Adverbs (क्रिया विशेषण) are words that describe or modify a verb (क्रिया), an adjective (विशेषण), or another adverb. They provide more information about how, when, where, or to what extent something is happening.
क्रिया विशेषण वह शब्द होते हैं जो हमें क्रिया की विशेषता बताते हैं। दूसरे शब्दों में कहें तो जिन शब्दों से क्रिया की विशेषता का पता चलता है, उन शब्दों को हम क्रिया विशेषण कहते हैं।
1. Simple Adverbs (सरल क्रियाविशेषण): It is an adverb is a word that gives a verb, an adjective, a phrase, or another verb more information regarding place, time, method, cause, or degree.
Examples of simple adverbs:
Adverb of Time: Whenever you want to add information of 'when' to a verb, the adverb of time will be your answer. So, we can say that an adverb of time shows the time or moment of doing a task. For example,
So, here, tomorrow is the adverb of time that provides information regarding the time of the happening of an event.
Adverbs of Place: Whenever you want to add information of 'where' to a verb, the adverb of place will be your answer. So, we can say that an adverb of the place shows the place where the task is being done or has to be done. For example,
So, if you ask where you may sit? The answer will be 'there'. So, here, 'there' is the adverb of time that shows the place of the happening of an event.
Adverbs of Frequency: Whenever you want to add information regarding 'how often' to a verb, the adverb of frequency will be your answer. So, we can say that an adverb of the frequency shows the frequency with which the task has to be done. For example,
So, if you ask how often do I go for a walk? The answer will be 'daily'. So, here, 'daily' is the adverb of frequency that shows how often an event takes place.
Adverbs of Manner: Whenever you want to add information regarding 'how' or 'in what way', the adverb of manner will be used, so, we can say that an adverb of manner shows the form with which the task has to be done. For example,
So, if you ask how do I speak? I will answer it by saying 'beautifully'. So, here, 'beautifully' is the adverb manner that shows how or in what way an event takes place.
Adverbs of Degree: Whenever you want to answer something starting from 'how much' or 'to what degree or extent', the adverb of degree will be your answer. So, we can say that an adverb of degree shows the degree or extent to which the task has been done. For instance:
So, if you question me, how often how much talent is he? I will answer it by saying 'extremely'. So, here, 'extremely' is the adverb of degree that shows with what degree an event takes place.
Adverb of Reason: Whenever you want to answer something, starting from 'why', the adverb of reason will be your answer. So, we can say that an adverb of reason shows the reason behind doing a particular task. For instance: Therefore, So, Hence, Because and Since.
So, if you question me, why do I go there? I will answer it by saying 'because I love the place'. So, here, 'because' is the adverb of the reason that shows why an event happens.
There was a snowstorm, so we stayed in.
2. Interrogative Adverbs (प्रश्नवाचक क्रियाविशेषण): Whenever you ask a question and the question word is used as an adverb, you are using interrogation adverbs. They possess a unique feature, and that is, they are placed at the beginning of a sentence.
Here, ‘why’ is a question word used as an adverb. So, ‘why’ is an interrogation adverb.
Examples of interrogative adverbs:
3. Relative Adverbs (सापेक्ष क्रियाविशेषण): Whenever an adverb is used to relate or connect or join any two sentences, we use relative adverbs. These adverbs are just three- where, when, and why.
Here, ‘when’ is the adverb that connects the two sentences that have I met him and No one was around. So, here, ‘when’ is the relative adverb.
Examples of relative adverbs:
So, eight types of adverbs are mentioned here, which can be used anywhere to make the text more informative.
1. We use an adverb of time such as always, often, never, ever, sometimes, generally, usually, seldom, hardly, rarely etc before the verb they modify.
2. We place adverb of manners after the Intransitive verb. However, we can place an adverb either before or after the Transitive verb.
3. An adjective qualifies a noun or a pronoun But an adverb modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb.
4. Uses of ‘Else‘ and ‘Other‘.
5. While we answer a question we should use the adverb ‘yes’ and ‘no’ according to the affirmation and negative answer.
6. We should use the adverb ‘as’ to introduce predicative of the verbs like regard, describe, view, know etc. We should not use adverb ‘as’ to introduce predicative of verbs like name, elect, think, call, make, choose etc.
7. We should not use negative adverbs like seldom, nowhere, never, nothing, barely, merely, neither, rarely etc with the negative meaning words. Two negative words should be avoided.
8. Uses of Very, Much, So, Too and Enough.
1. Modifying verbs: Adverbs modify verbs by describing how an action is performed.
2. Modifying adjectives: Adverbs modify adjectives by providing additional information about the adjective.
3. Modifying other adverbs: Adverbs can also modify other adverbs to provide more specific information.
4. Expressing time: Adverbs can also be used to indicate when something happened or how long it lasted.
5. Expressing frequency: Adverbs can indicate how often something occurs.
6. Expressing degree: Adverbs can indicate the degree or extent of something.
7. Expressing manner: Adverbs can also indicate the manner in which something is done.
Exercise 1: Identifying adverbs
In this exercise, the goal is to identify the adverb in each sentence. The adverb is highlighted in bold, and an explanation is provided.
The cat slept soundly.
(Soundly describes how the cat slept, so it is an adverb.)
The flowers bloomed early this year.
(Early describes when the flowers bloomed, so it is an adverb.)
She completed her work efficiently.
(Efficiently describes how she completed her work, so it is an adverb.)
The sun shone brightly.
(Brightly describes how the sun shone, so it is an adverb.)
He spoke too quickly.
(Quickly describes how he spoke, and too modifies quickly, so they are both adverbs.)
Exercise 2: Choosing the correct adverb
In this exercise, choose the correct adverb to complete the sentence.
She sings (beautiful/beautifully).
beautifully (We need an adverb to describe how she sings, so we choose the adverb form, "beautifully.")
The athlete runs (quick/quickly).
quickly (We need an adverb to describe how the athlete runs, so we choose the adverb form, "quickly.")
The train arrived (late/lately).
late (We need an adverb to describe when the train arrived, so we choose the adverb form, "late.")
He speaks (fluent/fluently) in Spanish.
fluently (We need an adverb to describe how he speaks Spanish, so we choose the adverb form, "fluently.")
She always arrives (early/earlier) to meetings.
early (We need an adverb to describe when she arrives at meetings, so we choose the adverb form, "early.")
Exercise 3: Forming adverbs from adjectives
In this exercise, change the adjective in parentheses to its adverb form and use it to complete the sentence.
The teacher explained the concept (clear).
The teacher explained the concept clearly.
The dog barked (loud) at the stranger.
The dog barked loudly at the stranger.
He works (hard) on his assignments.
He works hard on his assignments. (Note: "hard" remains the same as an adjective and adverb.)
The car drove (slow) down the street.
The car drove slowly down the street.
She smiled (happy) when she saw her friends.
She smiled happily when she saw her friends.
Exercise 1: Spotting Errors
Instructions: Identify the errors related to adverbs in the following sentences and correct them.
She almost works hardly on her projects.
She almost works hard on her projects.
He drives careful when it is raining.
He drives carefully when it is raining.
She sings beautiful in the choir.
She sings beautifully in the choir.
He just completed the race quick.
He just completed the race quickly.
She writes neat and precise.
She writes neatly and precisely.
They spoke very quiet during the presentation.
They spoke very quietly during the presentation.
He runs more fast than his brother.
Error: more fast
He runs faster than his brother.
She finished her work hardly on time.
She finished her work barely on time.
He was too much tired after the workout.
Error: too much
He was too tired after the workout.
She played the piano very skillful.
She played the piano very skillfully.
|1. क्रिया विशेषण क्या होता है?|
|2. क्रिया विशेषण कितने प्रकार के होते हैं?|
|3. क्रिया विशेषण के उदाहरण क्या हैं?|
|4. क्रिया विशेषण कैसे पहचानें?|
|5. क्रिया विशेषण का क्या महत्व है?|