Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers : Daily Practice Problems (DPP) - 3 NEET Notes | EduRev

NEET : Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers : Daily Practice Problems (DPP) - 3 NEET Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


DPP : 02 / Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
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            ONE CAN CONQUER THE INNERSELF WITH-
DEDICATION,DISCIPLINE & UNSHAKEABLE FAITH IN GOD
Some important points & facts
1. PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLS.
I. The lower alcohols are liquids, while higher having more than 12 carbon atoms are solids. They are
colourless neutral substances with characteristic alcoholic odour and burning taste.
II. The lower alcohols are readily soluble in water and the solubility decreases with the increase in molecular
weight.
III. Methyl alcohol (carbinol) is known as wood spirit, wood alcohol or naphtha. Drinking of methyl alcohol
causes blindness.
IV . Boiling points of alcohols are much higher than those of the corresponding alkanes. It is again due to
the formation of hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl groups of the two molecules of an alcohol with the
result several molecules are associated to form a large molecule.
H—O---H—O---H—O
R R R
Hydrogen bonding in alcohol molecules
Among the isomeric alcohols, boiling point and melting point show the following trend.
Primary > Secondary > Tertiary
Thus, the boiling point decreases with branching. This is because of the fact that in secondary and tertiary
alcohols, alkyl part (hydrogen character) out weighs the —OH group due to branching.
V . Lower alcohols form solid addition compounds with anhydrous metallic salts like CaCl
2
, MgCl
2
 and
CuSO
4
, CaCl
2
.4C
2
H
5
OH, MgCl
2
.6C
2
H
5
OH, CuSO
4
.2C
2
H
5
OH. By analogy to water of crystallisation, these
alcohol molecules are referred to as alcohols of crystallisation. For this reason, alcohols cannot be dried
over anhydrous calcium chloride.
(A) Reactions involving only the hydrogen atom of the —OH group, i.e., reactions involving cleavage of oxygen-
hydrogen bond, —O—H. All such reactions (No. 1 - 5) follow the following order.
Primary > Secondary > Tertiary
1. Action of alkali metals. Electropositive metals like Na, K, Ca, Mg and Al react with alcohols forming
alkoxides with the liberation of hydrogen gas.
+ ? + ?
2
Sod. alkoxide
2ROH 2Na 2RONa H
e.g.,
+ ? + ?
2 5 2 5 2
Sod. ethoxide
2C H OH 2Na 2C H ONa H
ALCOHOLS, PHENOLS & ETHERS
DAILY  PRACTICE  PROBLEMS - 2
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