The Khiljis served under the Ilbari dynasty of Delhi. Malik Firuz was the founder of the Khilji Dynasty who was originally the Ariz-I-Mumalik appointed by Kaiqubad during the days of the decline of the Ilbari Dynasty.
≫ Important Rulers of the Khilji Dynasty
The important rulers of the Khilji dynasty are stated below:
≫ Jalal-ud-din Firoz Khilji (1290-1296 A.D.)
- He was the founder of Khilji Dynasty.
- He was also called as “Clemency Jalal-uddin” as he followed peace and wanted to rule without violence.
(i) Domestic Policies of Jalal-ud-din Firoz Khilji
- He suppressed Malik Chhajju’s revolt at Kara
- He appointed Ala-ud-din Khilji as the Governor of Kara. Alauddin was his son-in-law and also nephew.
(ii) Mongol Invasion
- In 1292 A.D. Jalal-ud-din defeated the Mongols who had come up to Sunam.
(iii) End of Jalal-ud-din
- Jalal-ud-din was treacherously murdered by Ala-ud-din Khilji his son-in-law.
- Jalal-ud-din’s policy of peace was not liked by many.
≫ Ala-ud-din Khilji (1296-1316 A.D.)
- In 1296 A.D. Ala-ud-din Khilji succeeded Jalal-ud-din Firoz Khilji and ascended the throne.
(i) Ala-ud-din Khilji Invasions in the North
- Ala-ud-din Khiliji’s generals namely, Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan conquered Gujarat.
- He captured Ranthambore and killed Hamir Deva its ruler.
- He also captured Malwa, Chittor, Dhar, Mandu, Ujjain, Marwar, Chanderi and Jalor.
(ii) Ala-ud-din Khilji Invasions in the South
- He was the first Sultan who attacked South India.
- He sent his confidante and general Malik Kafur against the rulers of the south.
- Prataprudra-II of Warangal, Ramachandra Deva, the Yadava king of Devagiri, and Vira Ballala-III the Hoysala king were defeated.
- He constructed a mosque in Rameswaram.
- The kingdoms of the south acknowledged the power of Alauddin Khilji and paid his monetary tributes.
(iii) The Mongol Invasion
- Ala-ud-din successfully resisted the Mongol invasion more than 12 times.
(iv) Domestic Policies of Alauddin Khilji
- Ala-ud-din followed the Divine Right Theory of Kingship.
- He introduced four ordinances to prevent repeated revolts.
- He impounded pious grants and free grants of lands
- He restructured the spy system.
- He banned social parties and wine.
- He introduced a permanent standing army.
- He started the system of branding of horses and descriptive roster of individual soldiers to inhibit corruption.
- He fixed the prices of necessary commodities which were below the normal market rates.
- He strictly prohibited black marketing.
- Revenue was collected in cash and not in kind.
- He followed discriminatory policies towards the Hindus and imposed the Jizya, a grazing tax and a house tax on the Hindu community.
(v) Marketing System
- Officers called Diwan-i-riyasat were appointed in the offices called Shahana-i-mandi to standardize the market.
- Merchants should have to register themselves in the office (Shahana-i-mandi) before selling their goods at the fixed rates.
(vi) Ala-ud-din-Khilji’s Estimate
- He was the first to bring the standing army system.
- He constructed Alai Darwaza, the Palace of a thousand pillars and the Fort of Siri.
(vii) Successors after Ala-ud-din-Khilji
- Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah (1316-1320 A.D.)
- Nasir-ud-din Khusrav Shah (1320A.D.)
His successors were weak.
≫ End of the Dynasty
- Ala-ud-din Khilji died in 1316 A.D.
- Successors of Ala-ud-din-Khilji were weak rulers.
- Eventually, in 1320 A.D. the Governor of Punjab Ghazi Malik led a group of nobles, conquered Delhi and captured the throne.
- Ghazi Malik assumed the name ‘Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq’ at Delhi and founded the Tughluq Dynasty, a dynasty of rulers.