Alauddin Khilji - Khilji Dynasty Notes | EduRev

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UPSC : Alauddin Khilji - Khilji Dynasty Notes | EduRev

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Introduction
The Khiljis served under the Ilbari dynasty of Delhi. Malik Firuz was the founder of the Khilji Dynasty who was originally the Ariz-I-Mumalik appointed by Kaiqubad during the days of the decline of the Ilbari Dynasty.

≫ Important Rulers of the Khilji Dynasty
The important rulers of the Khilji dynasty are stated below:

≫ Jalal-ud-din Firoz Khilji (1290-1296 A.D.)

  • He was the founder of Khilji Dynasty.
  • He was also called as “Clemency Jalal-uddin” as he followed peace and wanted to rule without violence. 

(i) Domestic Policies of Jalal-ud-din Firoz Khilji

  • He suppressed Malik Chhajju’s revolt at Kara
  • He appointed Ala-ud-din Khilji as the Governor of Kara. Alauddin was his son-in-law and also nephew.

(ii) Mongol Invasion

  • In 1292 A.D. Jalal-ud-din defeated the Mongols who had come up to Sunam.

(iii)  End of Jalal-ud-din

  • Jalal-ud-din was treacherously murdered by Ala-ud-din Khilji his son-in-law.
  • Jalal-ud-din’s policy of peace was not liked by many.

≫ Ala-ud-din Khilji (1296-1316 A.D.)

  • In 1296 A.D. Ala-ud-din Khilji succeeded Jalal-ud-din Firoz Khilji and ascended the throne.

(i) Ala-ud-din Khilji Invasions in the North

  • Ala-ud-din Khiliji’s generals namely, Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan conquered Gujarat.
  • He captured Ranthambore and killed Hamir Deva its ruler.
  • He also captured Malwa, Chittor, Dhar, Mandu, Ujjain, Marwar, Chanderi and Jalor.

(ii) Ala-ud-din Khilji Invasions in the South

  • He was the first Sultan who attacked South India.
  • He sent his confidante and general Malik Kafur against the rulers of the south.
  • Prataprudra-II of Warangal, Ramachandra Deva, the Yadava king of Devagiri, and Vira Ballala-III the Hoysala king were defeated.
  • He constructed a mosque in Rameswaram.
  • The kingdoms of the south acknowledged the power of Alauddin Khilji and paid his monetary tributes.

(iii) The Mongol Invasion

  • Ala-ud-din successfully resisted the Mongol invasion more than 12 times.

(iv) Domestic Policies of Alauddin Khilji

  • Ala-ud-din followed the Divine Right Theory of Kingship.
  • He introduced four ordinances to prevent repeated revolts.
  • He impounded pious grants and free grants of lands
  • He restructured the spy system.
  • He banned social parties and wine.
  • He introduced a permanent standing army.
  • He started the system of branding of horses and descriptive roster of individual soldiers to inhibit corruption.
  • He fixed the prices of necessary commodities which were below the normal market rates.
  • He strictly prohibited black marketing.
  • Revenue was collected in cash and not in kind.
  • He followed discriminatory policies towards the Hindus and imposed the Jizya, a grazing tax and a house tax on the Hindu community. 

(v) Marketing System

  • Officers called Diwan-i-riyasat were appointed in the offices called Shahana-i-mandi to standardize the market.
  • Merchants should have to register themselves in the office (Shahana-i-mandi) before selling their goods at the fixed rates.

(vi) Ala-ud-din-Khilji’s Estimate

  • He was the first to bring the standing army system.
  • He constructed Alai Darwaza, the Palace of a thousand pillars and the Fort of Siri.

(vii) Successors after Ala-ud-din-Khilji

  • Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah (1316-1320 A.D.)
  • Nasir-ud-din Khusrav Shah (1320A.D.)

His successors were weak.

≫ End of the Dynasty

  • Ala-ud-din Khilji died in 1316 A.D.
  • Successors of Ala-ud-din-Khilji were weak rulers.
  • Eventually, in 1320 A.D. the Governor of Punjab Ghazi Malik led a group of nobles, conquered Delhi and captured the throne.
  • Ghazi Malik assumed the name ‘Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq’ at Delhi and founded the Tughluq Dynasty, a dynasty of rulers.
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