UPSC  >  Introduction: Analogy

# Introduction: Analogy - CSAT Preparation - UPSC

## What is Analogy?

An analogy is like a tool that helps explain how different things or ideas are similar or connected to each other.

• Questions of this type examine your ability to precisely define a connection or relationship between two words and to recognize the similarity between two relationships.
• First, define the relationship between the two words in bold type. Then, define the relationship between the pairs of words in each of the possible responses and choose the response in which the relationship is most similar to the relationship between the two words in bold.
• In this type of question, two objects related in some way are given and a third object is also given with four or five alternatives.
• You have to find out which one of the alternatives bears the same relation with the third objects as the first and second objects are related.

## Analogies—Approach

Basically, in this type  of questions, you have four pairs of words as options. These pairs of words share some kind of relationship that you need to decipher. However, amongst these four pairs, a pair of words share the same relationship with its pair as the pair given in the question.
Example: Question: Artist : Painting ::
(a) Driver: Car
(b) Composer : Symphony
(c) Surgeon : Operation
(d) Novel : Author

Ans: (b)
Sol:
Now, let’s again read the initial pair of words, but substituting words for colons. The first colon (:) is translated as “is to” and two colons (::) are translated as “as”. So, it will be read as “Artist is to Painting as…”. Next, let’s look into this question: What is the relationship an artist and a painting shares? An artist creates a painting.
Therefore, the pair we are looking for should share a relationship closest to that between an artist and a painting. Let us consider the first option: A driver drives a car. We definitely know that the relationship between the Driver and the car is not the same as between the Artist and the painting. Consequently, that option is eliminated.
With the first option eliminated, we have three more options to look into. Considering the options, we know that a Surgeon “does” an operation, “a Novel is written by an Author”.  These options do not reflect the relationship that an Artist and a painting share. However, option b is Composer is to Symphony. We know that a Composer creates a Symphony. This is the only option that comes closest to the relationship between an Artist and a painting. So, the correct option is B.

## Tips to solve Analogies

• The study of analogy is simple. It falls into neat, distinguishable patterns. Thus, it can be learned. Try to decipher these patterns quickly.
• Gain familiarity with the patterns that analogies’ question exhibit over and over again. This will help you identify the trap. Consequently, you will be able to increasingly develop your ability to solve analogies’ questions quickly.
• Remember that while solving an analogy question, you must look for the precise relationship that the pair of words share in the question.
• If you cannot find an exact match of the relationship in the pairs of words , then the relationship you have formed between the pair of words is inaccurate. That is because analogies involve an exactness and precision to their solving.
• It is also extremely important to substitute the pair of words into your sentence in the same order as they are given in. For instance, “artist creates a painting” is correct and “a painting created by an artist” is incorrect.

## Solved Examples

Example 1: baker : eating -
(a) surgeon : anesthesia
(c) gardener : watering
(d) policeman : enforcement
Ans: (b)
Sol: The relationship between the words in bold type: eating is an activity involving the product of the baker's work. Response (b) has the same relationship: reading is an activity involving the product of the author's work. The other responses are incorrect: anesthesia is a stage that precedes a surgeon's work. Watering is one of the jobs of a gardenerEnforcement is the objective of the policeman's work.

Example 2: to shutter : is closed -
(a) to explain : is understood
(b) to estimate : is exact
(c) to believe : is correct
(d) to permit : is forbidden
Ans: (a)
Sol: The relationship between the words in bold type: to shutter something causes it to be closed. Response (a) contains the same relationship: to explain something causes it to be understood. The other responses are incorrect: to estimate is to make an approximate calculation of something's worth, not an exact one; to believe something is to think that it is correct; to permit something means to declare that it is not forbidden.

Example 3: deck : fleet -
(a) ruler : country
(b) roof : neighborhood
(c) clothespin : laundry
(d) player : team
Ans: (b)
Sol: The relationship between the words in bold type: a deck is the upper part of a ship, and a group of ships makes up a fleetResponse (b) contains the same relationship: a roof is the upper part of a house, and a group of houses makes up a neighborhood. The other responses are incorrect: a ruler is someone who rules over a country. A clothespin is a means for hanging laundry on a clothesline. A player may be part of a team.

Example 4: warn : wariness -
(a) distort : truth
(b) provoke : anger
(c) know : proficiency
Ans: (b)
Sol: The relationship between the words in bold type: to warn means to do something that produces wariness in someone else. Response (2) contains the same relationship: to provoke means to do something that produces anger in someone else. The other responses are incorrect: to distort means to twist the truth. To know means to have proficiency. To dissuade means to cause someone to refrain from a particular action.

Example 5: Curd : Milk :: Shoe : ?
(a) Leather
(b) Cloth
(c) Jute
(d) Silver
Ans: (a)
Sol: As curd is made from milk similarly shoe is made from leather.

Example 6: Calf : Piglet :: Shed : ?
(a) Prison
(b) Nest
(c) Pigsty
(d) Den
Ans: (c)
Sol: Calf is young one of the cow and piglet is the young of Pig. Shed is the dwelling place of cow. Similarly Pigsty is the dwelling place of pig.

Example 7: Malaria : Mosquito :: ? : ?
(a) Poison : Death
(b) Cholera : Water
(c) Rat : Plague
(d) Medicine : Disease
Ans: (b)
Sol: As malaria is caused due to mosquito similarly cholera is cause due to water.

Example 8: ABC : ZYX :: CBA : ?
(a) XYZ
(b) BCA
(c) YZX
(d) ZXY
Ans: (a)
Sol: CBA is the reverse of ABC similarly XYZ is the reverse of ZYX.

Example 9: 4 : 18 :: 6 : ?
(a) 32
(b) 38
(c) 11
(d) 37
Ans: (b)
Sol: As, (4)2 + 2 =18
Similarly, (6)2 + 2 = 38.

The document Introduction: Analogy | CSAT Preparation - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course CSAT Preparation.
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## FAQs on Introduction: Analogy - CSAT Preparation - UPSC

 1. What is an analogy?
An analogy is a comparison between two things that are similar in some way but different in others. It is used to explain or clarify a concept by drawing similarities to something more familiar.
 2. What are some tips to solve analogies?
Some tips to solve analogies include: 1. Identify the relationship: Determine the relationship between the given pair of words in the analogy. Look for patterns, associations, or connections. 2. Find the missing term: Based on the relationship identified, find the missing term that completes the analogy. Look for a word or concept that has a similar relationship with the second pair of words as the first pair. 3. Use logic and common sense: Apply logical reasoning and common sense to eliminate options that do not fit the analogy or seem illogical. 4. Consider multiple meanings: Some words may have multiple meanings, so be open to different interpretations and consider all possible associations. 5. Practice: Solve various analogy questions to improve your skills and become familiar with different types of analogies.
 3. What are analogies and reverse analogies questions?
Analogies and reverse analogies questions are a type of test item that assesses the ability to recognize relationships between words. In analogies, a pair of words is given, and the task is to identify another pair of words that has a similar relationship. In reverse analogies, a pair of words is given along with a single word, and the task is to identify the word that completes the analogy with the given pair.
 4. Can you provide an example of an analogy?
Sure. Here's an example: "Hot is to cold as day is to _____." The correct answer would be "night" because hot and cold are opposite in meaning, just like day and night.
 5. How can analogies be helpful in SSC CGL exam preparation?
Analogies can be helpful in SSC CGL exam preparation as they test your ability to recognize relationships between words and apply logical reasoning. Practicing analogies can improve your vocabulary, critical thinking skills, and problem-solving abilities. Additionally, analogies are a common type of question in aptitude tests, so becoming proficient in solving them will enhance your overall performance in the exam.

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