Allen Biology : Unit 5 (Human Physiology Part 1) MBBS Notes | EduRev

MBBS : Allen Biology : Unit 5 (Human Physiology Part 1) MBBS Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Session 2019-20
ALLEN
S.No.                CONTENTS Page
1. Introduction 1
2. Mouth & buccopharyngeal cavity 2
3. T eeth 5
4. Histology of alimentary canal 7
5. Oesophagus and stomach 9
6. Intestine 11
7. Accessory digestive gland 14
8. Physiology of digestion 19
9. Assimilation 24
10. Disorders of digestive system 25
11. Vitamins 26
12. Exercise-I (Conceptual Question) 31
13. Exercise-II (Previous Years Questions) 39
14. Exercise-III (Analytical Questions) 42
15. Exercise-IV (Assertion & Reason) 47
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION
E
NEET SYLLABUS
Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal
hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of
proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders ? PEM, indigestion, constipation,
vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
Page 2


Session 2019-20
ALLEN
S.No.                CONTENTS Page
1. Introduction 1
2. Mouth & buccopharyngeal cavity 2
3. T eeth 5
4. Histology of alimentary canal 7
5. Oesophagus and stomach 9
6. Intestine 11
7. Accessory digestive gland 14
8. Physiology of digestion 19
9. Assimilation 24
10. Disorders of digestive system 25
11. Vitamins 26
12. Exercise-I (Conceptual Question) 31
13. Exercise-II (Previous Years Questions) 39
14. Exercise-III (Analytical Questions) 42
15. Exercise-IV (Assertion & Reason) 47
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION
E
NEET SYLLABUS
Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal
hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of
proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders ? PEM, indigestion, constipation,
vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
Session 2019-20
ALLEN
DR. D. NAGESHWAR REDDY
MD.,DM.,D.SC.,FAMS.,FRCP.,FASGE.,FACG.,MWGO
Chief of Gastroenterology & Therapeutic Endoscopy
Medical College M.B.B.S. Kurnool Medical College, KURNOOL
Specialisation M.D. Madras Medical College, MADRAS
Specialization in Gastroenterology D.M.
Post Graduate Institute of Medical
Education and Research, CHANDIGARH
Professional ExperienceAsst. Professor of Gastroenterology Nizam's
Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad
Professor of Gastroenterology Guntur Medical College, Guntur
Present Position Chairman Asian Institute of Gastroenterology Areas
of InterestGastroenterology
DR. RAMESH ROOP RAI is a well experienced and senior consultant
Gastroenterologist associated with Fortis Hospitals, Jaipur. He is the first
DM Gastroenterologist in Rajasthan, he worked in various projects and
has published over 98 research papers in National & International
Journals. He has been instrumental in designing and manufacturing for
various procedures of Gastroenterology. Dr. Ramesh was elected as the
president of Indian Society of Gastroenterology 2007-2008, he was a
pioneer to start first DM course in Gastroenterology SMS Medical College,
Jaipur.
Over the years, DR. RAKESH TANDON has won many discrete awards
for his contribution, hard work and commitment towards providing patients
a new lease of life.Dr. Rakesh Tandon has been awarded by the Medical
Council of India, has Dr. B.C.Roy Award for being Eminent Teacher , Gold
medal for best thesis in M.D. (Medicine) and many more. Dr. Rakesh
Tandon publications are read all over the world because he is not restricted
to writing for only Indian audiences. Dr. Rakesh Tandon has authored
some well known and bestselling books.
Dr. Rakesh Tandon has MBBS, MD (General Medicine), done PhD from
AIIMS, FAMS, FICP and FRCP from Royal College of Surgeons,
Edinburgh, UK. This clearly shows he has superior knowledge and uses
it well in every medical issue that Dr . Rakesh Tandon deals with. His creative
ideas have helped patients enormously.
Page 3


Session 2019-20
ALLEN
S.No.                CONTENTS Page
1. Introduction 1
2. Mouth & buccopharyngeal cavity 2
3. T eeth 5
4. Histology of alimentary canal 7
5. Oesophagus and stomach 9
6. Intestine 11
7. Accessory digestive gland 14
8. Physiology of digestion 19
9. Assimilation 24
10. Disorders of digestive system 25
11. Vitamins 26
12. Exercise-I (Conceptual Question) 31
13. Exercise-II (Previous Years Questions) 39
14. Exercise-III (Analytical Questions) 42
15. Exercise-IV (Assertion & Reason) 47
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION
E
NEET SYLLABUS
Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal
hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of
proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders ? PEM, indigestion, constipation,
vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
Session 2019-20
ALLEN
DR. D. NAGESHWAR REDDY
MD.,DM.,D.SC.,FAMS.,FRCP.,FASGE.,FACG.,MWGO
Chief of Gastroenterology & Therapeutic Endoscopy
Medical College M.B.B.S. Kurnool Medical College, KURNOOL
Specialisation M.D. Madras Medical College, MADRAS
Specialization in Gastroenterology D.M.
Post Graduate Institute of Medical
Education and Research, CHANDIGARH
Professional ExperienceAsst. Professor of Gastroenterology Nizam's
Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad
Professor of Gastroenterology Guntur Medical College, Guntur
Present Position Chairman Asian Institute of Gastroenterology Areas
of InterestGastroenterology
DR. RAMESH ROOP RAI is a well experienced and senior consultant
Gastroenterologist associated with Fortis Hospitals, Jaipur. He is the first
DM Gastroenterologist in Rajasthan, he worked in various projects and
has published over 98 research papers in National & International
Journals. He has been instrumental in designing and manufacturing for
various procedures of Gastroenterology. Dr. Ramesh was elected as the
president of Indian Society of Gastroenterology 2007-2008, he was a
pioneer to start first DM course in Gastroenterology SMS Medical College,
Jaipur.
Over the years, DR. RAKESH TANDON has won many discrete awards
for his contribution, hard work and commitment towards providing patients
a new lease of life.Dr. Rakesh Tandon has been awarded by the Medical
Council of India, has Dr. B.C.Roy Award for being Eminent Teacher , Gold
medal for best thesis in M.D. (Medicine) and many more. Dr. Rakesh
Tandon publications are read all over the world because he is not restricted
to writing for only Indian audiences. Dr. Rakesh Tandon has authored
some well known and bestselling books.
Dr. Rakesh Tandon has MBBS, MD (General Medicine), done PhD from
AIIMS, FAMS, FICP and FRCP from Royal College of Surgeons,
Edinburgh, UK. This clearly shows he has superior knowledge and uses
it well in every medical issue that Dr . Rakesh Tandon deals with. His creative
ideas have helped patients enormously.
Session 2019-20
ALLEN
Z:\NODE02\B0AI-B0\TARGET\BIO\ENG\MODULE_7\02-DIGESTIVE-E.P65
1 E
Pre-Medical : Biology
AL LE N
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION
* Food is one of the basic requirements of all living organisms. The major components of our food are
carbohydrates,proteins and fats. Vitamins and minerals are also required in small quantities. Food provides
energy and organic materials for growth and repair of tissues. The water we take in, plays an important role in
metabolic processes and also prevents dehydration of the body. Biomacromolecules in food cannot be utilised
by our body in their original form. They have to be broken down and converted into simple substances in the
digestive system.
* This process of conversion of complex food substances to simple and absorbable forms is called digestion and
is carried out by our digestive system by mechanical and biochemical methods.
The general organisation of the human digestive system can be represented by following diagram.
Mouth
Sublingual gland
Diaphragm
Parotid gland
Submaxillary gland
Oesophagus
Stomach
Pancreas
Jejunum
Left colic flexure
Transverse colon
Descending colon
Jejunum
Pelvic (sigmoid) colon
Rectum
Anal canal
Appendix
Caecum
ileum
Ascending
colon
Right colic flexure
Duodenum
Common bile duct
Gall bladder
Liver
Digestive tract of man
Page 4


Session 2019-20
ALLEN
S.No.                CONTENTS Page
1. Introduction 1
2. Mouth & buccopharyngeal cavity 2
3. T eeth 5
4. Histology of alimentary canal 7
5. Oesophagus and stomach 9
6. Intestine 11
7. Accessory digestive gland 14
8. Physiology of digestion 19
9. Assimilation 24
10. Disorders of digestive system 25
11. Vitamins 26
12. Exercise-I (Conceptual Question) 31
13. Exercise-II (Previous Years Questions) 39
14. Exercise-III (Analytical Questions) 42
15. Exercise-IV (Assertion & Reason) 47
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION
E
NEET SYLLABUS
Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal
hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of
proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders ? PEM, indigestion, constipation,
vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
Session 2019-20
ALLEN
DR. D. NAGESHWAR REDDY
MD.,DM.,D.SC.,FAMS.,FRCP.,FASGE.,FACG.,MWGO
Chief of Gastroenterology & Therapeutic Endoscopy
Medical College M.B.B.S. Kurnool Medical College, KURNOOL
Specialisation M.D. Madras Medical College, MADRAS
Specialization in Gastroenterology D.M.
Post Graduate Institute of Medical
Education and Research, CHANDIGARH
Professional ExperienceAsst. Professor of Gastroenterology Nizam's
Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad
Professor of Gastroenterology Guntur Medical College, Guntur
Present Position Chairman Asian Institute of Gastroenterology Areas
of InterestGastroenterology
DR. RAMESH ROOP RAI is a well experienced and senior consultant
Gastroenterologist associated with Fortis Hospitals, Jaipur. He is the first
DM Gastroenterologist in Rajasthan, he worked in various projects and
has published over 98 research papers in National & International
Journals. He has been instrumental in designing and manufacturing for
various procedures of Gastroenterology. Dr. Ramesh was elected as the
president of Indian Society of Gastroenterology 2007-2008, he was a
pioneer to start first DM course in Gastroenterology SMS Medical College,
Jaipur.
Over the years, DR. RAKESH TANDON has won many discrete awards
for his contribution, hard work and commitment towards providing patients
a new lease of life.Dr. Rakesh Tandon has been awarded by the Medical
Council of India, has Dr. B.C.Roy Award for being Eminent Teacher , Gold
medal for best thesis in M.D. (Medicine) and many more. Dr. Rakesh
Tandon publications are read all over the world because he is not restricted
to writing for only Indian audiences. Dr. Rakesh Tandon has authored
some well known and bestselling books.
Dr. Rakesh Tandon has MBBS, MD (General Medicine), done PhD from
AIIMS, FAMS, FICP and FRCP from Royal College of Surgeons,
Edinburgh, UK. This clearly shows he has superior knowledge and uses
it well in every medical issue that Dr . Rakesh Tandon deals with. His creative
ideas have helped patients enormously.
Session 2019-20
ALLEN
Z:\NODE02\B0AI-B0\TARGET\BIO\ENG\MODULE_7\02-DIGESTIVE-E.P65
1 E
Pre-Medical : Biology
AL LE N
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION
* Food is one of the basic requirements of all living organisms. The major components of our food are
carbohydrates,proteins and fats. Vitamins and minerals are also required in small quantities. Food provides
energy and organic materials for growth and repair of tissues. The water we take in, plays an important role in
metabolic processes and also prevents dehydration of the body. Biomacromolecules in food cannot be utilised
by our body in their original form. They have to be broken down and converted into simple substances in the
digestive system.
* This process of conversion of complex food substances to simple and absorbable forms is called digestion and
is carried out by our digestive system by mechanical and biochemical methods.
The general organisation of the human digestive system can be represented by following diagram.
Mouth
Sublingual gland
Diaphragm
Parotid gland
Submaxillary gland
Oesophagus
Stomach
Pancreas
Jejunum
Left colic flexure
Transverse colon
Descending colon
Jejunum
Pelvic (sigmoid) colon
Rectum
Anal canal
Appendix
Caecum
ileum
Ascending
colon
Right colic flexure
Duodenum
Common bile duct
Gall bladder
Liver
Digestive tract of man
Session 2019-20
ALLEN
Z:\NODE02\B0AI-B0\TARGET\BIO\ENG\MODULE_7\02-DIGESTIVE-E.P65
2 E
Pre-Medical : Biology
AL LE N
Origin
The alimentary canal is tubular structure which extends from mouth to anus. It develops from ectoderm
and endoderm.
Small Intestine Large Intestine
Duodenum
Rectum
Colon
Caecum
Ileum
Jejunum
Alimentary canal
Digestive system of human
Buccal cavity
Oesophagus
Stomach
Intestine
Accessory digestive glands
Salivary glands
Pancreas
Liver 
Gall bladder
(1) MOUTH AND BUCCOPHARYNGEAL CAVITY ?
Mouth is a horizontal transverse slit like aperture which is surrounded by upper and lower lip, a specific muscle
is associated with lip called orbicularis oris muscle.
Nasal chamber
Hard palate
Soft palate
Buccal cavity
Larynx
Trachea
Oesophagus
Laryngopharynx
Epiglottis
Oropharynx
Uvula
Nasopharynx
Opening of Eustachian tube
Tubal tonsil
Nasopharyngeal Tonsil
Hyoid bone
Section of head showing parts of pharynx
Mouth opens into buccopharyngeal cavity, this cavity is divided into two parts.
(i) Buccal vestibule ? The space between the gums and cheeks where the food is stored temporarily for
some time. It is a peripheral part.
(ii) Main oral cavity ? It is inner and central part which is surrounded by upper and lower jaw,  lined by
stratified squamous epithelium.
Page 5


Session 2019-20
ALLEN
S.No.                CONTENTS Page
1. Introduction 1
2. Mouth & buccopharyngeal cavity 2
3. T eeth 5
4. Histology of alimentary canal 7
5. Oesophagus and stomach 9
6. Intestine 11
7. Accessory digestive gland 14
8. Physiology of digestion 19
9. Assimilation 24
10. Disorders of digestive system 25
11. Vitamins 26
12. Exercise-I (Conceptual Question) 31
13. Exercise-II (Previous Years Questions) 39
14. Exercise-III (Analytical Questions) 42
15. Exercise-IV (Assertion & Reason) 47
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION
E
NEET SYLLABUS
Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal
hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of
proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders ? PEM, indigestion, constipation,
vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
Session 2019-20
ALLEN
DR. D. NAGESHWAR REDDY
MD.,DM.,D.SC.,FAMS.,FRCP.,FASGE.,FACG.,MWGO
Chief of Gastroenterology & Therapeutic Endoscopy
Medical College M.B.B.S. Kurnool Medical College, KURNOOL
Specialisation M.D. Madras Medical College, MADRAS
Specialization in Gastroenterology D.M.
Post Graduate Institute of Medical
Education and Research, CHANDIGARH
Professional ExperienceAsst. Professor of Gastroenterology Nizam's
Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad
Professor of Gastroenterology Guntur Medical College, Guntur
Present Position Chairman Asian Institute of Gastroenterology Areas
of InterestGastroenterology
DR. RAMESH ROOP RAI is a well experienced and senior consultant
Gastroenterologist associated with Fortis Hospitals, Jaipur. He is the first
DM Gastroenterologist in Rajasthan, he worked in various projects and
has published over 98 research papers in National & International
Journals. He has been instrumental in designing and manufacturing for
various procedures of Gastroenterology. Dr. Ramesh was elected as the
president of Indian Society of Gastroenterology 2007-2008, he was a
pioneer to start first DM course in Gastroenterology SMS Medical College,
Jaipur.
Over the years, DR. RAKESH TANDON has won many discrete awards
for his contribution, hard work and commitment towards providing patients
a new lease of life.Dr. Rakesh Tandon has been awarded by the Medical
Council of India, has Dr. B.C.Roy Award for being Eminent Teacher , Gold
medal for best thesis in M.D. (Medicine) and many more. Dr. Rakesh
Tandon publications are read all over the world because he is not restricted
to writing for only Indian audiences. Dr. Rakesh Tandon has authored
some well known and bestselling books.
Dr. Rakesh Tandon has MBBS, MD (General Medicine), done PhD from
AIIMS, FAMS, FICP and FRCP from Royal College of Surgeons,
Edinburgh, UK. This clearly shows he has superior knowledge and uses
it well in every medical issue that Dr . Rakesh Tandon deals with. His creative
ideas have helped patients enormously.
Session 2019-20
ALLEN
Z:\NODE02\B0AI-B0\TARGET\BIO\ENG\MODULE_7\02-DIGESTIVE-E.P65
1 E
Pre-Medical : Biology
AL LE N
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION
* Food is one of the basic requirements of all living organisms. The major components of our food are
carbohydrates,proteins and fats. Vitamins and minerals are also required in small quantities. Food provides
energy and organic materials for growth and repair of tissues. The water we take in, plays an important role in
metabolic processes and also prevents dehydration of the body. Biomacromolecules in food cannot be utilised
by our body in their original form. They have to be broken down and converted into simple substances in the
digestive system.
* This process of conversion of complex food substances to simple and absorbable forms is called digestion and
is carried out by our digestive system by mechanical and biochemical methods.
The general organisation of the human digestive system can be represented by following diagram.
Mouth
Sublingual gland
Diaphragm
Parotid gland
Submaxillary gland
Oesophagus
Stomach
Pancreas
Jejunum
Left colic flexure
Transverse colon
Descending colon
Jejunum
Pelvic (sigmoid) colon
Rectum
Anal canal
Appendix
Caecum
ileum
Ascending
colon
Right colic flexure
Duodenum
Common bile duct
Gall bladder
Liver
Digestive tract of man
Session 2019-20
ALLEN
Z:\NODE02\B0AI-B0\TARGET\BIO\ENG\MODULE_7\02-DIGESTIVE-E.P65
2 E
Pre-Medical : Biology
AL LE N
Origin
The alimentary canal is tubular structure which extends from mouth to anus. It develops from ectoderm
and endoderm.
Small Intestine Large Intestine
Duodenum
Rectum
Colon
Caecum
Ileum
Jejunum
Alimentary canal
Digestive system of human
Buccal cavity
Oesophagus
Stomach
Intestine
Accessory digestive glands
Salivary glands
Pancreas
Liver 
Gall bladder
(1) MOUTH AND BUCCOPHARYNGEAL CAVITY ?
Mouth is a horizontal transverse slit like aperture which is surrounded by upper and lower lip, a specific muscle
is associated with lip called orbicularis oris muscle.
Nasal chamber
Hard palate
Soft palate
Buccal cavity
Larynx
Trachea
Oesophagus
Laryngopharynx
Epiglottis
Oropharynx
Uvula
Nasopharynx
Opening of Eustachian tube
Tubal tonsil
Nasopharyngeal Tonsil
Hyoid bone
Section of head showing parts of pharynx
Mouth opens into buccopharyngeal cavity, this cavity is divided into two parts.
(i) Buccal vestibule ? The space between the gums and cheeks where the food is stored temporarily for
some time. It is a peripheral part.
(ii) Main oral cavity ? It is inner and central part which is surrounded by upper and lower jaw,  lined by
stratified squamous epithelium.
Session 2019-20
ALLEN
Z:\NODE02\B0AI-B0\TARGET\BIO\ENG\MODULE_7\02-DIGESTIVE-E.P65
3 E
Pre-Medical : Biology
AL LE N
PALATE
Palate is differentiated into two parts :
Superior lip 
(Pulled upward)
Gingivae (gums)
Fauces
Palatopharyngeal arch
Palatine tonsil
Tongue
Lingual frenulum
Opening of duct of
submandibular gland
Gingivae (gums)
Inferior lip (pulled down)
Hard palate
Soft palate
Uvula
Cheek
Molars
Premolars
Cuspid (canine)
Incisors
Vestibule
Anterior view
(i) Hard Palate ?
* It is the anterior part of the palate. It is made up of maxilla and palatine bone in human.
* On the ventral surface of hard palate, some projection or transverse ridges are present which are called as
palatine rugae.
(ii) Soft Palate ?
It is the posterior part of palate. It is made up of muscle fibrous connective tissues and mucous epithelium.
(Stratified squamous epithelium)
* The posterior out growth of soft palate which hangs down in the form of finger like process called as Uvula
or Velum palati. On the dorsal side of Uvula, internal nasal pores are present.
Uvula or Velum palati covers the opening
Hard palate
Oral cavity
Nasal Chamber
Soft palate
Nasopharynx
Eustachian tube
Uvula
Oropharynx
Laryngopharynx
Oesophagus
Tongue
Larynx
Trachea
Diagram showing parts of pharynx
of internal nasal pores during ingestion of
food, so food particle cannot move inside
nasal chamber.
* Soft palate is situated in the pharynx and
is divided into two parts. Upper part of
pharynx is called Nasopharynx which is
related to the nasal chamber. The lower
part of pharynx is called oropharynx
which is related to the oral cavity. One pair
of openings of Eustachian tube is present
in the nasopharynx.
Pharynx  is the common path for the air and food.
Read More
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