easily machinable but brittle. Some 
examples of this type of cast iron are FG20, FG35 or FG35Si15. The 
numbers indicate ultimate tensile strength in MPa and 15 indicates 0.15% 
silicon.  
(b) White cast iron- In these cast irons carbon is present in the form of iron 
carbide (Fe
3
C) which is hard and brittle. The presence of iron carbide 
increases hardness and makes it difficult to machine. Consequently these 
cast irons are abrasion resistant. 
(c) Malleable cast iron- These are white cast irons rendered malleable by 
annealing. These are tougher than grey cast iron and they can be twisted or 
bent without fracture. They have excellent machining properties and are 
inexpensive. Malleable cast iron are used for making parts where forging is 
expensive such as hubs for wagon wheels, brake supports. Depending on the 
method of processing they may be designated as black heart BM32, BM30 or 
white heart WM42, WM35 etc. 
(d) Spheroidal or nodular graphite cast iron- In these cast irons graphite is 
present in the form of spheres or nodules. They have high tensile strength 
and good elongation properties. They are designated as, for example, 
SG50/7, SG80/2 etc where the first number gives the tensile strength in MPa 
and the second number indicates percentage elongation. 
(e) Austenitic cast iron- Depending on the form of graphite present these cast 
iron can be classified broadly under two headings:                                  
      Austenitic flake graphite iron designated, for example, AFGNi16Cu7Cr2 
Version 2 ME, IIT Kharagpur 
      Austenitic spheroidal or nodular graphite iron designated, for example,    
ASGNi20Cr2. These are alloy cast irons and they contain small percentages 
of silicon, manganese, sulphur, phosphorus etc. They may be produced by 
adding alloying elements viz. nickel, chromium, molybdenum, copper and 
manganese in sufficient quantities. These elements give more strength and 
improved properties. They are used for making automobile parts such as 
cylinders, pistons, piston rings, brake drums etc. 
(f) Abrasion resistant cast iron- These are alloy cast iron and the alloying    
      elements render abrasion resistance. A typical designation is ABR33 Ni4 Cr2  
which indicates a tensile strength in kg/mm
2
 with 4% nickel and 2% 
chromium. 
 
Wrought iron- This is a very pure iron where the iron content is of the order of 
99.5%. It is  produced by re-melting pig iron and some small amount of silicon, 
sulphur, or phosphorus may be present. It is  tough, malleable and ductile and 
can easily be forged or welded. It  cannot however take sudden shock. Chains, 
crane hooks, railway couplings and such other components may be made of this  
iron. 
Steel- This is by far the most important engineering material and there is an   
enormous variety of steel to meet the wide variety of engineering requirements. 
The present note is an introductory discussion of a vast topic.  
Steel is basically an alloy of iron and carbon in which the carbon content can be 
less than 1.7% and carbon is present in the form of iron carbide to impart 
hardness and strength. Two main categories of steel are (a) Plain carbon steel 
and (b) alloy steel. 
(a) Plain carbon steel- The properties of plain carbon steel depend mainly on 
the carbon percentages and other alloying elements are not usually present 
in more than 0.5 to 1% such as 0.5% Si or 1% Mn etc. There is a large 
variety of plane carbon steel and they are designated as C01, C14, C45, 
C70 and so on where the number indicates the carbon percentage. 
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