Agriculture and Horticulture UPSC Notes | EduRev

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UPSC : Agriculture and Horticulture UPSC Notes | EduRev

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Agriculture   

Foodgrains Production

Growth In

  • There are limits to increasing production through area expansion as the country has almost reached a plateau in so far as cultivable land is concerned. Hence the emphasis has to be on increasing productivity levels. 
  • The area under foodgrains has more or less remained constant at around 125 million hectares since 1970-71.
  • Cereals production during 2012-13 was 238.8 million tonnes. In 2013-14 the estimated food grain production was 264.4 million tonnes.

Commercial Crops

Oilseeds

  • There are nine major oilseeds namely groundnut, castorseed, sesamum, nigerseed, soyabean, sunflower, rapeseed/mustard, linseed and safflower.
  • Of these, groundnut, rapeseed and mustard and soyabean occupy commanding position in terms of total production. 
  • The three oilseeds together contribute about 85 percent of country's oilseeds production besides coconut, which is not included in the oilseeds as it is a tree crop. The production of oilseeds increased from 108.30 lakh tonnes in 1985-86 to 297.99 during 2011-12.

Cotton

  • The overall production of cotton during 2005-06 is estimated at 34.2 million bales compared to 35.2 million bales in 2011-12. 
  • Thus, the production of cotton remains more or less at the same level as of last year.

Sugarcane and Sugar

  • The production of sugarcane has come out of cyclic aberration and posted a new record production level of 355.5 million tonnes during 2006-2007.

Jute and Mesta

  • Production of jute and mesta has been fluctuating between 8 and 13 million bales. In 1998-99, the combined production of jute and mesta was 9.7 million bales which increased to 10.6 million bales, of which production of jute alone was around 9.6 million bales. 
  • In 2012-13 it was 10.9 million bales as corropared to 11.4 million bales in the previous year.

Cashew, Vanilla and Coconut

  • It is estimated that total production of cashew is around 0.57 million tonnes from an area of 0.24 million hectares.
  • The cultivalion of vanilla in India started in 1990s and was to confined mostly to Karnataka and Kerala and to a lesser extent in Tamil Nadu, Nartheast Region, Lakshadweep and the Andaman and Nicobar Islaands. India’s production of vanilla was about 101 Metric Tonnes from about 27,811 hectare is 2004-05.
  • Coconut is grown is an area of 1-93 million ha. with a production of 12,148 million nuts and productivity of 6285 muts per ha. India is the third largest producer of coconut.

Plantation Crops

Tea

  • India is the world's largest producer of tea but exports just about 24 per cent of its annual output and hence ranks fourth in export volume.
  • Sri Lanka exports 95 percent of its production and ranks first with 265 million kgs export followed by Kenya exporting 89 per cent of its production.
  • China occupies third rank with 35 per cent of its annual output being exported. Even Indonesia, a relatively smaller producer, exports about one-fifth of its annual production.
  • Production during 2010-11 was at .97 million tonnes.

Coffee

  • India ranks sixth in world coffee production with an annual production of about 3 lakh tonnes. Arabica and Robusta are two main varieties grown comprising 47 per cent and 53 per cent of area respectively. 
  • Karnataka is the largest coffee producing state and accounts for about 56 per cent of the total coffee output. 
  • Coffee has emerged as an export oriented commodity. The major buyers of Indian coffee are Russia, Italy, Germany, USA, Japan, Middle East countries, Poland, Netherlands, Spain, Slovenia and Belgium.

Natural Rubber

  • India is the world's fourth largest producer of rubber and 97 per cent of demand for natural rubber is met by indigenous production. 
  • During 2011-12 production of natura rubber projected at 9.02 lakh tonnes. India is the second largest consuner of natural rubber at 9.77 lakh tonnes in 2011-12.
  • Kerala produces more than 90 per cent of the area under cultivation.

 

Agriculture In India

CROP

PRODUCERS

1. Rice

Punjab, W.B., Bihar, T.N.

2. Wheat

U.P., Punjab, Bihar, Haryana

3. Millets

Deccan Region, Gujarat, Rajasthan

4. Jowar

M.P., Maharashtra

5. Bajra

Westen Rajasthan, Nothern Gujarat

6. Maize

Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan

7. Ragi

Karnataka, Tamil Nadu

8. Barley

U.P. and Rajasthan

9. Pulses

M.P., U.P., Bihar

10. Tur

Maharashtra, U.P.

11. Cotton

Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana

12. Jute

W.B., Bihar, U.P.,

13. Tobacco

A.P., Gujarat

14. Oilseeds

M.P.

15. Tea

Assam. W.B.

16. Coffee

Karnataka, Tamil Nadu

17. Coconut

Kerala, T.N.

18. Rubber

Kerala

19. Spices

Kerala, T.N.

20. Black Pepper

Kerala

21. Saffron

Jammu & Kashmir

22. Cloves

Kerala

23. Red Chillies

Andhra Pradesh

24. Cardamom

Karnataka

25. Castor seed

Gujarat, Kerala

26. Cocoa

Kerala

27. Cashewnut

Kerala and Andhra Pradesh.

 

Horticulture

  •  India is also the largest producer of fruits and vegetable, next only to China.
  •  India produces a wide variety of spices like black pepper, cardamom, ginger, garlic, turmeric, chillies etc. India is the largest producer consumer and exporter of spices and spice products. 
  • The total production of spices was 4.3 million metric tonnes and the area covered was 2.56 million hectores. 
  • As a result of focused attention on diversification new coconut products namely, coconut cream, coconut tetra pack, tender coconut and desiccated coconut are now commercially available. 
  • Arecanut and betelvine are the important commercial crops grown in Assam, Kerala and Karnataka. 
  • The annual turnover of betel leaves is estimated to be worth Rs. 1000 crore. There is potential for export of betel leaves to the neighbouring countries.
  • It is believed that adoption of drip irrigation has led to increase in the productivity of mango by 51 per cent, grapes by 81 per cent, citrus by 42 per cent and coconut by 116 per cent.
  • Horticulture products are highly perishable and suffer heavy damage and deterioration in quality during post-harvest handing. 
  • Post-harvest handling accounts for 37 per cent of the losses at different stages of storage, grading, packaging etc. 
  • The National Horticulture Board is the nodal agency for establishing post-harvest infrastructure, an essential aspect of which is cold storage capacity creation and cool transportation of perishable fruits and vegetables.
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